Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey


Under current plans the US Marine Corps hopes to acquire 30 MV-22B Ospreys per year, from 2006/07 onwards, replacing elderly CH-46E helicopters.


Подпись: Specification; Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey Powerplant: two Allison T406-AD-400 turboshafts each rated at 4bB6 kW 16,150 shp) Dimensions: rolor diameter, each 11.61 m (38 ft 11n); wing span 1b 57 m (50 ft 1' in) incl. nacelles; length, fuselage excl. probe 17.47 m (57 ft 4 in); height over fins 5.38 m (17 ft 7K in) Weights: empty equipped 14463 kg (31,886 lb); max uika-uff 27442 kc (50,500 lb); max ini. payload 9072 kg (20.000 lb); max ext. payload 6804 kg (15,000 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed 185 kmh (115 mph) in helicopter mode and 509 kmh (316 mph) in aeroplane mode; service ceiling 792b m (26.000 ft), assault range 953 km (592 milesl


ell Helicopter Textron and Boeing Vertol joined forces in the early 1980s to develop a larger derivative of the XV-15 tilt-rotor demonstrator for the Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft

(formerly JVX) programme. This effort was launched by the US Army and then transferred to the Navy in 1983. Combining the vertical lift capabilities of з helicopter with the faster forward flight efficiencies of a fixed-wing aircraft, the resulting V-22 Osprey (Bell Boeing Model 901) was awarded a full-scale development contract in May 1986. It is powered by two Allison T406 turboshafts driving three-b aded ‘proprotors through interconnected drive shafts. The wingtip-mounted engines, transmissions and proprotors can tilt Through 97° 30’ between forward flight and steep-descent or hovering flight. The blades and wings can also be quickly folded for stowage aboard aircraft carriers.

The first of five EMD prototypes flew on 19 March 1989 and the Osprey successfully demon­strated airborne transition from helicopter to wing- borne flight in September 1989. The fifth and final prototype flew on 11 June 1991.

Initial requirements called for 913 Ospreys; 552 MV-22A assault transports for the USMC; 231 similar variants for the US Army; 80 USAF CV-22As for long-range special forces transport; and 50 HV-22As for US Navy combat SAR_special warfare and fleet logistic support missions. The US Navy also foresaw a need for up to 300 SV-22A ASW versions.

During the 1990s plans for the Osprey changed dramatically as the programme was cut-back, can­celled, re-instated and cut back again. The USMC requirement has dropped to 360 MV-22Bs, whiie t. oe Navy plans to acquire 48 C-SAR-configured HV-22Bs in around 2010. All plans for US Army Ospreys have been dropped and while the USAF still has a notional requirement for 50 CV-22Bs, these aircraft may yet be cancelled,

In May 1997 assembly began of the first production – standard MV-22B. Thirty Ospreys have been ordered into low-rate initial production and deliveries began to the USMC in mid-1999. Marine Corps evaluation of the Osprey (conducted by VMMT-204) was blighted by several crashes. Two aircraft were lost on 8 April 2000 (killing 19 Marines) while a third crashed in December. The Nos 4 and 5 prototypes were involved in earlier accidents in 1991/92. While the crashes were not attributable to any inherent design flaws all Ospreys were grounded, and the future of the expensive and controversial aircraft has been called into question once more.

The V-22 has the ability to transition from vertical to horizontal flight, thanks to its revolutionary, but controversial, tilt-wing technology.



aving unsuccessfully pursued their individual programmes for an advanced successor to the RAF’s Harrier GR. Mk 3 and the USMC’s AV-8A Harrier British Aerospace (now 13AE Systems) and McDonne I Douglas (now Boeing) began to work on the joint Harrier II design. This radically revised aircraft featured a new, larger-ar&a carbon-fibre supercritical wing, a comp ete у redesigned, ralsed cockpit, and advanced aerodynamic lift-enhancing devices including LERXes and underfuselage lift – increasing ‘dams’. I he new wng was first flown on 9 November 1978, fitted to the 11th AV-8A (which became the first of two prototype YAV-8Bs>. The US Marine Corps took delivery of the first production AV-8B Harrier Ms in 1983,

From September 1989 (the 167th airframe on), all USMC AV-8Bs were made night-attack capable with the installation of a prominent FUR housing above the nose, a colour moving map and an improved HUD The term AV-8B (Night Attack) is often applied to these aircraft. For training, McDonnell Douglas developed the TAV-8B with a new forward fuselage, accommodating stepped tandem cockpits. Infernal fuel is reduced and to offset the reduced stability caused by the longer fuselage, the vertical fin is increased in area.

The distinctive FUR (Forward-Looking infra-Red) sensor above the nose is what gives the Night Attack AV-8B its 24-hour operational capability

The radar-equipped AV-8B Harrier II Plus is the ultimate evolution of the basic AV-8 Hairier design, which first flew (as the AV-8A) in November 1970

in 1987 McDonne! Douglas announced plans to develop з racar oquipped versior of tne AV-8B, the AV-8B Harrier II Plus In 1990 the US Navy authorised the development of a prototype and 24 product on aircraft. The first fully-equipped true prototype flew on?’? September 1992, The Hamer II Plus is fitted with the APG-65 multi-mode radar, giving it the capability to use radar-guided missiles, such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM, for the first time,

In 1992 the USA, Spain and Italy signed an agreement covering the joint development of the Harrier II Plus. The US Marine Corps has acquired a total of 27 new-build Harrier II Pluses, and a further 72 examples converted from existing AV-8Bs. The first Harrier II Plus was delivered to the Marines in July 1993, and the first remanufactured Harrier II Plus followed in January 1996. The Spanish navy purchased 18 aircraft to supplement its existing EAV-8B Harriers, while Italy bought 16 Harrier II Pluses, and two TAV-8Bs. The last Harrier II Pluses were delivered to Spain and Italy in July and December 1999, respectively.

In May 2000 Spain signed a deal to remanufacture two of its nine EAV-8Bs to Harrier II Plus standard, and plans to bring all its Harriers to this level. The first two rebuilt aircraft will be handed over in 2003.


Specification: Boeing AV-8B Harrier II Powerplant: one 105.87 kN (23,800 lb)

Rolls-Royce F402-RR-408 turboran _ Dimensions; span 9.25 m (30 ft 4 in); length 14 ;2 in (46 ft 4 in): 3.55 m height (11 ft 8 in) Weights: operating empty Б336 kg [13,968 lb); normal take-cr 10410 kg [22,950 lb); maximum take-nff 14061 kg f31.0G3 b) for 405-m(1,330-ft) STD or 8596 kg (18.950 lb) for VT0 Performance: max-mum level speed 10S5 kmb 1662 mph|; maximum rate of climb 4485 m (14,715 ft) per minute; combat radios 167 km 1103 miles)

Armament; one GAU-12A 25-mm cannon (optional) with 300 rounds; maximum ordnance 6003 kg (13.235 lb)


DeneK AH-2A Rooivalk


DeneTs Rooivalk attack helicopter has so far only entered service with one squadron (No. 16Sqn) of the South African Air Force.



outh Africa’s Rooivalk (red kestrel) helicopter was designed to meet a 1981 SAAF require­ment for an indigenously-designed attack heli­copter. The Atlas Aircraft Corporation (renamed Denel Aviation in 1996) began work on a number of technology development aircraft, including the XH-1 weapons testbed (based on an Alouette III air­frame) and the XTP-1 (a modified Puma). Experience with these aircraft fed directly into the Rooivalk prototype, the XH-2 (Experimental Helicopter 2), which made its maiden flight in 1990.

The Rooivalk follows the well-proven attack helicopter layout of stepped, twin-tandem seating in a narrow fuselage, with stub wings for weapons carriage, nose-mounted sensors and an undernose cannon. Drawing on South Africa’s substantial combat experience from the ‘Bush War’ conflicts in Namibia and Angola, Atlas designed the Rooivalk as a highly-survivable aircraft able to absorb battle damage while protecting its crew and remaining operational on the battlefield.

Several elements of the Aerospatiale (Eurocopter) Puma design found their way into the Rooivalk – hardly surprising as the Puma was an important type in the SAAF inventory and many were modified and upgraded by Atlas to improved Oryx standard. The

This is the first production-standard AH-2A Rooivalk, seen carrying a load of eight ZT6 Mokopa anti-tank missiles and two 68-mm rocket pods.

Rooivalk has the Puma’s Tudoomeca Turmo IV engine (licence-built as the Topaz in the XDM and ADM) and the same rotor system, The Rooivalk is designed to carry up to 16 Denel ZT6 Mokopa anti­tank missiles, in addition to rocket pods and Mistral IR-guided anti-aircraft missiles. The 20-mm under­nose cannon is linked to a helmet-mounted sight The XH-2 prototype was refined to serve as the XDM (Experimental Development Model) which first flew on 11 February 1990. A second prototype was built as the ADM (Advanced Demonstration Model), and it first flew in 1992. A third pre-production Rooivalk, the EDM (Engineering Development Model! flew on 17 November 1996. In 1996 the South African Air Force signed an order for 12 Rooivalks, with the service designation AFI-2A (previously CSH-2). The first deliveries were made in January 1999, and the SAAF has a requirement for up to 36 additional aircraft.

An export version of the Rooivalk was a strong contender for the British Army’s attack helicopter requirement in 1993/94 and a version dubbed the RedFlawk was offered for Australia’s Air 87 com petition in 2000/01. Malaysia announced an initial deal for eight Rooivalks in 1998, but a firm order remains as yet unsigned


Specification: Denel Rooivalk Powerplant: two 1420-kW |1r904-hp| Turbomaca Makila 1K2 rurbcshafts Dimensions: rotor diameter 15.58 m (51 ft 12 in), length 1673 m (61 ft 52 in), including rotors: height 5.185 m (17 ft У in)

Weights: empty 5730 kg 112.63? lb); maximum take-off 8.750 kg (19.290 lb)

Performance: maximum cruising speed 278 kmh (1 /3 mpht hovering ceiling, IGE 5850 m (19.200 ft). 0GE 5455 m (17.900 ft); maximum range 1335 km (829 miles) with external tanks Armament: one 20-mm Arm SCO r F2 carnon with 700 rounds of ammunition, four underwing stations lor up to 2032 kg (4.470 lb) of stores


Lockheed Martin F-16C/D


These 35th Fighter Wing F-16CJs are carrying the AGM’88 HARM missiles and ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System specific to the Block 50/52 F-16.



ockheed Martin’s F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

(Lockheed acqu red General Dynamics in 1992 and became Lockheed Martin in 1995) is a develop­ment of the F-16A/B with structural, avionics and systems modifications. F-16C/Ds are distinguished oy an enlarged vertical fin base Cockpit changes irtc cde a wde-angle HUD_and an improved data display for HQTAS flying. The new APG-68 multi­mode radar brought increased range, sharper reso­lution and expanded operating modes, and a weapons interface for AGM-66D and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles.

The first F-16C flew on 19 June 1984 and the initial production-standard F-16 Block 25 aircraft was acquired solely by the USAF. The Block 25 was first fitted with the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 – later replaced by the more powerful -22Q/E engine.

The F-16C/D Block 30, which first flew in June 1986, introduced the General Electric F110-GE-100 engine as an alternative powerplant, and nearly all aircraft were fitted with the enlarged ‘oig mouth’ engine mlet. Weapons capability was expanded with the integration of the AGM-45 Shrike and AIM-120 AMRAAM, while new systems included the ALE-40 RWR and ALE-47 chaff/flare dispenser. Block 30 exports went to Greece, Israel and Turkey. The F-16C/D Block 32, also introduced in 1986, was powered by an uprated F100-PW-220 engine. The USAF’s Thunderbirds display team flies Block 32s and aircraft were delivered to Egypt, Korea.

The F-16C/D Block 40 Night Falcon mtmduced an all-weather precision attack capabi ity using the LANTIRN system. The Ft 10-GF-1 00-powered Block 40 has a w de-angle holographic HUD, improved APG-68(V) radar and avionics and GPS. The other­wise identical F-16C/D Block 42 s cowered by the F100-PW-220. The first USAF Block 40/42 aircraft were delivered in 1989. The Block 40 has been exported, to Bahrain, Egypt, Israel and Turkey.

The Block 50/52 F-16C/D incorporates all the improvements of the Block 40. more powerful engines, and integrates tne AGIvl-88 HARM missile and HARM Targeting System. Export customers include Korea, Singapore and Turkey.

Israel has developed a ‘big spine’ version of the Block 30/40 F-16D, which is believed to have a dedicated SEAD combat role. Similar aircraft have been delivered to Singapore. The designation F-16CG nas been applied to USAF Block 40/42 aircraft, and F-16CJ to Block 50/52s. The Block 60 is an enhanced systems next-generation F-16 variant now under development for the UAE.

Подпись: Israel and Singapore operate these specially modified F-16Ds which are believed to have a sophisticated EW system in their enlarged spines.image135"Specification: Lockheed Martin F-16C Block 52

Powerplant: one 129.4-kN(29,1G0-lbl General ElECtric F110-GE-123 IPE afterburr ng turbofan Dimensions: wingspan, over aunchers 3.45 rn 131 ft): length 15.03 m (43 ft 4 ini; height 5.09 m (16 ft 8/ inj

Weights: empty 8581 kg (18,917 lb); maximum take-off 1229? kg (27.099 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed Ivlach 2 p. is: service ceiling 15240 m (50.030 ft); ferry range 4215 km (2,619 miles); combat radius 1485 km (923 miles!

Armament: one internal №61 Vulcan 20-nnm cannon with 511 rounds of ammunition; maximum ordnance 7072 kg (15,591 lb|



esigned as an ‘Air Dominance Fighter’, The F-22 began from studies during the 1970s into low observable (LO} technologies, or ‘stealth’,and progressed to the ATF (Advanced Tactical Fighter)

programme launched by the USAF in April 1980. This was spurred by Soviet fighter developments that threatened to out-perform the F-15 Eagle and the outline requirement was for 750 new aircraft. After an evaluation of seven manufacturer’s propos­als, Lockheed’s YF-22 and Northrop’s YF-23 designs were selected for competitive evaluation (demonstration/validation, or dem/val) in October 1986. Lockheed teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics to refine fin fact completely redesign) the aircraft and to share development cost and expertise. The revised YF-22 first flew on 29 September 1990. A second prototype aircraft flew on 30 October, but was damaged beyond repair after a flight control system failure in April 1992.

The Lockheed/Boeing team won the dem/val competition in April 1991. The F-22 team was awarded an engineering and manufacturing (EMD) contract to build nine pre-production aircraft. The first of These EMD F-22A Raptors (Raptor 4001) flew on 7 September 1997 and the second (Raptor 4002) followed on 26 June 1998.

Once it is fu/ly operational the F-22 will be the most capable combat aircraft in the world by far, but budget restrictions may hamper the programme.

One key element of the F-22’s ‘stealthy1 design is the need to carry all weapons internally to eliminate the huge effect they have on overall radar cross-section.

Many fundamental aspects of the F-22’s design, such as its same-plane wing and tailplane, and internal weapons bays are intended to minimise its radar cross-section, and make it ’stealthy’. Radar absorbent materials are used throughout. The lower weapons bay can carry up to six АІІУІ-120С AMRAAMs, with two AIM-9X Sidewinders in the side bay. A pair of GBU-32 JDAM bombs can be fitted in place of four of the AMRAAMs. A 20-mm Vulcan cannon fires from a ‘shoulder’ compartment on the right-hand upper fuselage. The F-22 is the first aircraft to be designed from the outset for vectored-thrusi control and for ‘supercruise’ (sustained supersonic flight without afterburner).

The APG-77 active array radar combines with sensors mounted around the airframe to create ‘sensor fusion’, presenting the pilot with an all- around ‘big picture’ of the air battle. A powerful datalink allows information to be passed between members of a flight and AWACS platforms.

Plans to acquire 648 F-22s have been cut back to 339. A lack of funds halted plans for a two-seat F-22B trainer in 1996. The F-22 is scheduled to enter service in 2005, but this date is sure to be delayed as ihe programme struggles with continuing funding cut-backs and technical hitches.


Specification: Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22A Raptor

Powerplant: two 156-kN (ЗБ. СОО-ІЬ) Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofans Dimensions: wing spar ‘З. Б6 m (44ft Б in): length 18.30 m (62’ fit height b.02 m 116 ft 5 in) Weights: operating empty 14365 kg (31,673 lb); maximum take-off 27216 kg (60,000 lb) Performance: design target maximum level speed 1482 kmh (921 mph); demonstrated maximum speed (YF-22) Mach 1.7 at 9150 m (50,000 ft), and Mach 1.58 in supercruise: demonstrated ceiling (YF-22) 3150 m (50,000 ft) Armament: one M61A1 Vulcan 20-mm cannon with 480 rounds, three internal weapons bays


United States ‘Stealthy’ tactical bomber



ith the lessons of the Vietnam and Yom Kippur Wars in mind, in 1974 the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began to look for ways to build a ‘stealthy’ aircraft. Using a mix of radar absorbent materials and a radar reflective internal/externa structure it was possible to dramatically decrease an aircraft’s radar cross-section (RCS). Lockheed demonstrated its expertise in this field (which began with the SR-71) when the ‘Skunk Works’ classified projects development centre built two sub-scale ‘Have Blue’ Technology demonstrators, which flew in 1977. They utilised a unique faceted structure to reduce RCS and, although both aircraft crashed during tests, the experience gained was sufficient to win Lockheed a contract to develop a full-scale operational tactical fighter. This was signed on 16 November 1978 and, under the ‘Senior Trend’ codename, Lockheed built five F-117 FSD prototypes, with a revised outboard-canted tail configuration. The first example flew on 18 June 1981 and the entire development programme and entry into service was conducted in total secrecy.

As production of 59 F-117As continued at a low rate, the USAF began establishing a base at Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. In October 1983, the first unit was declared operational, undertaking only night flights until November 1988, when the F-117 was publicly unveiled. The F-117 is commonly referred to as the ‘Stealth Fighter’, even though it

The F-117 is a key USAF asset, offering a combat- proven survivable precision-attack capability that is unique – apart from the B-2 Stealth Bomber.

is purely an attack aircraft. The official name Nighthawk has been adopted, but it is also wideiy referred to simply as The Black Jet’.

The F-117’s 1989 unspectacular combat debut in Operation Just Cause in Panama was overshadowed by its crucial contribution to Operation Desert Storm, when an eventual total of 42 aircraft flew from Saudi Arabia on nightly precision-attack missions destroying the most important targets Iraq and occupied Kuwait. The F-117 repeated this role during Operation Allied Force in 1999, when the F-117 suffered its only combat loss.

The F-117 is used for attacks against ’highly leveraged’ targets such as communications and command centres, air defence centres, bridges and airfields. It uses a system of two FLIR sensors to select Targets before dropping laser-guided bombs from its internal weapons bay. A post-Gulf War Offensive Capability Improvement Program (OCIP) has added two colour MFDs, a moving map display and auto-throttles. Further improvements will add a new IR acquisition and designation sensor.

From this angle it is easy to see why one of the less flattering nick-names that has been applied to the F-117 is the rcockroach

Specification: Lockheed Martin F-117A Powerplant two 4E?.C4-kN (10.BQC-fb) General Electric F404-GE-F1D? npn – afterbuming turbofans Dimensions: wing span 13.20 rn (43 ft 4 in}; lenatli 20.08 m (05 ft 11 in); height 3.78 m (12 ft 5 ini

Weights: empty about I360B ig{3C. OOO Ibl; maximum take-off 23814 ;<g (52,500 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 1040 kmh (S46 mph); normal maximum operating speed at optimum altitude Mach 0.9; combat radius about 1112 km (691 miles) with maximum ordnance

Armament maximum ordnance 2268 kg (5.000 lb), carried internally



Tupolev Tu-95, Tu-142 ‘Bear’


For many years the Tu-95R was the most commonly encountered version of the Bear’, as it routinely shadowed Western naval forces.



he first Tu-95/1 prototype of Tupolev’s extraor­dinary ‘Bear’ made its maiden flight on 12 November 1952. The swept-wing bomber had unheard of performance for a turboprop-powered aircraft. All of the early variants have now been retired, including the original Tu-95 and Tu-95M ‘Bear-А’ Tee-fall nuclear bombers (some of them converted as Tu-95U trainers). Various missile­carrying variants have also been retired, including the Tu-95K-20r and the refuelling-probe equipped Tu-95KD ‘Bear-B’, and the TU-95KM ‘Bear-C’ with an ECM tailcone. These variants had a broad under­nose radome housing ‘Crown Drum’ guidance radar and carried AS-3 ‘Kangaroo1 missiles. The Tu-95K – 22 ‘Bear-G’ was externally similar but had a new "Down Beat’ radar and K-22 (NATO AS-4 ‘Kitchen’) missiles. The AV-MF’s Tu-95RT ‘Bear-D’ mid­course missile guidance/maritime radar recce plat­form has also been withdrawn, along with the long – range reconnaissance Tu-95R ‘Bear-EsT

The dedicated maritime reconnaissance/ASW Tu-142 ‘Bear-F’ incorporated several significant improvements, including a strengthened wing, a redesigned undercarriage, a fuselage plug, uprated NK-12MV engines and redesigned weapons bays. Four sub-variants had detail differences, but most
had a new cockpit with a raised roofline, and fea­tured a new ventral radome housing a maritime search radar, About 55 ‘Bear-Fs’ remain in AV-MF (Russian naval aviation) service.

The sole export customer was the Indian Navy, which received eight Tu-142Ms. The Tu-142M ‘Bear-F’ also formed the basis of the Tu-142MR ‘Bear-Jr communications relay variant, which had an underfuseiage tracing wire antenna pod but no search radar, A total of 24 of these aircraft are in service.

The ‘Bear’ production line re-opened in 1983 to build 33 Tu-95MS-6 ‘Bear-H’ strategic bombers. This version was developed specifically to carry the new FSK-55 (AS-15 ‘Kent’) cruise missile. This was based on a shortened version of the Tu-142 airframe, but with a deeper, shorter radome and a new weapons bay accommodating a rotary launch­er for six RK-55 missiles. Some 56 later aircraft (known as Tu-95 MS-16s) carry an add tional 10 RK-55s on underwing pylons, but these pylons were removed to comply with the provisions of the SALT and START treaties. The Tu-95MS remains in service with Kazakhstan (six aircraft) and Russia (68 deployed, 64 declared as missile carriers), but Ukraine’s aircraft are being scrapped.

Подпись: The Bear-F’ is the most up-to-date of the 1Bear1 maritime reconnaissance variants and it uses the modernised and improved Tu-142 airframe. Specification: Tupolev TU-142M ‘Bear-F Mod 3’

Powerplant: four 11033-kW |H,795-hp) KKBM (Kuznetsov) NK-12MV turbopreps _ Dimensions: wing span 51.10 m (167 ft Т/ in); length 47.50 m (155 ft 10 in) excluding IFfi probe and 49.50 m (’02 ft 4.8 in) including IFR probe; height 12.12 m (39 ft 9.2 in)

Weights: empty «quipped 86000 kg (189,594 lb); maximum take-off 185000 kg |407,84B lb) Performance: maximum level speed 925 knh (575 mph); climb to 5000 m (16,405 ft) in 13 minutes, service ceiling 12000 m (39,370 ft); combat radius 5400 km (3.977 miles) Armament: twin NR-23 23-mm cannon in ‘ail turret; maximum ordnance 11340 kg (25.003 lb)

Boeing B-52 Stratofortress


The ‘LA’ tail code on this B-52H marks it one from the 2nd Bomb Wing, based at Barksdale AFB. Air Combat Command’s second B-52 Wing is Minot AFB’s 5th BW.


Подпись: Specification: Boeing B-52H Stratofortress Powerplant: eight Vb.62-kN (17.000-lb) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-3 turbafans Dimensions: wing span 56.39 in (185 ft); length 19.05 tn (160 ft 10.9 ini: height 12.40 m 140 ft 9 in) Weights: maximum take-off 229088 kg (505,000 lb) Performance: cruising speed al high altitude 819 kim (509 mph): penetration speed at low altitude between 652 and 676 kmfi (405 aid 420 mphl; service ceiling 16765 m 155,000 ft); range, with one aerial refuelling, at least 13889 km (8,875 miles) Armament: up lo 22680 kg (50,000 lb) ef nuclear and conventional ordnance


he first B-52 Stratofortresses rolled off the Boeing production. ins in 1952, and from then until 1962 a total of 744 were built. The B-52 was the backbone of Strategic Air Command (SAC) until 1992, when the assets and tasks of SAC and TAG were merged no the newly-established Air Combat Command. Today only one version of the oomber remains in service, the B-52H. The USAF Inventory stands at 94 aircraft, but they have a striking power out of all proportion to their number.

The B-52 is the only USAF aircraft cleared to carry all the nuclear and conventional weapons in the Air Force arsenal. The B-52 was designed as a nuclear bomber and, alongside the B-2, it is still tasked with this strategic strike mission – using free-fall nuclear bombs or cruise-missiles. Because of its immense range and heavy load-carrying ability the В-52Я has now adopted a range of conventional roles, including anti-shipping attacks, mine-laying, area bombing and long-range precision stand-off attacks. B-52s fired some of the first shots of Operation Desert Storm, and flew what became the longest combat mission in aviation history, on the first night of operations in 1991, Seven B-52Gs attacked targets in Iraq using a new version of the Air-Launched Cruise Missile, the AGM-86C, with a high-explosive warhead. This weapon gave the B-52 a completely new precision attack capability, which has now been transferred to the B-52H. The last B-52Gs were retired in March 1994.

The superior conventional weapons capability of the B-52G was transferred to the В 52H under the CMUP (Conventional Mission Upgrade Program) effort. Inside the main bomb-bay the B-52 is fitted with the Common Stores Rotary Launcher which can carry four B28 nuciear bombs, eight B61 or B83 nuclear bombs or eight AGM-86B/C cruise missiles. Another 12 cruise missiles can be carried externally. Depending on the underwing pylon configuration, up to 51 750-lb bombs can be carried – 24 under the wing and 27 in the bomb-bay. The B-52H can also carry AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles, AGM-142A Have Nap stand-off attack missiles, Paveway II laser-guided bombs and Ouickstrike mines.

The USAF currently has two active Bomb Wings (a total of four squadrons) and single Air Force Reserve Wing (one squadron) equipped with the B-52H. In early 2001, Boeing submitted an unso­licited proposal to the USAF to re-engine all the remaining B-52Hs. The bombers’ eight TF-33 turbo­fans would be replaced by four more modem Rolls Royce (Allison) RB-211-535 turbofans.

This 2nd Bomb Wing B-52H is dropping a load of 750-lb M117 bombs. A B-52H can carry up to 5І MH7s, totalling some 38,250-lb (17,350-kg) of high-explosive.

Подпись: In USAF service the C-17 is flown by Air Mobility Command and has become an increasingly precious resource as AMC’s older C-5s and C-141s wear out.

In August 1981 McDonnell Douglas was chosen to develop the USAF’s C-X requirement for a new heavy cargo transport, to replace the C-141 Starlit ter. The new aircraft had to be capable of carrying outsize loads, such as the M1 tank and combat helicopters, while retaining a tactical opera­tions capability, including LAPES drops and short landings into austere strips.

The design of the resulting C-17A adopted a classic military transport configuration with a high – mounted supercritical wing, a rear-fuselage loading ramp and undercarriage housings on each side of the fuselage. However, it incorporates such advanced features as winglets, high-performance turbofans (military versions of the Boeing 757 s PW2040) and an all-digital fly-by-wire control system. Short-field performance is aided by an externally – blown flap system and thrust reversers.

The C-1 7 can be configured for cargo, para­troops, combat troops, hospital litter patients, or combinations of all these. For strategic airlift, it can carry 202 personnel, or 18 standard 463L pallets. Typical loads include two М2 Bradley AFVs. two 5-ton 8×8 trucks with trailers, three AH-64 Apache helicopters or six OH-58D helicopters The C-17 can air-drop up to 102 paratroops or platform loads

The C-17 has impressive short-field capabilities, thanks to its high-performance wing (for short take­offs) and thrust-reverseis (for short landings),

of up to 49895 kg (110,000 lb). The Internal cargo loading system Is fully mechanised for operation by a single loadmaster.

The C-17 endured a turbulent development period and came close to cancellation on several occasions, due largely to cost overruns and technical difficulties. Plans to acquire 210 USAF aircraft have been revised downwards to just 120. The first prototype flew on 15 September 1991, followed by the first initial production C-17A on 18 May 1992. On 5 February 1993 the aircraft was renamed as the C-17A Globemaster III and the first example was delivered to an operational USAF unit on 14 June 1993 On 17 January 1995, the 17th Airlift Squadron at Charleston AFB, was declared opera­tionally ready for worldwide missions’. In 1997 the C-17 became a product of the Boeing Company, when McDonnell Douglas was taken over in August that year.

The C-17 won its operational spurs during Operation Joint Endeavor, supporting peacekeeping in Bosnia, and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, Britain’s Royal Air Force intends to lease four C-17s from 2001 onwards, to provide much-needed strategic airlift capability. By March 2001 the USAF had taken delivery of 73 C-17As.


Specification: Boeing C-17A Globemaster III Powerplant: four 185.49-kN (41.700-lb)

Pratt S Whitney FI 17-P-1D0 turberfars Dimensions: span 52.2Э no (171 ft 3 in) between winglet tips: length B3.Q4 in {174 ft in); height IS.79 m (55 ft 1 ini Weights: operating empty 12201G kg |2GS, ll]l] lb); maximum taka-off 263083 kg (580,000 lb); maximum payload 78Ю8 kg (172,200 lb) Performance; maximum cruising speed at tow altitude 648 kmh 1403 mphl: service ceiling 13715m (45,000 ft); take-off field length with 75750-kg(167, ООО-lb) payload 22R6 m (7,50011); landing field length 914 m (3,000 ft) with thrust reversal; range with 36286-kg (80.000-lb) payload 7630 km {4.741 miles)


EH Industries EH101


The Merlin HM. Mk I has a mission fit that includes a FLASH dipping sonar, AQS-903 signal processor, Orange Reaper ESM and Link 11 da talink.



anking as one of Europe’s most important current helicopter programmes, the EH101 has its roots in the cancelled Westland WG 34 design that was adopted in late 1978 to replace the Sea King. Negotiations between Westland and Agusta in November 1979 led to the establishment of European Helicopter Industries Ltd to manage the programme. In January 2001 Agusta and Westland completed a merger to become AgustaWestland.

The three-engined EH 101 is powered by RTM322-Q1/8 turboshafts (UK aircraft), T700-GE-T6AS (Italian navy) or CT7-6s (Canadian Forces). The five- bladed main rotor uses a BERP-derived high-speed tip design and an elastomeric hub. The cockpit is fitted with a Litton six-screen EFlS system.

Several other potential roles were planned from the outset, including military and civil transport and utility duties, Nine preproduction aircraft were built to develop these different configurations, with the first EH 101 making its maiden flight on 9 October 1987. EHI built demonstrators ’or the UK and Italian naval ASW standard, the military and civil utility standard (fitted with a rear ramp) and the civil passenger carrying version (the Heliliner). The programme suffered several set backs when two of the pre-production aircraft crashed, in 1993 (PP2) and 1996 (PP7).

The first EH101 operator was the Tokyo police, which took delivery of its first aircraft in 1997, In October 1991 the UK ordered 44 aircraft for the

Royal Navy, to be known as Merlin HM. Mk Is. In July 1992 Canada ordered 35 CH-148 Petrel (later 28) and 15 CH-149 Chimo aircraft to replace its Sea King ASW and Labrador SAR helicopters respectively, but this order was cancelled in November 1993 after a change in government. Following a lengthy re-evaluation process Canada reordered 15 CH-149 Cormorant SAR aircraft (based on the ‘civilianiseci’ AW320 Cormorant design) in January 1998, and is still evaluating the EH101 for its ASW requirements.

In March 1995 the UK placed a second order for 22 Merlin HC. Mk 3 aircraft for the RAF. In October 1995 the Italian navy ordered 16 aircraft (plus eight options), comprising eight Mk 110 ASW aircraft, four Mk 112 AEW/ASW aircraft and four Mk 410 utility aircraft.

The first production-standard Merlin HM. Mk 1 flew on б December 1995 and the first naval trials squadron. No. 700M Sqn, was commissioned on 1 December 1998. The first batch of six RAF Merlin HC. Mk 3s was handed over to the newly-reformed No. 28 Sqn, at RAF Benson, on 8 March 2001.

The RAF’s Merlin HC. Mk 3s replace the Westland Hte-ssex, now largely retired, and may ultimately replace the Puma in the transport role.

Specification: EHI Merlin HM. Mk 1 Powcrplant: three 1724 kW (2,312-hp) Rolls – Royce Aurbomeca RTM322-01 turboshafts Dimensions; main rotor diameter 18.53 hi"

(61 ft); length overall, rotors turning 22.80 rn (/4 ft 9X in); height overall 6.62 m (21 ft Ш in) with rotors turning

Weights: uperating empty 10500 kg (23,143 lb); maximum take-off U600 kg (32.188 lb) Performance: maximum speed 309 kmh (192 mph|; service ceiling 4575 m (15,000 ft); ferry range 2093 krn (1,300 miles) with auxiliary fuel; endurance 5 hours on station with maximum weapon load Armament: maximum ordnance 960 kg (2.116 lb), comprising four torpedoes



Lockheed Martin P-З Orion



ased on the Lockheed L-188 Electra medium – range passenger airliner, the P-З Orion was developed to meet a 1957 US Navy requirement for a new anti-submarine aircraft to replace the Lockheed P-2 Neptune. An initial batch of seven P-3As was ordered and the Or on entered service in mid-1962. The following P-3B variant introduced uprated Allison T56-A-14 engines, higher weights and provision for AGM-12 Bullpup ASMs. The P-3C variant entered service in 1969 and remains the US Navy’s primary land-based ASW aircraft. US Navy Ohons have undergone several systems updates over the years. The P-3C Update I (1975) added more modern mission systems. P-3C Update II (1977) added an undernose FLIR to 44 aircraft. P-3C Update 111 (1984) added a new acoustic processor and other modernised systems.

The US Navy employs a fleet of 12 specially – modified Oriors to perform the Elint-gathering role as the EP-3E ‘Aries II’. The EP-3J is a US Navy EW jamming trainer fitted with internally – and pod – mounted jamming equipment. Five Orions are used tor range support work, comprising two EP-3A SMILS (Sonobuoy Missile Impact Locating System) aircraft and three RP-3A (EATS) (Extended Area Test System] aircraft used for accurate tracking and

The P-З Orion is essentially the world’s standard maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft. It also has a very effective surface attack capability.

14 Wing of the Canadian Armed Forces has two component squadrons which pool operations of the CAF’s 13 CP-HOs and three CP-140As.

instrumentation o1 missile tests. Further variants include the oceanographic reconnaissance RP-3A, weather reconnaissance WP-3A/D. VP-ЗА executive transport, TP-ЗА aircrew trainer, UP-ЗА utility transport and NP-3A/B trials aircraft, The P-3 AEW&C is fitted with an APS-145 airborne early warning radar (adopted from the E-2 Hawkoye) in a dorsal rolodome, and is used by the US Customs Service on anti-drug patrols.

The CP-140 Aurora is a version of the P-3C purchased in 1976 by the Canadian Armed Forces. It is configured internally to Canadian requirements, and is equipped with an avionics system based on that of the S-3A Viking. Three CP-l40s have been converted to CP-140A Arcturus standard, with their ASW equipment removed. They serve as environmental. Arctic and fishery patrol aircraft.

Export customers for the Orion include Australia, New Zealand, Iran, Pakistan, Portugal, Greece, Japan, Argentina, Chile, South Korea, the Netherlands, Spain and Thailand (P-3T/UP-3T) Japan’s P-3s were built by Kawasaki and include a number of EP-3 electronic reconnaissance versions. Australia’s P-3s are currently being upgraded ro AP-3C standard with new radars and improved onboard mission systems.

image141Specification: Lockheed P-3C Orion Powerplant: lour 3661-kW (4,910-hp) Allison T56-A-14 turboprops

Dimensions: wing spar 30.37 m 199 ft 3 in); length 35.61 m(1 to ft 10 in); height 10.27 m

{33 ft 8/in)

Weights: empty 27330 kg (61.491 o), maximum take-off 64410 kg (142,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 7S1 knh (473 mph), patrol spaed 381 kmh (237 mph); sendee ceiling 8625 m (28.300 ft): maximum mission radius 3835 km (2.333 miies): mission endurance 17 hours 12 minutes Itwo engines) Armament: maximum expendable oad 6072 kg (20,0001Ы on 10 stores stations and in internal weapons bay

Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’


The Tu-160 clearly shares a common design ‘inspiration’ with the Rockwell B-1, but it is a far larger aircraft – built in far fewer numbers.



he Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’ is the world’s largest bomber, and is the heaviest combat aircraft ever built. The Tu-160 was heavily influenced by the Rockwell B-1A, designed to penetrate at high leve, relying on performance and a highly sophisticated ECM suite to get through hostile defences. The B-1A was cancelled, and then subsequently resur­rected as the B-1B, relying on low-level subsonic flight and reduced RCS to penetrate. The Tu-160 remains committed to both low – evel transonic penetration and high-level supersonic penetration, however. The aircraft is a dedicated cruise missile carrier, with two tandem fuselage weapons bays each containing a rotary carousel for six RK-55 (AS-15 ‘Kent’) cruise missiles (with 200-kT warhead and a range in excess of 3000 km), 12 Kh-15P (AS-16 ‘Kickback’) ‘SRAMskis’ or free-fall bombs The Tu-160’s variable-geometry wing and full- span leading-edge slats and trailing-edge double – slotted flaps confer a useful combination of benign low-speed handling and high supersonic speed, Its cockpit is eouipped with fighter-type control columns and conventional_analog instrument displays, with no MFDs, CRTs and no HUD. The long pointed radome houses a TFR, with a fairing below for *he forwarc-looking TV camera used for visual weapon aiming. A retractable IFR probe endows intercont nertal range.

The development programme of the Tu-160 was extremely protracted. Following a first flight on 19

December 1981, series production eventually began at Kazan in 1986 and continued until termina­tion in January 1992, One incomplete aircraft was later finished ano delivered in 2000. Even after the aircraft entered service, problems continued to severely restrict operations. These included a shortage of basic flying equipment, problems with the aircraft’s K-36A ejection seats and poor reliability of engines and systems.

Between 32 and 39 Tu-160s have been built, including prototypes, about four of which are now derelict at ZhukhovskC Nineteen Tu-160s were delivered to the 184th Heavy Bomber Regiment at Priluki from ‘987. These were left under Ukrainian command after the break-up oJ the USSR, but eight were later transferred back to Russian control and the remainder were scrapped (or, in the case of three aircraft, demilitarised as commercial satellite launch p atforms). Six newer aircraft wen* to Engels, which had been intended to be the first Tu-160 base, where they ware joined by the eight ex-Ukrainian aircraft in 2001.

Подпись: The small numbers of Tu-160s available to the Russian airforce restricts the bomber’s effectiveness, but it is still a formidable warplane. Specification: Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack-A’ Powerplant: four 245.16-kN (55,115-lb) SSEE Trud (Kuznetsov) NK-321 turbojets Dimensions: wig span 55.7G m |i B2 ft 9 in) spreac and 35.60 rh Г16 ft 9.75 in) swept; length 5410 nri (177 ft 6 in); height 13.10 n (43 ft 0 in)

Weights: empty equipped 110D03 kg (260,140 lb); maximum take-off 276000 kg [506.261 lb!

Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ at 11030 m 136,030 ft) 2000 kmh (1,243 mpb); range 14000 km (8,699 miles]

Armament: maximum ordnance ;oad about 15330 kq (36,000 в) in two tandem fuselage weapons bays.

Подпись: Westland LynxAnti-tank, battlefield utility, naval ASW and ASuV helicopter


The Lynx HAS. Mk 3 is the Royal Navy’s primary light anti-submarine and shipboard anti-surface helicopter. It is being replaced by the HMA. Mk 8.



aunched under (he Anglo-French helicopter agreement of Feoruary 1967, the Westland Lynx is an extremely versatile and agile nelicopter with cigital flight controls and a four-bladed semi-rigid main rotor. The first prototype flew on 21 March 1971. The production Lynx HAS. Mk 2 undertook a range of shipboa-d missions including ASW, SAR. ASV search and strike, reconnaissance, troop trans­port, and VertRep duties. The HAS. Mk 3 intro­duced Gem 41-1 turboshafts, and subsequent upgrades included the HAS. Mk 3S with secure speech facility, the HAS. Mk 3ICE tor use aboard the Antarctic survey vessel Endurance, the HAS. Mk 3CTS with a new central tactical system and the HAS. Mk 3GM with improved cooling, IR jammers and ALQ-167 ECM pods. Foreign customers for the first-generation naval Lynx were Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Nigeria and Norway,

The second-generation Lynx introduced new composite rotor blades with swept ‘BERP’ high­speed tips, which were fitted to new-bulld Super Ly nxes delivered to Brazil, South Korea and Portugal. These aircraft also had a new 360° under­nose radar and some had provision for a nose – mounted FLIR. The new rotor was also a feature of
the Royal Navy Lynx HAS. Mk 8, produced by conversion of surviving HAS. Mk 3s. This variant also introduced an undernose radome, a nose- mounted thermal imager turret, a rear-mounted MAD, Orange Crop ESM and a Yellow Veil ECM jamming pod.

The Army Lynx had a skid undercarriage, and was ordered by the UK Army Air Corps as the Lynx AH. Mk 1. The only export customer was the Qatar Police. Able to carry 12 troops or 907 kg (2,000 lb) of internal freight, most AAC Lynxes were modified with roof-mounted sights and provision for eight TOW anti-tank missiles, Most were subsequently converted to Lynx AH. Mk 7 standards (also produced in smell numbers as a new-build aircraft), with a reverse-direction tail rotor, uprated Gem 41 engines and a box-like IR exhaust shroud. The Lynx AH. Mk Э (offered for export as the Battlefield Lynx) incorporated all the AH. Mk 7 modifications and also introduced a new nosewheel undercarriage The first new-build example flew on 20 July 1990.

Westland is now offering a Super Lynx 200 configuration, with LHTEC CTS800-4N turboshafts, and a Super Lynx 300 with T8QQ engines, an EFlS cockpit, and advanced avionics. The latter version was ordered by Malaysia and South Africa.

Подпись: The German navy’s newest Mh 88 Super Lynxes are fitted with the Sea Spray 3000 radar, FUR, AQS-18 dipping sonar and Sea Skua missiles. MS Specification: Westland Lynx AH. Mk 7 Powerplant two846-kW|t,135Tip) Rolls – Royce Gem 42-1 turboshgf-s Dimensions: main rotor diameter 12.80 m •|42 (t|; length overall, rotors turning ’19 ft 9 in (15.16 m); height overall 12 ft (3.73 m) with rotors stationary

Weights: operating empty 3072 kg 16,77/ lb| in the anti-tank role: maximum take-oil 4876 kg) ■110,75C lb); maximum payload 3.30U lb (1365 kg) Performance: maximum contnucibs cruising speed 256 kmh (159 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 756 m (2,480 ft) per minute; hovering ceiling 3230 m (10,600 ft); combat radius 46 km (29 miles) lor a 2-hour patrol Armament: 550 kg (1,210 lb) of ordnance

Boeing C-135 family


France’s fleet of KC-135FRs have been modified to carry underwing hose-and-drogue pods to refuel probe-equipped aircraft.


Подпись: Specification; Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker Powerplant four 97 86-kN 122,000-lb) CFM International F103-CF-100 ttirbofans Dimensions: wing span 38.88 m (130 ft 10 in); length 41,53 m 1136 ft 3 in к height 12.70 m (41 ft 8 in| Weights: operating empty 48220 kg (105,306 !b); maximum take-off 146284 kg I322.5QD lb); internal fuel 92210 <0 (203.288 lb); maximum payload 37650 kg (33,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speec at high altitude 982 krrh(610 mph); cruising speed at 10670 m 135,000 ft) 856 kind (532 mph); maximum rate of climb 393 m {1,290 It) per minute; service ceiling 13715 m (45,000 ft); operational radius 4633 km (2.879 miles)


ollowing Successful trials of the Boeing 367-80 transport prototype with a Boeing-designed ‘flying boom’ refuelling probe under the rear fuselage, the US Air Force placed an order for an initial batch of 29 KC-135A Stratotanker aircraft, in September 1955. These would be the first of a grand total of 732 to be built. The first KC-135A flew in August 1956 and the initial production Stratotanker was delivered to Castle AFB in June 1957. The last KC-135A was delivered to the USAF in 1965.

Two major turbofan re-engining programmes have since been undertaken. The first involved the conversion of 188 early-model aircraft to KC-135E standard, adding TF33 turbofans and wider-soan tailplanes. The thrust reverser-equipped TF33 allowed greater safety margins. The use of shorter runways and reduced noise pollution. The KC-135E, is 14 per cent more fuel efficient than the KC-135A and can off-load 20 percent more fuel.

The Boeing-developed KC-135R first flew in August 1982 and is the mainstay of today’s USAF tanker fleet. Over 400 these CFM56-powered conversions have been funded to date, with the first entering service in July 1984, The USAF’s specialist KC-135Q tankers (once dedicated to the SR-71 fleet), have now been re-engined as KC-135Ts and are used for F-117 support tasks. A KC-135R can off-load 50 percent more fuel, is 25 percent more fuel efficient, costs 25 per cent less to operate and is 96 percent quieter than a KC-135A.

About 550 KC-135S remain in service. Boeing also built another 88 C-135s of various kinds for special missions. The most important of these is the RC-135 family of reconnaissance aircraft. Current types include 15 RC-135V and RC-135W ‘Rivet Joint’ aircraft, and two RC-135U ‘Combat Sent’ aircraft These are all sophisticated electronic intelligence gathering platforms, with a range of tactical and strategic roles. There is also a single RC-135S ‘Cobra Ball’ aircraft, which uses high – powered optical systems to examine missile re-entry vehicles and satellites in low-earth orbit, All of the USAF’s RC-135s are attached to the 55th Wing, based at Offutt AFB, Nebraska,

KC-135 tankers have been exported to France (14 KC-135Fs now KC-135FRs) and Singapore (four KC-l35Rs). Approximately 544 USAF C-135s of all types will undergo the Pacer Crag cockpit and navi­gation systems upgrade (Crag stands for compass radar and GPS), in addition to acquiring TCAS and GATS/GATM capability, allowing them to operate within improved future air traffic control systems.

The USAF now has a fleet of 15 RC-135V and RC-135W aircraft, which are its most important signals and electronic intelligence-gathering assets.

Подпись: RAF Sentry AEW.Mk 1s have been consistently among the most capable E-3s, thanks to their CFM56 engines, advanced systems and excellent tactics.

Boeing’s E-3 Sentry is the world’s largest and most capable AWACS (airborne warning and control system) aircraft. The EC-137D prototype first flew on 5 February 1972. followed by xhe first E-3A on 31 October 1975. Using the airframe of a 707-3208 airliner fitted with a radar ‘rotodome’ and an exten­sive crew of mission operators, the E-3 is a flying C3I Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) platform. E-3s are used to control the ‘air battle’ monitoring all airborne activity and controlling combat operations over a wide area, At the heart of the system is the AM/APY-2 Overland Downlook Radar, which is capable of tracking up to 600 low – flying aircraft. Since entering service. Sentries have been involved in combat operations in Grenada 11983), Lebanon (1983), Panama (1989) and Iraq (1991) and continuing operations in the Balkans.

Twenty-two E-3 As and two EC-137Ds, collectively termed ’core" aircraft when they were standardised in the late 1970s, were upgraded to E-3B level with faster computers. ECM-resistant communications and additional radios and display consoles. The first E-3B was redelivered in July 1984. In 1984, 10 E-3As were modified to E-3C siandard with a larger crew capacity, most E-3B equipment and ‘Have Quick’ communications equipment. All but the first 25 E-3

The large bulges which have been added to upgraded NATO and USAF (Block 30/35) E-3s house the new AN/AYR-1 ‘Quick Look’ ESM/Elint system.

airframes have inboard underwing hardpoints. E-3A ‘standard’ versions have been delivered to Saudia Arabia (five) and NATO (18). The USAF has 33 E-3s.

Both US and NATO aircraft have undergone recent upgrades to enhance their capabilities, and add new electronic surveillance systems. US Sentries have undergone The Block 30/35 Modification Program, which includes an electronic surveillance capability to detect and identify air and surface-based emitters, the JT1DS datalink, increased computer memory end GPS navigation. In addition, a five-year U. S./NATO Radar System Improvement Program (RSIP) was launched in 1999 RSIP involves major hardware and software modifications to the existing racar system.

Improved and re-engined Sentries have oeen delivered to the UK (seven E-3D Sentry AEW. Mk 1) and France (four E-3F SDA (Systeme de Detection Aeroportee)). Both versions entered service in 1991 and are powered by CFM56 turbofans. They are also fitted with IFR probes, in addition to the stan­dard E-3 inflight-refuelling receptacle. RAF aircraft have wingtip-mounted Loral Yellow Gate ESIYI pods (becoming the first E-3s with this capability) CFM56 engines also power the five E-3As and eight KE-3A tanker aircraft, acquired by Saudi Arabia.


Specification: Boeing E-3C Sentry

Powerplant:four93 41-Ш (21,000-lb) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-100/100A ter bo fans Dimensions: wing span 44.42 m [145 ft 9 in); length 46.61 in (152 ft 11 in): heiqht 12.73 m (41 ft 9 in)

Weights: aperating empty 77996 kg 1171,950 b); maximum take-off 147420 kg (325,000 lb); internal fuel 90B0Q litres (23,937 US gal) Performance: maximum level speed at high altitude 853 kmh (530 mph). operating ceiling 8840 m (29.000 ft): operational radius 16)2 km (1,002 miles) for a six-hour patrol without flight refuelling; endurance more than 11 houis with flight refuelling




The ALX (service designation T-29/AT-29) is a radical evolution of the original Tucano design. Braid will use its aircraft to patrol the vasl Amazonian region.



evelopment of the EMBRAFR EMB-312 Tucano (Toucan) h:gh-performance turboprop trainer started in 1978 in response; to a Brazilian air force specification, First flown on 16 August 1980, the first of 133 T-27s for the FAB entered service in September 1983. Designed to provide s ‘jet-like’ flying experience, the Tucano has a single control lever governing both propeller pitch and engine throttling, ejection seats, and a staggered tandem – olace cockpit. Four underwing hardpoints can carry ordnance for weapons training.

Tucanos have been exported to Argentina (30), Colombia (14), Egypt (54), France (40), Flonduras (12). Iran (25), Iraq (84), Paraguay (6), Peru (30) and Venezuela (31). French Tucanos are the improved EMB-312F version, with an updated cockpit avionics fit. Venezuela operates an armed version of the T-27 trainer, designated AT-27.

I he Tucano’s most notable export success came in March 1985, when it won a British order for 130 aircraft to replace the RAF’s Jet Provost trainers. Considerable modifications were made to tailor the basic airframe to exacting requirements, including substituting an 820-kW (1,100-shp) Garrett TPE331- 12B turboprop – which significantly improved the rate of climb – and reprofiling the cockpit to provide

The Shorts Tucano T. Mk 1 became the RAF’s basic trainer from 1987 onwards. All RAF training aircraft are being repainted in this overall black scheme.

commonality with the BAe Hawk, EMBRAER flew’ a Garrett-engined prototype in Brazil in February 1986 and delivered this to Shorts in Belfast as a pattern aircraft. The resultant Shorts Tucano T. Mk 1 retains only 20 per cent commonality with EMBRAFR-built aircraft, The first production aircraft flew on 30 December 1986. and initial deliveries to the RAF took place in June 1988. Customers for the armed export Shorts Tucano include Kenya (12 Tucano Mk 51s) and Kuwait 116 Tucano Mk 52s) EMBRAER is currently building 99 ALX (T-29) light combat aircraft for the FAB, based on the EMB-314 Super Tucano (previously EMB-312FI Tucano H) design. The ALX is streiched by 1.37 m (4 ft 5% in) compared to the EMB-312 and fitted with a 1193-kW (1,600-hp) PT6A-68-1 turboprop. The ALX has an armoured, NVG-compatible cockpit with HUD and MFDs, five weapons hardpoints and a FUR system (two-seat version). Embraer flew a Tucano H development aircraft in September 1991. Two EMB-314 prototypes made their maiden flights on 15 May and 14 October 1993, respectively, and they now serve as the ALX development aircraft. Brazil plans to acquire between 30 and 40 two-seat AT-29s to replace its AT-26 Xavante (licence-built MB.326) advanced jet trainers.


Specification: EMBRAER EMB-312 Tucano Powerplant: une 559-kVV (750-hp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop Dimensions: wring span 11.14 m (36 ч 6/ in); length 9.85 m (32 ft 4I4 in): height 340 m (11 ft YA in)

Weights: basic Empty 1870 kg (4.123 lb); max take-off 3175 kg (7,000 lb|. with stores Performance: maximum level speed 448 kmh (278 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 680 m (2,231 ft) per minute: service ceiling 9145 m (30,000 ft), typical range 11344 km (1,145 miles) with internal fuel; endurance about 5 hours with internal fuel Armament: four stores stations for maximum ordnance of 1000 kg (2.205 lb)


France (China) Multi-purpose helicopter


The armed AS 565SB Panther can cany four AS 15TT anti-ship missiles and is fitted with an undemose Omera ORB 32 search radar.



n the early 1970s Aerospatiale (now Eurocopter) began development of a helicopter to replace the Alouette III. The initial version, the SA 360 Dauphin, featured a four-bladed main rotor, fenestroo tail rotor, tailwheel landing gear and accommodation for a pilot and up to nine passengers. Production a:rcraft were powered by a 783-kW (1,050-shp) Astazou XVHIA. Despite the development of a military SA 361H, t was obvious that the Dauphin needed twin engines. The Arriel-powered SA 365C Dauphin 2 flew for the first time on 24 January 1975 The SA 365N introduced a retractable tricycle undercarriage, greater use of composites in the construction and other improvements.

Aerospatiale developed the SA 366G1 for a US Coast Guard requirement to replace its Sikorsky HH-52s. The HH-65A Dolphin featured many US – built components, including 507-kW (680-hp) Textron Lycoming LTS101 750A-1 engines. A Total of 101 HH-65As was delivered between 1987 and 1991.

Eurocopter went on to develop the improved AS 365IM3 Dauphin and the significantly redesigned AS 365N4 (now renamed the EC 155) Eurocopter has redesignated its military Dauphin variants on several occasions, leading to a confusing list of names and numbers. Today, two baseline versions are on offer, the army/air force AS 565UB Panther, and the armed navalised AS 565SB Panther. These designations supersede a range of earlier models including the armed AS 565AA, the anti­
tank AS 565CA. the utility AS 565UA, the armed naval AS 565SA (late’ AS 565SB: and the naval utility/SAR AS 565MA (later AS 565MB).

Beginning in 1987 the Brazilian army took delivery of 36 AS 565AAs, becoming the ma|or customer for the land-based military Dauphin Interest in the nava’ version (originally AS 365F) has been stronger. In 1980 the Saudi navy ordered four SAR/surveil – lance-configured AS 365Fs (later AS 565MA) and 20 missile-armed attack-configured AS 365Ns (later AS 565SA). In 1986 Ireland took delivery of five AS 365Fs for SAR and fisheries patrol. In 1988 the French navy ordered 13 AS 565Fs for shipboard operations. In 1994 the Israeli navy ordered 20 AS 565SA Atalef (‘bat’} aircraft for a similar role.

The Dauphin is built under licence by the Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Company (HAMC) in China, as the Z-9 Haitun (‘dolphin’). The initial production Z-9 variant was equivalent to the SA 365N and it was followed by the Z-9A (AS 365N1), the Z-9B (AS 365N2) and the Z-9G (missile-armed version for the People’s Liberation Army).

Подпись: The French navy’s shipboard AS 565F Dauphins (now referred to as AS 565SB Panthers) are used for SAR and ‘planeguard’ rescue tasks at sea. Specification: Eurocopter AS565SB Panther Powerplant: two 835-kW (851 – hp) Turbomeca Arriel 2C turboshafts

dimensions: main rotor diameter 11 .94 in (39 ft 7 ir), lengtn overall, rotor t jrnirg 13.68 m (44 ft lUM In); height overall 3.S8 m(13 ‘t A in) Weights: empty 2281 kg (5.028 b); maximum take-eff 4250 kg (9.37C b)

Performance: maximum cruising speed at sea level 278 mill (173 mpb); maximum rate of ciimb at sea level 468 m (1,535 ft) per minute; hovering ceiling 2600 m (8,530 ft) IGE, and 2500 m (8,200 ft) 0GE, radius of action 2Б0 km (155) with four missiles Armament: four AS 15TT anti-ship missiles