Category And Colors

White paint tested for use on anti-submarine aircraft, April 1942

On April 9, 1942, tests were run at Halifax, Nova Scotia, to check the visibility of PBY aircraft used for anti-submarine patrol low over water. One PBY was painted flat white, the second was unpainted and the third was in blue-gray finish. It was reported that the test proved unquestionably the effectiveness of white paint on aircraft used for anti-submarine work on sunny days.

As a result, HQ, 1st Bomber Command recommended that camouflage specs, should be changed to provide for the painting of the undersurfaces of anti-submarine aircraft with oyster white lacquer. The necessary materials should be provided to Bomber Command. This recommendation was supported by both the British and American submarine officers.

Further tests were run on April 21, 1942, and it was concluded that a glossy paint might improve the effectiveness, and that de-icer (boots) along wing and tail surfaces also needed to be white. (Note: the request for a white anti-submarine camouflage led to a long, foot­dragging, contest and caused a lot of hard feelings. Not until June 1943, did Materia! Command issue a final report on further tests of the white finish. By that time, it was immaterial, as responsibility for anti-submarine coastal patrols had been handed over to the US Navy. Full details of this can be found in the following pages).



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Martin B-26B-1-MA, 41-17707, aircraft number 76, was the 164th B-26B of 1,883 built. It is seen painted in the final Sea Search scheme of neutral gray upper surfaces and white lower surfaces. Note the white leading edges of all surfaces. This scheme was developed at Eglin Field. (USAF)


North American XB-28-NA, 40-3056, was developed to replace the B-25, but it was not adopted. It made its first flight in April 1942. The pre­war.’AAF markings are shown on the rudder, together with a very polished natural metal finish. (March AFB Museum)


Three Douglas B-18Bs on anti-submarine patrol in the Caribbean area in the dark olive drab and neutral gray finish. Note how different the color appears on the fabric covered surfaces to that on the metal areas. Both were the same color, but the metal finishes were either enamels or lacquers, while the fabric covering finishes were dopes. This difference in appearance can be seen in photographs throughout the war. (USAF)

Director of Bombardment orders study to determine suitability of white and gray scheme for use by the Anti-submarine Com­mand, November 19,1942

The Director of Bombardment sent a memo to the CG., Anti-submarine Group, on November 19,1942, stating that extensive tests at the Air Force Proving Ground (Eglin Field) had shown that the best type of camouflage for anti-submarine aircraft was:

Ail undersurfaces and surface of airplane that was in shadow should be painted with Insignia White, No. 46, and all other surfaces Neutral Gray No. 43. A picture was enclosed showing the manner in which the two colors should be applied.

He requested that a study should be made as to the suitability of this type of camouflage for use in the Anti-submarine Command. If they had developed a more effective type of camouflage, he requested that they should forward the information as to the type of paint used and a diagram of the scheme used.

On November 23, 1942, HQ., Anti-submarine Command replied stating that extensive testing had been made on camouflage for submarine search, and a report had been submitted on August 31, 1942, to the Commmanding General, Air Forces Eastern Defense Command. The results obtained were varied, but in general the conclusions reached were generally the same as those reached by the Proving Ground. They felt, therefore, that adequate tests had been made, that the camouflage recommended by the Proving Ground be adopted without delay, and that a technical Order be expedited for the camouflage of all Anti-submarine Command aircraft.

On November 30, 1942, the Commanding Officers of the 25th and 26th Anti-submarine Wings were informed that the Dir. of Mil. Req. had issued authority to camouflage all tactical antisubmarine aircraft as follows:

Under Surfaces – Insignia White No. 4 Upper surfaces – Dark O. D. (no change)

They were also informed that a Technical Order would be published in the near future.


Cessna T-50, believed to he NC13, and an unidentified Waco cabin biplane (no NC number visible), were two of the civil fleet of CAA aircraft maintained by Delta Air Lines at Atlanta, Georgia, during the war. Note the star insignia on the fuselage of the T-50. The Waco has a winged insignia and the number “57” on the fuselage. (Delta Air Lines via Talbott)


a. Organization insignia will be placed on each side of each lighter-than-air aircraft. The location for observation balloons will be on each side, halfway between the greatest diameterand the leading edges of the horizontal lobes. The locations for spherical balloons will be at points in line with and three feet from each end of the wording “U. S. ARMY.”

b. In no instance will the size of lighter-than-air insignia exceed 9 square feet. The insignia placed on each craft assigned to an organization will be uniform in size. However, this does not require that insignia of different organizations be of the same size.

c. The insignia for alt lighter-than-air aircraft will be painted on two-ply envelope fabric, code No. 101, and securely attached to the envelope with rubber cement. Each sheet of fabric will be neatly trimmed to the minimum size required, and, to insure adhesion, corresponding areas of the aluminum finish will be carefully removed from the envelopes with suitable wire brushes.

This version of the T. O. was the first to be typeset and printed in color. It included a complete set of the colors from Bulletin No. 41, including the addition of Sand, Shade No. 49. There were two further pages, covering the types of materials to be used for applying the camouflage markings and insignia (these have been omitted from this work as being too technical and of limited use). The great improve­ment over the previous versions showed the extent of its use within the AAF, and the industry that supplied the aircraft at this crucial point in the war. All subsequent issues reverted to being in only black and white.

Only two days later, a later version, T. 0.07-1-1A, had to be issued to correct the titles of Figures 1 and 2. These were now amended to read:

Figure 1 – Operation over Predominately Green Terrain Figure 2 – Basic Camouflage.

All references to Figures 1 and 2 in the first section of the T. O. were to be changed to agree with the amended titles (this was obviously a paste-up error in the production of the document).

Tests show that the newly standardized JAC olive drab did not meet the reflectance requirements. Testing continued to correct the problem. June 25,1943.

Numerous tests had been made by Eglin Field to determine the reflection factor of the standard dark olive drab camouflage paint, and they advised Mat. Com. (WF) on June 5, 1943, of the results. Eng. Div. (WF) used these test as a basis and found that the original Dark Olive Drab Shade No. 41 had a reflectance of 7.8, but that the new Olive Drab standardized by the JAC (without Mat. Com. (WF) assistance), had a reflectance of 9.4. This exceeded the recommended 8.0%, and testing was under way to reduce it to the required value.

Material Command Report on camouflaging of Anti-Submarine Aircraft, June 23,1943.

Report No. ENG-56-M-4531, dated June 23, 1943, was issued to report on the results of tests of various color arrangements of camou­flage paint on airplanes in flight, conducted at Langley Field, VA, between January 8-21,1943. It contained the following data:

The 1st Sea Search Attack Group provided five B-18 aircraft, with serial numbers 37-464,

37-465,37-561,37-574, and 37-621. Three of the B-18s were painted over their existing finish, while the other two were left in their existing colors. The test color schemes for each of these aircraft followed the paint boundaries shown in Figure 1, and were as follows:

(1) B-18 no. 37-464 was painted on all underneath surfaces (area “A”) in Shade No. 46 Insignia White camouflage enamel. Side and top areas (areas “B” and “C”) were finished in Flight Camouflage white enamel white (haze paint) applied in a pattern of graduated light reflectance values, over black camouflage enamel, to produce a bluish “haze” effect.

(2) B-18 no. 37-468 was painted over all exterior surfaces (areas “A, B, and C”) in flight camouflage white enamel (haze paint) applied in a pattern of graduated light reflectance values, over black camouflage enamel, to produce a bluish “haze” effect.

(3) B-18 no. 37-621 was painted on all underneath surfaces (area “A”) in Shade No. 46 Insignia White camouflage enamel, with the vertical control surfaces and side of the fuselage (area “B”) painted with Shade No. 43 Neutral Gray camou­flage lacquer. The top surfaces (area “C”) were left in the original Dark Olive Drab color.

(4) B-18 no. 37-561 was left in its original camouflage colors of Dark Olive Drab above and on the sides surfaces (areas “B and C”), with the lower surfaces in Neutral Gray (area “A").

(5) B-18 no. 37-574 was left in its original finish of Shade No. 47 Insignia White all over.

All of the test flights were made on days with unlimited ceiling, with normal haze conditions for the area and with widely scattered or no clouds. Aircraft were viewed from the ground while they were flying at altitudes of 2,000, 4,000, 6,000. and 10,000 feet, both directly overhead and at a distance of approximately one mile from the viewing point while flying in E-W and N-S directions. The relative effectiveness of the camouflage was observed on both approach and departure runs.

Conclusions: it was found that the most effective combination of camouflage schemes under all conditions was as follows:

a. Underneath surfaces, leading edges and “front view” areas – Shade No. 47 Insignia White.

b. Side (essentially vertical) surfaces – Shade No. 43 Neutral Gray.

c. Top surfaces – Shade No. 41 Dark Olive Drab.

Подпись: Douglas B-18A Finished in the most effective anti-submarine aircraft camouflage, a combination of Dark Olive Drab, Neutral Gray, and Insignia White. Jan. 1943. © Victor Archer

The exact shade of gray used on the vertical surfaces was not critical, but it was recommended that very bright or very dark grays should not be used. Tests were also run by flying a B-17E, at 6,000 and 10,000 feet, above the camouflaged B-18s flying at 2,000 and


4.000 feet. It was found that none of the different camouflage schemes were best under all of the test conditions. It was also found that the haze painted airplanes did not have any camouflage characteristics which were better than at least one of the other schemes. The report finally recommended that the Anti-Submarine Command should paint its aircraft in the scheme described in the conclusions above.

New version ofT. О. 07-1-1 deletes camouflage, December 26,1943

A major revision of T. 0.07-1-1 was issued on December 26,1943. It started by stating that painting of the exterior metal surface of AAF aircraft was discontinued, except as directed for aircraft destined for foreign agencies. This was a major revision of the requirements and the document is reproduced below:



Martin Baltimore Mk 1, FA204, prior to delivery to the RAF, in Dark Earth and Middlestone over Azure Blue finish. These were the standard RAF desert colors for North Africa. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)


Douglas C-53-DO, 41-20062, as seen at Lubbock Field, Texas, in late 1943. It has the identification yellow nose and rear fuselage bands ordered for transports flying within the continental USA. (Nick Williams)


Lockheed C-69-1-LO, 43-10315, was the seventh C-69 Constellation to fly, of the twenty-two built during Ihe war. The first aircraft made its first flight at Burbank on January 9,1943. (BUAER)

TECHNICAL ORDER No. 07-1-1 December 26, 1943


This Technical Order replaces T. O. Nos. 07-1-1, dated June 15,1943; 07-1-IC, dated July 3, 1943; and 07-1-ID, dated September 24,1943.


a. DAY CAMOUFLAGE. – Standard day camouflage for liaison aircraft, helicopters, and gliders consists of upper surfaces olive drab, shade No, 41, Bulletin 41 or AN Bulletin 613; and lower surfaces neutral gray, shade No. 43, Bulletin 41 or Army-Navy sea gray, No. 603. (See AN Bulletin 157A.)


(1) GENERAL. – Special black camouflage paints, color designation, “Jet No. 622,” have been developed for use in minimizing visibility of airplanes at night. The estimated quantities of materials required will be found in table 1.


(a) Metal surfaces which are painted with dull camouflage finish should preferably be stripped to bare metal in accordance with T. O. No. 07-1-7, and the metal cleaned and primed in order to save weight. However, if weight is not critical, Jet No. 622 camouflage enamel may be applied directly over the dull finish, after thorough cleaning and careful smoothing with No. 320 or finer waterproof sandpaper and water to minimize porosity and roughness.

NOTE Application of lacquer over enamel may cause lifting of the enamel. If, upon trial, trouble is encountered in application of lacquer over the old finish, the finish must be removed or Jet No. 622 enamel used. Prior to application of Jet No. 622 camouflaged enamel, unpaintcd metal surfaces will be cleaned in accordance with Specification No. 98-20007 (or phosphoric acid alcohol cleaner in accordance with T, O. No. 01-1-1) and then primed with one smooth coat of zinc chromate primer, Specification No. AN-TT-P-656.

(b) Wood surfaces painted with dull camouflage or aluminized finish will be cleaned and then smoothed out by sanding with No. 320 or finer waterproof sandpaper and water, prior to application of the Jet No. 622 camouflage enamel. Unfinished wood sur faces will be prepared in accordance with Specification No. AN-C – 83, to produce a surface as smooth and free from irregulari­ties as possible, prior to application of the Jet No. 622 camouflage enamel. Surfacer, Specification No. 14116, may be used in direct-on-wood finishes, provided the film is sanded as thin as possible commensurate with the desired smoothness and “hold­out” or fullness of gloss of the final finish.



Lacquer, Specification

or Enamel, Specification

Dope, Specification

Total Approx.

No. AN-TT-L-51

No. AN-E-3

No. AN-TT-D-554

Weight Increase

Fighter (P-40) 10 gal

or 6 gal

2 gal

15 lb

Bomber (B-24) 30 gal

or 15 gal

7 gal

46 lb

Requirements for other airplanes may be estimated from the preceding table.


North American P-51D-5-NA, 44-13550, aircraft A9-M of the 380th FS, 363rd FG, seen at strip A-8 on August 10,1944. Note how the invasion stripes have been painted out above the top of the fuselage and insignia, with dark olive drab. The same was dune to the stripes above the wings. Squadron color on the spinner is blue. (William L. Swisher)

(3) APPLICATION. – Application of Jet No. 622 camouflage will be by spraying, which presents no unusual problems. How­ever, because of the need to produce a black finish having as near mirror-like an appearance as possible, it is necessary to take extra precautions to avoid dust during painting and drying. Dust which becomes adhered to the paint, especially on the bottom and side surfaces, will result in reduced effectiveness of the camouflage.

NOTE Lacquer, being faster drying, is preferred for Jet No. 622 finish for this reason.


Lockheed P-38H-5-LO, 42-66923; P-51A-10-NA, 43-6246: and P-47D-23-RA, 42-27798, From the AAF School of Applied Tactics, at Orlando Army Air Base, FI. Note the white ellipse markings of the school aircraft on the nose. The last three digits of the serial number were painted black on the ellipse. The school was under control of the AAF Board, who reported to the Dir. of Mil. Req. in Washington. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)


Republic P-47D-21-RA, 43-25572, aircraft YJ-N “Smoocher”, of the 351st FS, 353rd FG, Eighth Air Force, with heavy wing damage sustained in a belly landing. Nose cowl is in black and yellow checks. Code letters are in white. Invasion stripes underneath only. August 13,1944, (USAF)

Jet No. 622 lacquer will be applied to the properly prepared surfaces of metal {and wood) by spraying not less than two full coats; Jet No. 622 enamel, one mist coat and one hiding coat. Application of the camouflage material will be controlled so as to produce a finish of uniform hiding and blackness and very high gloss.

NOTE In the event that a rough finish is applied in the field, it may be smoothed by rubbing lightly with 320 or 400 waterproof abrasive paper after which a light, but wet, coat of camouflage material should be applied,

(4) FABRIC SURFACES. – Fabric doped with dull camouflage finish which has not become brittle, may be converted to jet camouflage by the following procedure: Remove all grease and dirt, then wash with soft soap and water, rinse with clean water, and allow the surfaces to dry. Apply two wet spray coats of thinner, Specification No, AN-TT-T-256, to soften up the old finish, and allow to dry not more than 30 minutes. Apply three spray coats of gloss black pigmented dope, the last of which is cut with an equal portion of clear dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-514, before thinning to impart added gloss. If fabric is new, dope in accordance with Specification No. 98-24100, using a minimum of two brush and two spray coats of AN-TT-D-514 dope. Follow with one spray coat of sanding guide dope (3 ounce pigment, aluminum per gallon of AN-TT-D-514 dope). Sand (dry) moderately with No. 280 (or finer) sandpaper to minimize weave effects.

NOTE Ground parts when sanding.

Finish with three spray coats of gloss black pigmented dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-554, the last coat of which is cut with an equal portion of (clear), Specification No. AN-TT-D-514 dope, before thinning, to impart added gloss.


(a) The effectiveness of night camouflage is reduced by accumulations of mud, dust, oil, gun blast, or exhaust gas residues, and chalking of the paint film, particularly on sides and under surfaces, of aircraft. Excessively widespread scratches, and es­pecially bare metal exposed by scratches, also have a deleterious effect. Therefore, cleaning and maintenance operations on the airplane should be so conducted as to avoid scratching the finish and to minimize exposure of bare metal. Before engaging in night operation, mud, dust, muzzle blast or exhaust gas residues and oil should be removed and all bare metal areas re-touched with Jet No. 622 camouflage material, especially on sides and under surfaces. At least once a week, and oftener, if necessitated by ground or atmospheric conditions, the airplane shall be washed and then polished with aircraft polish, stock No. 7300755000. The use of wax is discouraged because it will interfere, subsequently, with the drying of paint where retouching is necessary and because satisfactory results are obtainable through the use of polish. THE CLOSER THIS TYPE OF CAMOUFLAGE AP­PROACHES THE APPEARANCE OF A BLACK MIRROR, THE MORE EFFECTIVE IT BECOMES.

(6) REJUVENATION. – If, on extended exposure, a surface haze appears on the paint, which cannot be removed with polish, wash with soap and water and rinse with clean water then wipe surface thoroughly with clean cloths wet with naphtha or solvent, Specification No. P-S-661. The cloths should be wet by pouring solvent on them and should not be dipped into the solvent. Spray one light coat of Jet No. 622 camouflage enamel, Specification No. AN-E-3, or lacquer, Specification No. AN-TT-L-51. Clean doped surfaces in the same manner, but apply only glossblack dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-554, cut with clear dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-514.



Northrop P-61A-1U-NO, serial unknown, named “Lucky Lady” on the nose and “Doris” on the right hand engine cowl, seen at strip A-8 on August IS, 1944. (William L. Swisher)


Republic P-47D, of the 375th FS, 361st FG, running up at Langley Field, Virginia, in the USA, prior to the unit embarking for Bottisham, England, in July 1943. This was the last P-47 Group to be assigned to the Eighth Air Force. Note the fancy nose cowl red marking with white trim; these markings were not used in England. Serial number not visible. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)

Republic P-47D-25-RE, 42-26418, aircraft HV-A, flown by Lt. Col. Francis Gabreski, of the 61st FS, 56th FG, having its guns rearmed, Note the colors of the gun hay: zinc chromate primer and Dark Olive Drab on the wing rib top faces. Aircraft was painted in dark green and ocean gray, courtesy of the RAF, with front half of the cowl and the rudder in red. Full invasion stripes were above and below this aircraft. Col. Gabreski was shot down over Germany in this aircraft on July 20,1944. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)


Douglas A-24B-DT, 42-54897, was the third from last A-24 huilt. Seen here in Air Transport Command service in the USA on August 21, 1944. (Nick Williams)

c. METAL CORROSION PREVENTION. – The exterior of alclad metal fuselages and metal airfoils does not ordinarily require paint as a protection against corrosion. (Refer to T. O. No. 01- 1-2.) However, where it is necessary to provide additional pro­tective finish on any parts not made from aluminum coated aluminum alloy, any such unprotected parts will be cleaned with phosphoric acid alcohol cleaner, finished with one coat of zinc chromate primer, Specification No. AN-TT-P-656, and two coats of aluminized lacquer. Aluminized lacquer consists of lacquer, cellulose nitrate, clear, Specification No. AN-TT-L-51, pig­mented with 12 ounces per gallon of paste, aluminum pigment, Specification No. TT-A-468.

d. ANTIGLARE. – Antiglare camouflage olive drab or dull dark green paint is authorized where necessary, to be applied to top of the fuselage in front of the cockpit and on the inside upper one-fourth of the engine nacelle forward of the leading edge of the wing.

e. WOOD SURFACES. – Exterior plywood surfaces will be finished with two coats of sealer, Specification No, AN-S-17, or on open grained woods, one coat of sealer followed by one coal of surfacer, Specification No. 14115, sanded down, before the final two coats of aluminized varnish. Use 18 to 20 ounces of pigment, aluminum paste, Specification No. TT-A-468, in each gallon of varnish. Specification No. AN-TT-V-116.

f. WOOD – FABRIC. – Exterior wood surfaces (fabric covered) will have a minimum of one brush coat of sealer, Specification No, AN-S-17, and two brush or spray coats of clear tautening dope. Specification No, AN-TT-D-514, prior to attachment of fabric. The fabric may be cemented in place with the second coat of clear dope, or may be laid on the dried second coat

with cementing effected by wetting the fabric with thinner or thinned dope. The finish over the fabric shall consist of a minimum of one brushed (first) coat and two sprayed coats of clear tautening dope followed by the necessary spray coats of pigmented dope.


(1) Exterior fabric parts will have a minimum of two brush and two spray coats of clear nitrate dope, Specification No. AN-TT – D-514 (aluminized dope vehicle, Specification No, AN-TT-D – 551, is not a suitable substitute, as it does not have the tautening qualities of Specification No. AN-TT-D-514). This will be followed by two or more coats of aluminized dope prepared by adding 8 ounces per gallon pigment, aluminum paste, Specification No. TT-A-468, to dope, cellulose nitrate, dear, Specifica­tion No. AN-TT-D-551, before thinning. Patching will be accomplished with clear dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-614, applied in same manner as semipigmented dope previously used.

(2) For emergency rejuvenation of old fabric, add 1 fluid ounce each of tricresyl phosphate and castor oil to 1 gallon of two to one mix of clear dope, Specification No. AN-TT-D-514, and blush retarding thinner, Specification No. AN-TT-T-258. Apply one coat by brush to clean surface, followed by one spray coat. After several hours drying, spray one coat of aluminized dope, prepared as specified in paragraph 2.g.(l).


North American P-51B-15-NA, 42-106950, aircraft WR-P “Iowa Beaut” of the 354th FS, 355th FG, 65th FVV, 2nd Air Div, Eighth Air Force in summer 1944. Note how the invasion stripes have been painted out with smooth finish paint. This may be RAF Smooth Dark Green, rather than Dark Olive Drab, as it is slightly richer in color. Note white nose cowl and yellow tab, denoting the 354th FS. (LISAF)


North American P-51D – 5-NA, 44-13357, aircraft B7-R “T1KAIV” of the 374th FS, 361st FG, 65th FW, 2nd Air Div, with underneath invasion stripes only, after October 1944. Note 6 kills under canopy. Aircraft has the unit yellow spinner and nose. (USAF)


North American P-51B-10-NA, serial unknown, aircraft A9-? “Schubert’s Serenade” of the 380th FS, 363rd FG, photographed at strip A-8 on August 10,1944. Spinner and nose color were blue. (William L. Swisher)


Only such markings and identifying insignia as outlined herein will be used on AAF aircraft except as specifically authorized by the Commanding General, AAF.

a. PARTS. – Each part and assembly will be permanently and legibly marked the same number as the drawing number in such location that it can be read after assembly in the unit. (See Specification No. 98-24105.)

b. DETAIL. – Various detail and code markings for the cockpit, fuselage, oil lines, etc., as required in Specification No. 98­24105, will be maintained. In addition, Jet No. 622 finishes (on metal and wood) surfaces will be stenciled in yellow on an upper surface with the code number of the approved gloss black of the paint manufacturer under the two applicable specifications (Bulletin 102 for lacquer, and 148 for enamel), two dashes, followed by the symbol for the material as “L-51” or “E-3.” Ex­ample: 6005—L-51.


(1) Radio call numbers of not less than four numerals will be maintained on all AAF aircraft except as stated in paragraph 3.c.(3), utilizing both sides or each outboard side, as applicable, of the vertical stabilizer and rudder assembly. These call number^, or designators, will be of a size discernible at a distance of 150 yards. They will be derived by deletion of the first numeral of the serial number (4) and the hyphen (-), and the combination of the remaining four or more numerals. In case of serial numbers of type 41-7, use zero as necessary to make four numerals, as 1007. Decalcomauia may be used where avail­able.

(2) On all airplanes operating solely within the continental limits of the United States, the radio call numbers will also be placed, with the top forward, on the lower surfaces of wings, except asstated in paragraph 3.c,(3). The size of the number to be painted on aircraft and the matter of whether the numbers will be painted on the left wing only or both wings will be determined by the local using agency in accordance with the space available and the desired usage,

(3) Radio call numbers in neither location are required, however, on primary trainers not equipped with radio and which bear field identifying numbers.

d. PROPELLER MARK1NGS. – American propeller blades, design Nos. A-272U07 and C-3821306, used in sets in Aeroproducts and Curtiss propellers, respectively, will be identified by a yellow stripe, 3/8 inch in width and 3/8 inch inboard of the yellow tip section. A. O. Smith propeller blades used in sets in Curtiss propellers will be identified by two 3/8-inch yellow stripes, one 3/8 inch inboard of the yellow tip section and the other stripe 3/8 inch inboard from the first. These stripes will extend completely around the blade section. The stenciled markings between the 18- and 24-inch stations on the cambered side of the propeller blades will be retained. When the exact location of the blade reference station is known, a stripe of yellow paint 1/8 inch wide, 2 inches long and spaced equally distant between the leading and trailing edge of the blade, will be placed on the thrust face at the reference station.

CAUTION Unless the exact location of the reference station on the blade is known no attempt will be made to identify this location by the afore-mentioned stripe.


Martin B-26B-25-MA, 41-31844, aircraft SS-S of the 451st BS, 322nd BG, at strip A-8 on August 10,1944, with stripes underneath only. Most of the aircraft that landed at these advanced strips in Normandy did so to refuel. (William L. Swisher)

Unsatisfactory finish on P-61’s discussed by Material Laboratory (WF), March, 1945

A conference was held at Mat. Lab. (WF), between February 23 and 27, 1945, to discuss the unsatisfactory condition of the Jet No. 622 finish on P-61 aircraft being received at overseas bases. It was decided that the problem was probably due to non-conformance to requirements and the use of unapproved enamel. Tests had shown that the enamel finish was definitely improved by use over a zinc chromate primer.

Mat. Lab. recommended that the Procurement Section (WF) should provide Northrop Aircraft with the latest list of approved specs, and that Northrop be requested to use a coat of zinc chromate primer before applying two coats of Jet No. 622 Lacquer to the P-61. They also recommended that the materials being used by Northrop be checked for conformance to spec, requirements.


North American P-51D-20-NA, 44-72747, aircraft 6N-C “Pauline” of the 505th FS, 339th FG, Eighth Air Force. Seen at strip Y-32, Ophoven, Belgium on March 22, 1945. Spinner and nose were in red and white, while the rudder was yellow. (William L. Swisher)


Douglas A-26B-35-DL, 41-39456, aircraft E3-K of the 732nd BS, 453rd BG, Ninth Air Force. The A-26 had a very protracted development and did not start replacing the A-20s until lute 1944, despite the 1941 serial number. (March AFB Museum)


Large number of AAF aircraft seen on Iwo Jima on March 6,1945, includes twenty P-51s, four P-61sof the 548th NFS, two C-47s and one C-46, plus one Navy TBF, Mount Suribachi is prominent in the background. The P-61s are in gloss black, the P-51s arc in natural metal and the transports camouflaged. (USAF)


Curtiss C-46D-I0-CU, 44-77658, aircraft N5-D of the 313rd TCG, Ninth Air Force. It was seen at strip Y-32, Ophnven, Belgium, on March 24, 1945. It had just made an emergency landing after being hit by two 88mm shells while dropping US Army paratroopers over the Rhine at Wesel, Germany, during Operation VARSITY. (William L. Swisher)

1946 Spec. 98-24105-S revised, March 1946

A minor revision of Spec.98-24105-S, Amendment No. 2, was issued on March 18, 1946. However, all of the changes related to other spec, number changes except for further changes to the aircraft dope code markings (see Appendix В on aircraft maintenance markings.).

Revised version of ANA Bulletin No. 166, Gloss Colors, issued, June 1946.

A minor revision, ANA Bulletin No. 166a, was issued on June 6, 1946, which informed users that the earlier porcelain enamel panels were no longer available for distribution and that only cardboard enamel panels were now available. No changes were made to any of the standard gloss colors, which had been introduced in 1938.

New edition of T. O, 07-1-1 issued, June 1946.

A new edition of T, 0.07-1-1 was issued on June 7,1946, and became the last version to be produced by the AAF. It also introduced the long-lasting (still in use) method of indicating revisions by black vertical revision lines alongside the new or revised information. We will take advantage of this new feature by only printing information so marked. First was the preliminary note stating when the work was to be accomplished. This now read:

NOTE The work required herein (except paragraph 17.b.) will be accomplished as soon as practicable by all activities having the affected aircraft. The work directed in paragraph 17,b. will be accomplished prior to or at the next 100-hour inspection period by all activities within the continental limits of the United States having permanently assigned aircraft.


Consolidated XB-36-CF, 42-13570, made its first flight on August 8, 1946, and ultimately beat the XB-35 as the replacement for the B-29. Powered by six P & W R-4360 engines, it was also natural metal finish all over. (USAF)


Consolidated XB-36-CF, 42-13570, seen next to Boeing В-29В-55-ВЛ, 44-84027, shows the huge size of the new aircraft. (USAF)


Douglas C-74-DL, 42-65410, was the ninth aircraft of the fourteen built. The type made its first flight on October 11,1945. It was natural metal finish all over and carried the very large buzz numbers seen the rear fuselage. (Harry Gann)





Republic YP-84A-1-RE, 455-9483, was the second YP-84 and made its first flight in August L946. Note that the earlier putty and paint finish has already been dropped in favor of the natural metal finish all over. (USAF)

Request for Sand, Shade No. 26, to be added to T. O. 07-1-1, May 6,1942

On April 24, 1942, Gen Arnold issued a directive ordering the use of Sand, Shade No.26, on the upper surfaces of aircraft operating on sandy or desert terrain. WF ordered initial shipments of ample quantities of the water paint, brushes, buckets, etc..

Dir. of Mil. Req. (Wash.) does not object to anti-submarine tests of white paint, May 8,1942.

The Dir. of Mil. Req. stated on May 8,1942, in a letter to the CG, Material Command that a series of tests over several years had proved that a neutral gray was the best color for camouflage under ordinary conditions. However, there was no objection to the Coastal Patrol aircraft being furnished with oyster white paint for testing. If this shade proved superior, Specs, and Technical Orders should be so revised. Mat. Com. (Wash.) should forward to 1st Air Force any appropriate paint material found.


A training unit Curtiss P-40A. 39-1804, in formation with a natural metal North American AT-6C-NT, 41-32161. The AT-6 has a red stripe on the nose cowl and black number 376 below it on the cowl. Note that the AT-6 has the fuselage insignia star upside down! (Compare it with the P-40 fuselage star.) (USAF)


Lockheed B-34A-LO, RAF Ventura Mk. II, AJ165, was one of a batch of 487 built, of which many were transferred back to the AAF under reverse lease-lend agreements. Seen at Wright Field, it was used by the AAF for over-water patrols, primarily in the Caribbean area. (Harry Gann)

Gen. Arnold requests changes to application of camouflage, May 8, 1942.

Brig. Gen, Fairchild also wrote another letter to Material Command on May 8,1942, requesting that revisions be made to Spec. 24114 and T.0.07-1-1, covering the application of camouflage to AAF aircraft. These had been requested by Gen. Arnold as a result of watching paint being applied to aircraft at the Douglas Company. The changes requested were:

(1) Spec. 24114 be revised to change the demarcation line between the upper and lower surface camouflage colors as necessary to prevent appearance of a definite, even and continuous boundary line. Masks will not be employed to separate the two shades, The lines of demarcation shall be eliminated as far as possible by blending the colors at the junction lines by overspraying.

(2) Spec. 24114 should also provide for the use of “haze” paint on special photographic aircraft.

(3) Training Aircraft of wood and fabric covered aircraft to be painted with aluminum-pigmented dope.

(4) T. O. 07-1-1 to be revised to include the use of Sand Shade No. 26 for the upper surfaces of aircraft operating over sandy and desert terrain. Also trainers to be painted as in (3) above. Trainers would only be camouflaged as directed by Theatre of Operation Commanders, Training Center Commanders, or Commanders of posts or schools with the necessary authority.

(5) Variations in the basic aircraft camouflage would permit the use of Medium Green Shade no. 42 instead of Dark Olive Drab when the aircraft operate over terrain so predominately green that the darker shade proves to be unsatisfactory. Sand Shade No. 26 could also replace the Dark O. D. over desert type terrain.

(6) Along the leading edges, tips and trailing edges of the wing, vertical and horizontal stabilizers and rudders, splotches or patches of Medium Green No. 42 were to be allowed to break the continuity in appearance of the wing, stabilizers, and rudder outlines. The size of the splotches or stripes were to extend inward from the edges at various distances ranging from zero to 20% of the wing, stabilizer, or rudder chord. If the aircraft was definitely going to a desert or sandy region, the Dark O. D. might be replaced or painted over with Sand Shade No. 26. The above modifications in the basic camouflage scheme were probably going to have to be made at modification centers or at staging points after the aircraft left the production line.

Use of haze paint for special photographic aircraft camouflage was also suggested. Mat. Com. was asked to initiate necessary action for these revisions. Technical Instruction TI-1111, was issued on May 15,1942 to initiate the requested action. All of the above changes were duly added to revised versions of Spec. 24114 and T. O. 07-1-1.


The same aircraft, B-34A-LO, AJ165, from a rear view shows its RAF camouflage of dark green and dark earth over sky. Note the shine from the decals used for the insignia; these were commonly used throughout the war. (Harry Gann)


Lockheed Vega B-37-LO, 41-37485, number 16 of a batch of 18 built for the AAF. It was originally intended to build 550 of these as the O-56-LO, but the remainder were canceled. Note that thecocarde only consists of the white star in the fuselage position, without the blue background; this was not to specs., but it is possible that it had not been completed at the time the photo was taken (Harry Gann)

Change in Serial Numbers and Nomenclature, May 11,1942.

Due to the change in nomenclature of the Air Corps to Air Forces, Material Command directed the following change in identifying USAAF equipment:

a. Lettering on trucks and trailers is to be changed from “U. S. Army Air Corps" to “U. S. Army Air Forces”. Also name plates and records with reference to serial numbers of airplanes and engine, are to be changed from A. C. to A. F.

Responsibility for the development of. and requirements for aircraft camouflage defined in Material Command Office Memo­randum No.42-16, May 12, 1942.

(1) The Air Proving Ground Command (Eglin Field), under the Dir. of Mil, Req., was charged with the development of camou­flage colors, designs, markings and insignia for the concealment of aircraft on the ground and in the air, for both day and night operation.

(2) The Corps of Engineers was responsible for developing the use of nets, drapes or other coverings for concealing aircraft on the ground.

(3) Thc Material Center (WF) was responsible for preparing specifications for paint materials recommended by the Air Proving Ground, for approving materials and processes used by aircraft manufacturers in camouflaging aircraft, and for investigating new mate­rials and processes as directed by the Dir. of Mil. Req..

(4) The Air Service Command was responsible for the publication of instructions, and the procurement of necessary materials for the maintenance of camouflage on service aircraft.


North American BT-I4-NA, 40-1305, basic trainer was a development of the BT-9. It is seen here w ithout the rudder stripes and the red center to the cocardes, but is still in the true blue and orange yellow trainer finish. That color scheme was deleted in September 1942 in favor of an all­aluminum finish. (Nick Williams)


Vullee Vengeance Mk. II, AF746, seen unfinished except for the anti-glare panel. This was the second Mk. II built by Northrop out of a batch of 200 aircraft. Most of these were sent to the Burma front as close support aircraft. Note the BT-IJs in the right background. (Convair)

Red center removed from insignia, rudder stripes deleted on combat aircraft, May 12, 1942.

War Department Circular #141, dated May 12, 1942, stated;

Markings of Military Aircraft. – 1. The red circle in the center of the insignia as used at present will be eliminated. The new insignia will therefore be a five-pointed, white star within a blue circle.

2, The red and white tail marking will be eliminated.

3. These changes will apply to all combat aircraft of the Army and Navy after May 15, 1942.

The circular did not state any reason for this drastic action, but it had arisen as a result of extensive combat action in the Pacific area against the Japanese. The Japanese national insignia was the red hinamoru circle and, in the heat of combat, USAAF and Navy pilots tended to fire at any aircraft with red in its insignia. (Note: red was to return briefly in June-August 1943 to the US National insignia, then it disappeared completely until after the end of the war. It returned as the color of the center stripe of the current US insignia in January 1947).


Vultee A-35A-VN, 41-31156 (the eighth A-35A built). This was the AAF equivalent of the RAF Vengeance, and like many of those, these were nearly all converted to target towing aircraft. (USAF)



Vuitee A-3I-NO, RAF Vengeance Mk. II, AF769, in AAF marking!) over the RAF dark green, dark earth, and sky finish. This was a repossessed aircraft, the twenty-fifth of the type built by Northrop. The aircraft number “69” is the last two digits of the RAF serial. fUSAF)



Southeast AAF Training Center, Maxwell Field, AL, revises marking and insignia for its trainer aircraft, May 20,1942,

Maj. Gen. Stratemeyer issued General Orders No. 54, revising the marking and insignia requirements for the Training Center’s aircraft to the following:

1. Aircraft in this training center will be marked with identifying numbers as follows:

A. Basic and Advanced – Aircraft belonging to Basic and Advanced Schools will be marked with a code group consisting of an identifying letter or letters for both schools as shown below, plus a digit or digits from 1 to 999, the numbers to be assigned by the station commanders. The letter and number combination will be consecutive with no dash or space between them. The following identifying letters arc assigned:


Подпись: Gunter - G Shaw - S Augusta - A Turner - T Columbus - CO Craig - CR Napier - N Eglin - E Cochran - C Greenville - GR Tyndall - TY Tuskegee - TU Moody - MO Maxwell - M Spence - SP

Primary – Primary aircraft will be identified by a number only. Numbers may run from 1 to 999,

c. Four-Engine Schools – Four-Engine Schools will not use an identifying letter but will use an identifying number of not more than two digits.

2. All identifying letters and numbers will be placed to the rear of the rear cockpit. They will be proportioned and placed in accordance with Para З, T.0.07-1-1, dated April 8, 1941.

3. The radio call letter designator will be placed on the vertical fin of all aircraft in accordance with Para. 8 с. T. O. 07­1-1 A, dated October 23, 1941. On the primary training aircraft the designator will be placed diagonally on the fin, i. e., from the lower left to the upper right comers on the left side of the fin and from upper left to lower right corners on the right side of the fin. Designators will not be placed on the fuselage of any training aircraft.

4. The distinctive insignia of this Training Center will be centered on the fuselage, just forward of the trailing edge of the lower wing.

5. Подпись:
If desired locally, the identifying letters and/or numbers of single-engine aircraft may be placed on the nose cowl for aid in identification. They may also be placed on the nose of twin-engine training aircraft.


Bell P-39D being used as a [raining aircraft. It has the red center overpainted on the cocardes, but retains the “U. S.ARMY” markings under the wing, These were ordered removed from all combat aircraft in May, 1942, but not removed from trainer aircraft until October 1942. (USAF)

The Struggle for Air Superiority in Europe,. North Africa, China, and the Pacific

The USAAF faced an uphill struggle world-wide at the be­ginning of 1943 to gain air superiority. Heavily engaged in Eu­rope, North Africa, and the Pacific, air superiority had not been gained in any of these theaters of operation. Perhaps the closest to this was in North Africa as a result of Operation “Torch”, but the fight against the Luftwaffe was very tough, even with the aid of the Royal Air Force in the Mediterranean area. In Europe, the 8th Air Force had seen much of its strength sent to North Africa and it was just beginning to rebuild. In the Pacific, the various Air Forces were fighting back at the Japanese, but losses continued to be heavy.

However, 1943 was to see a gradual build up to air superior­ity in all of the combat theaters. In Europe, the AAF was to see its cherished doctrine of day bombing brought almost to a halt by intense Luftwaffe opposition, but grim determination and the de­velopment of the long-range escort fighter began to rebuild the impetus, ready for the great air battles of 1944. The Axis forces lost the war in North Africa and the Allies invaded Europe from the south. The Pacific Air Forces grew to a major support of the long battle to dislodge the Japanese from the island chains leading to Japan. The fight of the anti-submarine aircraft in the Atlantic and the Caribbean gradually overcame the deadly anti-shipping menace of the U-boats, breaking their back in 1943.

During 1943, the USAAF continued its massive growth, so much that it more than doubled its strength between June 1942 and June 1943, to more than 49,000 aircraft. However, its losses in action against Germany and over the Pacific also jumped, to more than 3,000 in Europe and the Mediterranean and some 800 versus Japan. These losses reflect both the decision to concentrate on defeating Germany and the large role played in the Pacific by the US Navy.

The intensive development of suitable camouflage, markings and colors for aircraft of the USAAF and its allies continued in 1943, only to culminate in the major decision that camouflage was not necessary at all for most types of combat aircraft! This decision was arrived at tentatively in mid-1943, and put into full effect by the end of the year, causing the biggest change in the USAAF’s aircraft appearance during the war. Ever-growing strength of the AAF led to entirely new types of combat aircraft distinctive mark­ings (see Chapter 6), especially in Europe (the Allies had agreed to defeat Germany before turning their full strength on Japan).

During 1943, the results of world-wide combat experience led to the following major changes in the marking and camouflaging of USAAF aircraft:

Northwest African Air Forces adopt local theater camouflage, March.

Value of camouflage questioned by Gen, Arnold, March.

Dark Olive Drab No. 41 replaced by a new shade, March, effective September.

Markings for walkways and “No Step” markings added, June. Anti-submarine white camouflage finally adopted, June,

T. O. 07-1-1 issued in full-color printing, June.

Star insignia has white bars and a red outline added, June.

Ail trainers to be painted aluminum, or be natural metal finish, June. National insignia outline color changed to insignia blue, Septem­ber.

Names and numbers of Army-Navy aircraft camouflage colors stan­dardized in ANA Bulletin No, 157, September,

Camouflage no longer required for almost all USAAF aircraft, ex­cept night fighters, September.

High Gloss black paint developed for night use, November. Standard aircraft gloss colors for aircraft issued as ANA Bulletin No. 166, December.

Spec. No.

Jan. Feb.

Mar. Apr.

May June

Jul. Aug.

Sep. Oct.

Nov. Dec.

T. O. 07-1-1




New Color Version —







Major Revision I


Bulletin 41

Colors for







Bulletin 48

Colors for




Porcelain Color Plates




Spec. 3-1 Color Card



Superseded by ANA

" 57 & 166



Superseded by AN-I-9

Canceled May 21



Markings for Airplanes

2 3 | |




Color for Army Air Forces Airplanes (issue B)





Пгррп fn

Dull Dark Green


Camouflage Finishes for Aircraft

ANA 157 Aircraft Camouflage Color Standards

Issued September 28 1

ANA 166

Aircraft Color Standards





Insignia: National Star

Issued 1 March 1






US Army Air Forces specifications in use, revised, or issued, by date and version, during 1943. The letters indicate a letter revision of a spec., such as T. O. 07-1-1 A. The numbers indicate an amendment to an earlier version of a spec., such as Amendment No. 6 to Spec. 24114.


Vultee XP-54,41-210, was the first prototype of this large fighter, designed to the same requirements that resulted in the Curtiss XP-55 and the Northrop XP-56, It made its first flight on January IS, 1943, but the initial trials showed that performance was well below the requirements.



Подпись: ** *

Special black paint investigated for night camouflage, June 1943

On June 29, 1943, the Chief, Req. Div., OC&R (Wash.), requested that the AAF Board, AAF School of Applied Tactics, Orlando, Florida, comment on the use of special black paint for night camouflage. The AAF Board replied that, since the standard olive drab camouflage gave an equally effective protection against searchlights and was better in bright moonlight, special camouflage paint was not only of no particular value, but was extremely undesirable in that it would limit the use of those aircraft only to night operations.

(It seems that this request arose as a result of a report from Eglin Field, No. 3-43-31, “Test of Night Camouflage”, dated June 5,1943, No copy of this report has been found, together with many others issued by Eglin Field during World War II. The author submitted a request for copies of all of these reports in 1967. He was informed that all of the remaining copies were in such a poor state that they could not be copied by any means available at that time, and the author would have to go to Eglin Field to review them. Unable to do so at that time, the author finally got to Eglin Field in 1992, only to find that the current librarian had no record of the location of any of the reports!).


Curtiss AT-9-CS, 41-122K?), has yellow cowls, and is still carrying the “US Army" markings under the wings, but has the 1942-1943 fuselage insignia. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)

White bars and a red border added to the star insignia by AN-I-9a, June 29, 1943.

During combat over North Africa in support of Operation TORCH, it was found that the AAF star insignia was being confused with the Luftwaffe cross at distances exceeding normal resolution (this had also happened during World War I, and led to the adoption of the tri­circle insignia for all AEF aircraft in France).

On June 15, 1943, Eglin Field, was directed to conduct tests on modifying the AAF insignia so that it would not be confused with enemy insignia at distances exceeding normal resolution.

As it so happened, tests had already been conducted earlier and had been reported in Service Test No. 3-42-18, “Revision of Aircraft Marking”, dated May 9,1943. These tests had been run to determine the cause of the confusion at distances (the results agreed with those reported in McCook Field Report No. 1305, dated August 20, 1920, showing that at a distance the white star of the insignia blended into a circular blob).

The tests had shown that a long narrow rectangle added to the star insignia proved to be discernible at a distance twenty-five percent farther than the Luftwaffe cross or the AAF star insignia.

Three slightly different versions of the design were finally proposed. The finally selected design of the new insignia was not sym­metrical, but it was considered that this was outweighed by its ease of construction, an important consideration in view of the huge number of aircraft that would have to have their insignia repainted in a hurry.


Supcrmarine Spitfire Mk. Vc, BM181, aircraft MX-D, of the 67th Rec. G, at Membury, England, in July 1943. It carries the new star and bar insignia, outlined in red, adopted on June 29, 1943, to Spec. AN-1-9A. (USAF)

Four P-47s were painted with different insignia; one had the existing star insignia, one the proposed star with the white rectangles, one the Luftwaffe cross, and the final aircraft had the Japanese hinomaru red disc. Flight tests on June 18, 1943, showed that the proposed new design showed up as a rectangle at varying distances and left no confusion of recognition.

A report. No. 3-42-18-2, “Test of Aircraft Insignia”, dated July 7, 1943, was submitted to HQ USAAF, recommending that the new rectangular insignia be adopted as standard. However, in a surprising show of speed, the new insignia had already been adopted by both the Army and Navy, leading to a revised AN-I-9a, dated June 29, 1943. (Contrast this with the lethargy shown on the adoption of a new camouflage scheme for anti-submarine aircraft, as described earlier).


Bell XP-59, no serial visible, prior to May 1943, at Muroc Army Air Base. This was the AAFs first jet tighter, using British designed engines. Its rather poor performance prevented it being used operationally, but it was used for training the AAFs first jet pilots. (USAF)


Boeing B-L7F-85-BO, 42-30033, aircraft BK-Sof the 546th BS, 384th BG, shows the new red outlined insignia, together with the newly adopted “P” in a white triangle showing it belongs to the 1st Combat Bomb Wing, Eighth Air Force. The code letters on the fuselage are in neutral gray. (USAF)

The revised An-I-9a changed the design to the following:

D-l. Construction. – The national insignia shall be an insignia white five pointed star inside an insignia blue circum­scribed circle with an insignia white rectangle, one radius of the blue circle in length and one-half radius of the blue circle in width, on each side of the star and the top edges placed to form a straight line with the top edges of the two star points beneath the top star point; and an insignia red border one-eighth radius of the blue circle in width outlining the entire design. The con­struction of the star is obtained by marking off five equidistant points on the circumscribed circle, and connecting each point to the two non-adjacent points. See Figure 1. The national insignia shall be applied so that in the normal flight attitude of the air­plane one point of the star points upward and perpendicular to the line of flight on vertical surfaces or forward and parallel to the line of flight on horizontal surfaces. A gray color, obtained by mixing one part of insignia white with one part of light gray, shall replace the insignia white on applications to upper wing surfaces when finished semi-gloss sea blue.

D-2a(2). Size. – The insignia shall have a blue circle with a maximum diameter of 60 inches and a minimum diameter of 30 inches. Standard sizes shall have blue circle diameters in multiples of 5 inches. The blue circle diameter selected shall be the standard size which is closest to, but does not exceed 75 percent of the distance between the leading edge of the wing and the aileron cutout at the point of application.

D-2b. Fuselage Insignia.

D-2b(l). Location. – On patrol seaplanes, the insignia shall be applied to each side of the bow, in such position that it is completely visible when the plane is water borne in normal load conditions.











Tech. Order No. 07-1-1В
(June 29 1943 )

© Victor Archer



Special black paint investigated for night camouflage, June 1943


Douglas C-53, painted to T. O, 07-1-1. insignia to T. O. 07-1-1B, June 29 1943. Fuselage insignia 50 inch diameter circles, wing insignia 55 inch diameter circles. Dased on Douglas drawing 5133360.


Fire extinguisher marking, placed to right of door, to the left of insignia.

By rear door only.




Curtiss P-40E-CU, 41-3650, was originally built Гог the RAF, but was taken over by the AAF while on Ihe production line. Thus, it is in standard AAFcamouflage, including rather heavy medium green blotches on the wings and tail surfaces. There is a yellow “1” on the cowl side, and the aircraft is using the new, but short-lived, red-outlined star and bar insignia of June 29, 1943.