Dassault Mirage 2000N, 2000D Ground attack/strike aircraft


The two-seat Mirage 2000N is France’s dedicated nuclear strike aircraft. This example is a late – production Mirage 2000N-K2,



rench requirements for a Mirage IVP replace­ment to carry the ASMP stand-off nuclear missile resulted in Dassault receiving a contract in 1979 for two Mirage 2000P (Penetration) prototypes (later designated Mirage 2000IM (Nucleaire)). Based on the 2D00B two-scat trainer, the 2000IM has a strengthened airframe for low-leve! flight and considerable differences in avionics, including twin INSs. and Antilope 5 radar optimised for terrain following, ground mapping and navigation. It provides automatic terrain following down to 91 m (300 ft) at speeds up to 1112 kmh (691 mph). Both pilot and WSO have moving map displays. ASMP delivers a 150- or 300-kT warhead up to 80 km (50 miles) from a low-altitude launch point. Outboard, the Mirage 2000N carries a pair of large, 2000-litre (440-lmp gall drop tanks and two self- defence MATRA Magic AAMs. Further protection is provided by the Serval RWR, Sabre electronic jammers and a Spirale chaff/flare system.

The prototype Mirage 2000N was flown on 3 March 1986. The first 30 production aircraft were built to Mirage 2000IM-K1 standard, without the Spirals countermeasures equipment. The – Kl was a dedicated nuclear strike variant, and was armed with two AM.52 free-fall bombs before the ASMP missile was ready for service The second batch of 44 deliveries were Mirage 2000IM-K2S, which had a dual nuclear/conventional capability, and full ASMP compatibility. France’s Mirage 2000N deliveries
were completed in 1993. The 2000N-K1 aircraft have since been upgraded to acquire a limited conventional attack capability.

While the Mirage 200QN is largely dedicated to nuclear strike, Dassault has also developed a similar version for conventional long-range precision attack missions. This is the Mirage 2000D, which out­wardly looks almost identical to the 2000N According to Dassault the D suffix stands for ‘Diversifie’ (diversified). The prototype Mirage 2000D first flew on 19 February 1991 (in fact, this aircraft was modified from the 200QN prototype). France has ordered a total of 86 Mirage 2000Ds and the final aircraft was delivered in 2001.

As with previous Mirages increasing levels of capability have been introduced during the aircraft’s life. The initial production Mirage 2000IM-R1 aircraft d;d not have the full weapons capability of the late production standard Mirage 2000IM-R2s. The -R2 aircraft introduced the Apache and Scalp stand-off missiles, the Samir self-protection fit, and the Atlis II laser-designation system.

Подпись: The Mirage 2000D looks very similar to the 2000N, but does not have a nuclear role. This aircraft is carrying a single Apache stand-off missile. Specification: Dassault Mirage 2000D Powerplant: one 95.12-kN (21,384-Eb) SWECMA M53-P2 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9,13 m (29 ft 112 in); length 14.55 n |47 ft 9 in); height 5.15 m (16 ft Ш in)

Weights: empty 7600 kg (16,755 lb): maximum take-off 17000 kg (37.478 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed more than 2338 kmh (1.453 mph); maximum rate of Climb a! sea level 17060 m (55.971 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18000 m (59.055 ft): combat range over 1480 km (920 miles) with four 25Q-kg bombs

Armament two 30 mm DEFA 554 cannon with 125 rpg, 6300-kg (13,830-fb) ordnance

Saab JAS 39 Gripen


Advanced multi-role combat aircraft


The heavyweight Rbs 15F anti-ship missile gives the Gripen an unparalleled maritime attack capability. This JAS 39A is carrying two Rbs 15s and AGM-65s.



ollowing the cancellation of the Saab B3LA light – attack/advanced trainer project in 1979, Saab began development of the JAS 39 Gripen (gryphon) as an advanced lightweight multi-role successor to the Viggen. The JAS designation (Jekt Attack Spaning – fighter, attack, reconnaissance) underlined the fact that one aircraft (and one pilot) would be able to undertake all the combat tasks of the mission-specific Viggen family. The Gripen was designed to carry the advanced Ericsson PS-05/A multi-mode radar, ntegrated with the D80 mission computer. The cockpit featured the Ericsson EP-17 display system with three monochrome screens and a wide-angled HUD. The Gripen uses a highly – developed version of Sweden’s tactical airborne datalink system that allows rapid real-time exchange of complex mission data between aircraft and ground stations. Power was supplied by the Volvo RM12 turbofan, an improved licence – built version of the General Electric F404. Above all the Gripen was designed to be rapidly deployable and easily maintainab e. It was intended to use Sweden’s Bas 90 system of disoersed 800-m (2,624-ft) long roadstrips, and to be re-armed, refuelled and maintained in the field by a team of just five ground personnel.

The two-seat JAS 39B was drawn up as a trainer, but it wiil be fielded as a fuily-opera tionai mission – specific aircraft, perhaps with a dedicatedSEAD

Five JAS 39A prototypes were built, with the first flying on 9 December 1988. The first production JAS 39A Gripen flew on 16 December 1992 The development programme was slowed by the loss of two aircraft in 1989 and 1993. These incidents led to a redesign of the Gripen’s pioneering digital fly-by-wire system.

The Gripen was declared fully operational with the lead Swedish unit, F7 Wing, on 1 Movember 1997. A second squadron at F7 followed on 30 December 1998. Deliveries to the second Gripen wing, F10, are now underway. The Swedish air force will acquire a total of 204 Gripens, including 28 two-seat combat-capable JAS 39Bs. Sweden’s Gripens are being delivered in three batches, each with improving levels of capability.

The ultimate Batch Three evolution (designated JAS 39C and JAS 39D) will be delivered from 2003 to 2007. These 64 aircraft will have the EP22 full colour cockpit with enlarged displays, air-to-air refuelling capability, upgraded D96 computer systems. Future Gripen upgrade options include a re-engining plan and conformal fuel tanks to extend range. In 1998 South Africa ordered 25 Gripens which wiil be equivalent to Sweden’s Batch Three aircraft, tor delivery beginning in 2007.


Specification: SAAB JAS 39A Gripen Powerplant: cne 8C,5-kN (18,100-lb) Volvo Aero RM12 turbofan

Dimensions: wine span 840 fit (27 ft 6’& in), ever missile rails; length 14.1 Dm (46 ft 3 ini including probe; heiyht 1.50 m (I4 ft 0 in) Weight’s: operating empty 6522 kg (14600 lb); maxiirum :аке-сТ 13000 kg I28.600 lb) Performance: supersonic all all altitudes; landing anc take-off distance less than 8DQ m (2,525 ftj; combat radius approx mately 830 krr (497 miles)

Armament: one 27-:nm Mauser В К 27 cannon, plus six external hardpoints. and wingtip missile launchers; maximum erdnar. ee approximately 4500 kg 19,920 lb)



Подпись: SEPECAT JaguarGround attack and reconnaissance aircraft


Unlike their French counterparts British single-seat Jaguars have a chisel nose housing a laser range­finder and marked target seeker.



esigned to meet в 1965 joint Anglo-French specification for an advanced trainer, the SEPECAT Jaguar was transformed into a potent iow-levei all-weather fighter-bomber The first proto­type flew on 8 September 1968. The RAF received 200 Jaguars, comprising 165 single-seat GR. Mk 1s {Jaguar S) with Ferranti LRMTS in a re-profiled nose and a tai – mounted RWR and 35 T. Mk 2 trainers (Jaguar B), all fitted with a sophisticated NAVWASS nav/attack system. They equipped a three-squadron Wing at Coitishall, operating in the conventional attack and reconnaissance roles, and with an out-of-area, rapid reinforcement commitment. The Jaguar also equipped a four-squadron Wing at RAF Bruggen in Germany {with a further recce unit at RAF Laarbruch) until 1988, with an additional nuclear strike commitment.

The RAF’s Jaguars received more powerful Adour Mk 104 engines from 1978-84, while the GR. Mk 1A/T. Mk 2A upgrade added a FIN1064 I NAS to 75 single-seaters, and 14 trainers. The aircraft also received AIM-9G Sidewinders, AN/ALE-40 flare dispensers, Phimat chaff/flare dispensers and AN/ALQ-101 jamming pods. For Operation Granby in 1991, the RAF’s Jaguars received defensive sys­tems improvements, overwing AlM-9Ls, CRV-7 rockets and CBU-87 cluster bomDS. Since 1994, the surviving Jaguars been upgraded (to GR. Mk ЗА standards} adding GPS, TERPROM, the TIALD laser designator, an advanced NVG-compstible cockp t,
helmet mounted sight and a sophisticated new mission planner. They are due to serve unti 2008- 2009, and perhaps even longer.

The French Armee de Г Air received 160 single – seat Jaguar As and 40 Jaguar E trainers with more austere avionics. Some had an undernose TAV-38 laser rangefinder, and all had an OMERA 40 vertical camera. The French Jaguars equipped EC.7 (operating in the attack and, until 1991, strike roles), EC.11 (with out-of-area and defence suppression commit­ments) and one escadron of EC.3. The surviving French Jaguars, still powered by the original Adour 102, will be withdrawn by 2004. The aircraft now use ATLIS laser designator pods, AS30 missiles and various LGBs. French Jaguars have seen action in Mauritania, Chad, the Gulf and the Balkans.

The Jaguar International (based on the RAF variants) vvas sold to Ecuador, India, Nigeria and Oman. India also builds the type under licence, (93 so far. with production continumg). India’s Jaguars include some Jaguar IM maritime attack aircraft, with Agave radar and BAe Sea Eagle missiles.

Подпись: The British Jaguar T.Mk 2A and (as seen here) the French Jaguar Є trainers have a stepped tandem cockpit configuration in an elongated nose. Specification: SEPECAT Jaguar A Powerplant: two 32.49-kN (7,305-lb! Rolls – RoyceAurbomcca Acour Vlk 102 furbcfan Dimensions: wing span 8.59 m!28 ft 6 in); length 17.53 nr. (57 ft Б’/. in) including probe; height 4.89 m (16 ft Kin)

Weights: empty equipped 70Г.0 kg (15,432 lb); maximum take-off 15700 kg I34.G12 lb) Performance: maximum level speed at 10975 m 135,000 :t) ІБ99 kmh (1.056 mph); combat radius 852 km 1530 miles) on e li – c-hi attack mission with internal fuel Armament: two DEFA 553 ЗП-mm cannon with 150 yog; maximum load of 4536 kg Г 0,006 Ih) on lour underwing and one centreline hartfpoinrs


The J-8 II was a radical re-design of the original J-8. The F-8 IIM is a further improved export version equipped with Russian-supplied radar and missiles.



hina’s J-8 (NATO code name ‘Finback’! originated from a 1964 PLA requirement for an indigenous fighter with performance superior to that of the MiG-21. Shenyang’s twin-engined design incorporated a scaled up configuration of the MiG-21’s ‘tailed delta’, with a ranging radar in the intake centre – body, similar to MiG’s own Ye-150. The first of two prototypes flew on 5 July 1969. These undertook a protracted flight test programme (lasting 10 years), which was interrupted and delayed by political upheaval. The resulting J 8 was armed with a single 30-mm cannon and up to four PL-2 AAMs.

The improved J-8 I ‘Finback-A’ was designed as an ail-weather fighter, and featured a new Sichuan SR-4 radar in an enlarged intake centrebody, some aerodynamic refinements and a two-piece canopy with a fixed windscreen. It introduced a twin-barrelled 23-mm 23-III cannon, and provision for four rocket pods as an alternative to the AAMs. A prototype flew on 24 April 1981. J-8 and J-8 I production totalled about 100 aircraft, and some J-8 Is have been converted to serve in the reconnaissance roie, with an undernose sensor package..

Development of the further improved J-8 II ‘Finback-B’ began in May 1981, leading to first flight of a prototype on 12 June 1984. The J-8 II

The original J-8’s MiG-21 heritage is clear to see in this line-up of‘Finback-As’. Despite its limited capability the J-8 A is still in PLAAF service.

introduced a nose-mounted rada’, and relocated new lateral air intakes for its 69-kN (15,430 lb) WP-138 turbojets and a ventral folding fin. An export F-8 IIM version has been offered, with a pulse-Doppler look-down radar and digital avionics, including a HUD and two HDDs, but this has not yet won any orders.

On 5 August 1987 Grumman received a contract to design, develop and test the Peace Pearl avionics upgrade for the J-8 II. This introduced a modified AN/APG-66 radar, giving compatibility with BVR SARH missiles like the AIM-7. The aircraft would also have received a modem HUD, з US ejection seat and an INS, and a bubble canopy and frame­less wrap-around windscreen. However, the Tienanmen Square massacre led to an immediate halt on work on the project,

J-SIIs of the PLA Air Force and PLA Navy Air Force are being upgraded with new RWRs (intro­duced in the second production block), and some are fitted with fixed inflight refuelling probes as J-8 IVs (also referred to as the J-8DI They are also being equipped with the PL-8 ДАМ (a copy of the Israeli Python III). The J-8 hit the headlines in April 2001 when one was lost after a collision with a US Navy EP-3E over the South China Sea,

image206Specification: Shenyang J-8 II ‘Finback-B‘ Powerplant: two 65.90-kN (I4,815-lb| Liyartg (LMC) Wapen-ІЗЛ II afterburning turbojets Dimensions: wing span 9.34 m (30 ft 8 in); length 21.59 m (/0 ft’ 0 in) including probe: height 5,41 m (17 ft 9 in)

Weights: empty 3820 kg 121.649 lb): maximum take-off 17800 kg (39,24? lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2338 kmh (1,453 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 12000 rn (39,370 ft) per minute, service ceiling 20200 m (65,275 ft), ferry range 2200 km (1,367 miles); combat radius 800 km (497 miles) Armament one ventral Type 23-3 twin – barrelled 23 mm cannon with 200 rounds; ordnance Pt-28, PL-8 and PL-10 missiles


Itelly’s Agusta-built AS-61 Rs differ from the basic S-61/SH-3 design with their high-raised taitbooms, rear ramps and water-right hulls.



ikorsky developed the S-61 Sea King to replace its previous S-58 design, combining dual ASW hunter/killer roles in a single airframe, The prototype YHSS-2 first ‘lew or 11 March 1959 and was followed by 245 production SH-3As for the USN. The primary sensors were an AQS-10 dipping sonar and an APN-130 search radar; in the ‘killer’ role the SH-3A carried two torpedoes or depth charges.

The 74 SH-3Ds that followed introduced uprated T58-GE-10 engines. AOS-13A sonar and APN-182 radar The SH-3G conversion modified 105 SH-3A/Ds to set as general-purpose rescue platforms and transports, Some 116 SH-3A, SH-3D, SH-3Gs were later converted to perform the inner-zone anti-submarine mission as SH-3Hs with AQS-13B dipping sonar, LN66HP search radar, chaff dispensers and an ASQ-81 towed MAD bird. ESM equipment end the radar were later replaced by a modern tactical navigation suite and improved sonobuoy and sonar processing capability.

By 2001 only a handful of SH-3Hs remained in US Navy service, strippeo of their ASW equipment and used for utility and SAR duties by second line units, along with small numbers of UH-3A and VH-3A utility transports. The VIP-dedicated VH-3D is also still m service, used as a Presidential transport by Marine Corps squadron HMX-1.

Of the military S-6lRs, which featured rear-load­ing ramps and a more conventional, non-boat-hulled fuselage, the USAF’s CH-3C. CH-3E, and probe-
equipped HH-3E ‘Jolly Green Giants’ have all been retired, as have the US Coast Guard’s similar HH-3F Pelicans. Two are still flown in Argentina, however, and about 33 Agusta-built AS-61 R Pelicans remain operational in the SAR role in Italy. Some of these aircraft have been armed and upgraded with FURS for the combat SAR role.

The basic Sikorsky-built S-61/SH-3 Sea King was exported to a number of countries, and remains operational in Argentina. Brazil, Denmark, Namibia and Spain. Licence manufacture was under-taken by Canada, Italy and Japan. Canada’s surviving CH-124As have been updated for continued ASW service, but are now overdue for replacement. About 48 of the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force’s 100 Mitsubishi-built HSS-2, HSS-2A and HSS-2B helicopters are still operated on ASW, utility and SAR tasks, Agusta-built ASH-3D and ASH-3H ASW, logistic, and VIP transport derivatives for a number of customers, and they remain operational in Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Libya, Malaysia, Peru, and Venezuela.

Only smalt numbers of H-3 Sea Kings remain in US Navy service today, serving largely as base SAR and utility transport aircraft

Specification: Sikorsky S-61 (SH-3H ) Powerplant:two 1O44-kW(I.4O0-hp|

image208General Electric T58-GE-10 turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 18 90 in {62 ft m|, length overall, rotors turning 22.15 m (72 ft 8 in), fuselage 16.69 m(54 ft Я ir. J; height overall 5.13 m (16“ft10in|

Weights: empty 5601 kg 112.350 lb); maximum take-off 9526 kg (21.000 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 267 kmh (166 mph); economical cruising speed 219 kmh (136 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 670 m (2,200 ft) per minute; service ceiling 4480 m (14,700 ft); hovering ceiling 3200 m (10.500 ft! IG£ and 2500 m (8,200 ft) OGC; range 1005 km (625 miles)


Подпись: Specification: Sikorsky CH-53E Powerplant three 2756-kW (3,696-hp) General Electric 764-GE-41S turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 24.08 m (79 ft); iength overall, rotors turning 30.19 m (99 ft A in), fuselage 22.35 m (73 ft 4 in); height overall, rotors turning 8.97 m (29 ft 5 in) Weights: empty 15072 kg (33.338 lb); maximum take-off 33340 kg (73.500 lb), maximum payload 16330 kg (36,000 Ibj Performance: maximum level speed 315 kmh (196 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level with 11340-kg (25.000-lb) payload 762 m (2,500 ft) per minute; service ceiling 5640 m (18,500 ft); operational radius 925 km (575 miles) with 9072-kg (20,000-lb) external payload

The Sikorsky CH-53 (Model S-65) heavy-lift helicopter first flew in prototype form on 14 October 1964 and, as the CH-53A Sea Stallion, it became the USMC’s principal heavy-iift helicopter in Vietnam, entering service in 1965. The CH-53D introduced uprated engines and a revised interior for increased troop accommodation. In the air assault role, it carried 55 troops or 3630 kg (8,000 lb) of cargo internally. Four USMC units (all in Hawaii) operate the surviving 45-50 CH-53Ds today. S-65s were exported to Austria (two S-65C-2 or S-650 aircraft, later sold to Israel), West Germany (112 CH-53Gs) and Israel (about 40 S-65C-3s and ex – USMC CH-53As). 30 of 38 surviving Israeli CH-53s are undergoing the Yasur-2000 upgrade, which adds new EW and cockpit systems.

The RH-53D was a US Navy mine sweeping variant, able to tow a mine countermeasures ‘sled’, and introduced uprated engines and an optional IFR probe and sponson tanks. Now withdrawn by the US Navy, two remain operational in Iran.

The first-generation H-53 remains active with the USAF. The service has retired its early HH-53B/53C SAR platforms and CH-53C transports have gone, but the type remains active in the CSAR role. The HH-53H Pave Low til introduced APQ-158 terrain-

The Pave Low t/ is a special-forces dedicated infittration/exfiitration helicopter, which has take over the combat search and rescue rote for the USAF.

The three-engined CH-53E Super Stallion is the US Marines’ primary heavylift helicopter. It can carry 55 equipped troops or 14545 kg (32,000 lb) of cargo

following radar. LLLTV, a FLIR turret, and other improvements, and led to the current MH-53J Pave Low III Enhanced This has uprated engines, TER, FLIR, NVG, RWRs, IR jammers, chaff/flare dispensers, GPS, IFR probe, external tanks, titanium armour and provision for three door/rear ramp – mounted 7.62-mm Miniguns. The fleet are now being upgraded further to Pave Low IV standards, with EFIS cockpits and improved defensive aids. A handful of earlier variants are used for training.

The improved, three-engined CH-53E Super Stallion (S-80) variant flew in prototype form on 1 March 1974, and introduced a seven-bladed main rotor, a lengthened airframe and fuselage sponsons as well as the third engine,. IOC was achieved in 1981 and the type now forms a vital part of USMC amphibious operations. The VIP-configured VH-53E serves with HMX-1. In 2000 Turkey ordered eight S-80E (CH-53E) transports.

The current CH-53E-based MH-53E Sea Dragon features enlarged fuselage sponsons with increased fuel capacity and modernised mine countermeasures systems. A total of 46 was delivered to the US Navy to replace the RH-53D, equipping two squadrons. The JMSDF operates 11 similar S-80M-1S.

Подпись: The External Stores Support System (ESSS) was built into late-model UHdOA/Ls. It can carry fuel and weapons toads of up to 2268 kg (5,000 lb).

Sikorsky’s S-70 design was developed to meet the US Army’s 1972 requirement (or a utility/ tactical transport helicopter to replace the UH-1, offering far better performance, crashworthiness and all round survivability, The YUH-60A prototype first flew on 17 October 1974 and featured a broad, squat cabin for one crew chief/door gunner and 11 troops A production UH-60A Black Hawk first flew in 1978, and the type entered service in June 1979. The cheaper UH-60L (delivered from 1989) has uprated engines and other improvements.

Other US Army models include the EH-60C Quick Fix battlefield jamming system variant, which has two tailboom dipole antennas. A UH-60C com­mand post is under development. The Army has a number of dedicated medevac UH-60Q Dustoff Hawks, and converted MH-60A and MH-60L ‘Velcro Hawks’ with FLIR, extra nav/comms, auxil­iary fuel tanks and Miniguns for special operations support, and rocket-armed AH-60L ‘Direct Action Penetrators’ The definitive, new-production Special Operations MH-60K has TFR, FUR, pintle – mounted 0.50-in machine-guns, ESSS wings for fuel tanks, IFR probe, HIRSS, comprehensive comms/nav equip-ment, and defensive warning receivers and countermeasures. The US Army hopes to procure at least 1,400 UH-60A/L models, and is upgrading many to Enhanced Black Hawk standards. The USMC use nine VH-60IM White Hawks in the VIP transport role

Export models (sometimes designated as S-70As) are in widespread service worldwide, including Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Brunei, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Israel, Jordan, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Turkey. Licence-production is undertaken in South Korea 1UH-6OP1 and Japan (UH-60J)

The USAF also uses the type for SAR and CSAR. The planned HH-60D/E Night Hawk was cancelled, and instead the USAF pursued a three-phase procurement process, the Phase One UH-60A Credible Hawk has an IFR probe, provision for additional fuel and door guns. The Phase Two MH-60G Pave Hawk added new avionics (radar, GPS, INS, secure comms equipment and full coun­termeasures) and Phase Three added a HUD and FLIR. Sixteen special operations MH-60G support helicopters (with 0.50-in machine-guns) retained the MH – designation prefix, but aircraft with Phase Two avionics and lower calibre door weapons were re-designated as HH-60Gs.

Подпись: Specification: Sikorsky UH-60A Po werplant two 1151 -kW (1,560-hp) General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 16.36 m (53 ft 8 in): length overall, rotors turning 19 76 m |64 ft 10 in), fuselage 15.26 m 150 (t % in): height overall 5.13 rn|16 ft 10 in) Weights: empty 5118kg(11.284 lb); maximum take-off 9185 kg (20.250 lb); maximum internal payload 1197 kg (2.640 lb) and 3629 kg (8,000 lb] carried externally Performance: maximum level speed 296 kmh [184 mph); maximum vertical rate of climb at 1220 m (4.000 ft) 125 m (411 ft) per minute, service ceiling 5790 m (19,000 ft); range 592 km (368 miles) with standard fuel

Turkey is an important Black Hawk customer with over 100 S-70A (UH-60A) aircraft in service with the army and para-military police units.

Подпись: The evolved CH-60S has a combination of Black Hawk and Seahawk design features, and will provide the US Navy with a new multi-role transport.
Sikorsky’s navalisod S-70B was developed to meet toe U$N’s LAMPS III requirement. This called for a he icopter capable of providing an over – the-horizon search ano strike capability for ASW frigates and destroyers, using radar, MAD, sonobuoys and ESM to detect its targets. A prototype YSH-60B f ew on 12 December 1979, followed by the first production SH-60B Seahawk in 1983. Retaining 83 per cent commonality with the UH-60A, it introduced airframe anti-corrosion treatment, T700-GE-4-01 engines, a folding tailboom. modified undercarriage and HAST (recovery assist secure and traverse) gear. Mission equipment comprises APS-124 ventral search radar, a 25-tube sonobuoy launcher, ASQ-81(V)2 towed MAD, and ALQ-142 ESM. with an armament of two Mk 46 torpedoes It has a hoist for the secondary SAR role. S-7GBs have been exported to Australia (with MEL Super Searcher radar), Japan, Spain, Thailand and Turkey.

The SH-60F Ocean Hawk variant performs the CVW (carrier-based) inner zone ASW mission. Initially deployed in 1991, it lacked radar and RAST but instead had AQS-13F dipping sonar, FLIR and ESM and was armed with three Mk 50 torpedoes Greece received a hybrid version with SH-60B type radar, but with provision for dipping sonar and with

This Royal Australian Navy S-70B-2 wore a special scheme to mark the 50th anniversary of its squadron, the NAS Nowra-based HS 816.

SH-60F ESM. Taiwan bought 21 similar S-70CIMI-1 and S-70C(M)-2 Thunderhawks. The SH-60F – oaseo HH-60H Rescue Hawk is the USIVs strike rescue platform, and entered service in 1989. It has a secondary covert SEAL team infil/exfil roie,

Some 273 of the Navy’s SH-60Bs, SH-60Fs and HH-60Hs are being re-manufactured to a common SH-60R standard, optimised for littoral operations with new passive and active detection and ECM systems, including a new AN/APS-147 ISAR radar, and new sonar equipment. The MAD is deleted, and computer and navigation systems are replaced The prototype flew on 22 December 1999.

The CH-60S is a new-buiid multi-role VERTREP, SAR and CSAR derivative of the Seahawk, intended to replace the HH-60H, CH-46 and HH-3. It combines a UH-60L fuselage with the dynamics system, folding rotors and tailboom and other features of the SH-60B. The aircraft will aiso have a glass cockpit (also being adopted for the SFI-60R) and flew in prototype form on 6 October 1997.

The USCG’s SAR HH-60J Jayhawk replaced the Sikorsky HH-3F in the SAR, patrol and smuggling interdiction roles, and featured a search/weathei radar, a searchlight, an NVG-compatible cockpit and an optional fuel tank.

Saab JAS 39 Gripen


Specification: Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk Powerplant: two l417-kVV(1,90D*hp) General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 15.36 iri 153 ft В in); length overall, rotors tuning 19.75 m |64 ft 10 in!, fuselage 15.26 n {50 ft 04 ini; height overall, rotor turning 5,18 m (17 111 Weights: empty 61Э1 kg {13,648 lb) for the ASW mission, maximum take-о" 99?6 kg |71,&84 lb) far the utility mission: maximum payload 3629 kg (8.000 lb)

Performance: dash sceed 234 krnh (145 mph); operational radius 278 km (173 miles) for a one-hour loiter

Armament: AGM-119B Mod 7 Penguin ASM, and pintle-mounted 0.50-in machine-guns


Soviet Union (Russia) Tacticaf strike/attack aircraft


This Russian air force ‘Fitter-К’ represents the most modern version of the Su-17/Su-22 family, which has gained a reputation for rugged dependability.



o improve the payload/range and STOL capability of the Su-7, Sukhoi built an improved derivative with a variable-geometry (‘swing’) wing. The result was the Sukhoi S-22I (Su-7IG Titter-ЁГ) prototype flew on 2 August 1966. The production Su-17M Fitter-C’ introduced the 109.83-kN (24,690-lb) AL-21F-3 engine and a new nav/attack system. A handful of ‘Fitter-Cs’ were built for reconnaissance duties, with provision for multi-sensor reconnais­sance pods as Su-17Rs. All ‘Fitter-Cs’ have been retired from use in Russia, and Poland, and similar export aircraft (designated Su-20) delivered to Afghanistan, Algeria. Angola, Egypt, Iraq, North Korea, Syria and probably Vietnam are all also believed to have been retired.

The Su-17M-2D ‘Fitter-D’ introduced a length­ened, drooping nose and revised avionics. The ranging radar was replaced by a laser ranger and Doppler was added below the nose, A sanitised, less-sophisticated version, the Su-17M-2K ‘Fitter-F’, was built for export to Angola, Libya and Peru. These aircraft were powered"by Tumanskii R-29BS – 300 engines. A handful remain active in Peru, upgraded with new avionics and refuelling probes.

The Su-17UM-2D ‘Fitter-E’ was a two-seat trainer based on the Su-17M-2D airframe, but with no port cannon. Export Su-17UM-2Ks used the R-29BS-300 engines and aircraft were delivered to Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Iraq, Libya, Peru, Vietnam and North and South Yemen.

The Su-17M-3 ’Fitter-H’ for Frontal Aviation had a deepened forwaro fuselage, a tall tailfin and a removable ventral fin, like tne trainer, but with two wingroot cannon and a single cockpit. A dedicated AAM launch rail was added beneath each inner wing. It was supplied to Frontal Aviation and Afghanistan only. The similar Su-22M-3K ‘Fitter-J’ (with the Tumanskii R-29BS engine) was exported to Iran, Iraq, Libya, Peru, Syria, Vietnam and both Yemens, and remains in service with most of these operators. The Su-22UM-3K was a trainer based on the tall-tailed Su-17M-3 airframe, produced with Lyuf’ka and Tumanskii engines.

The final production variant, the Su-22M-4 ‘Fitter-K’ introduced new avionics and compatibility with an even wider range of weapons, and was distinguished by a small intake at the base of the tailfin. The type is in limited service with a number of former Soviet states, and in Angola, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. The Su-22M-4 was also exported to Afghanistan, and the former East Germany.

Подпись:Specification: Sukhoi Su-17M-4 ‘Finer-K’ Powerplant: cne 110.32-kN (24.B0?-!b) NPO Saturn ILyul’ka) AL-21F-3 afterburning turbojet Dimensions: wing span I3.80 m (45 ft 3 in) spread and 10 m (32 ft 10 in); length 18.75 m 161 ft 5» in): height 50 m (16 ft 5 in)

Weights: normal take-off 16400 kg (36,155 lb), maximum take-off 19500 kg |42,989 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 1400 kmb (870 mphj; service ceiling 152D0 m (49,870 ft), combat radius 1150 km (715 miles) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission with a 2000-kg (4,409-lb) wariaad Armament: two wingroot-moonted NR-30 30-mm cannon with 80 rpg; maximum practical ordnance load 1000 kg (2,205 lb) plus drop tanks


Bomber, EW, reconnaissance aircraft


The Su-24MR ‘Fencer-Є’ is a tactical reconnaissance version equipped with a sideways-looking airborne radar, IF line-scan and cameras.



he Su-24 (NATO code-name ‘Fencer’) was intended as an all-weather low-level supersonic □omber able to attack fixed and mobile targets with pinpoint accuracy and with a secondary photo­graphic reconnaissance role. It was developed from the unsuccessful T-6-1 delta-winged VTOL bomber prototype, which had separate cruise and lift engines’ The heavy lift jets were removed to leave space for fuel or weapons and a variable-geometry wing was added to produce the T-6-2IG prototype, which made its maiden flight during May 1970.

The production Su-24 ‘Fencer-A’ was powered by a pair of Perm/Soloviev AL-21F-3 turbofans. The Su-24 ‘Fencer-B’ had an extended-chord tailfin giving a distinctive ‘kinked’ tailfin, and introduced a heat exchanger above the fuselage. Late-model ‘Fencer-Bs’ had a refined rear fuselage {more closely following the jet pipes), and a brake chute fairing below the rudder. The Su-24 ‘Fencer-C’ had trian­gular RWR fairings on the sides of the fin-tip and on the engine intakes,

The improved Su-24M ‘Fencer-D’ attack variant entered service in 1986 and introduced a retractable IFR probe above the nose, an upgraded avionics suite and provision for a UPAZ-A buddy refuelling pod. Its shortened, reshaped redome

The Su-24M ‘Fencer-D’ is the second-generation strike/attack version of the Su-24. It has a new naviattack fit and a laser/TV targeting system.

houses Orion-A forward-looking attack radar and Relief TFR. The Keira 24 laser and TV sighting system gives compatibility with the newest Soviet TV – and laser-guided ASMs.

Soviet Su-24 bombers could carry free-fall TN – 1000 and TN-1200 nuclear bombs, and a variety of conventional free-fall bombs and guided ASMs. ‘Fencer-Bs’, ‘-Cs’ and ‘-Ds’ remain in widespread front-line use witn Russia, and with a number of former Soviet states. Belarus is reported to have sold eight aircraft to UNITA in Angola. Downgraded, non-nuclear capable export Su-24MKs have been delivered to Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Libya and Syria. The 24 Iraqi aircraft That fled to Iran during the 1991 Gulf War, were absorbed by the IIAF.

The Su-24IVIR ‘Fencer-E* tactical reconnaissance aircraft uses internal and podded sensors of various types, and is able to transmit data from some sen­sors to a ground station in real time. The Su-24MP ‘Fencer-F’ is believed to have a primary Elint – gathering role and is similar in appearance to the Su-24MR. It can be distinguished from the earlier aircraft by a prominent undernose fairing below the nose and swept-back intake-mounted ‘hockey stick’ antennas. The Russian air force is now examining a range of Su-24 upgrade options.


Specification: Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer-C’ Powerplant: two 110 32-kN (24,302-lb) NPO Saturn (Lyui’ka) AL-21F-3A turbofans Dimensions: winy span 17.63 m {57 It 10 ini spread and 10.36 m (34 ft) swept length 24.53 m (BO It 5M in) including probe; height 4.97 rr <16 ft З^їп)

Weights: empty equipped 19000 <g j41,887 lb); normal take-off 36DOO kg (79,365 lb|; maximum take-off 39730 kg (87,522 lb)

Performance: maximum levt speed 232C krnh 11,441 mph); service ceiling 1750(1 m (57,415 ft); combat radius 1050 km IS50 miles) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission

Armament: ere GSh-6-23M 23-mm cannon; maximum ordnance 8000 kg (17,637 lb|



The first export customer for the Su-25K was Czechoslovakia. Its Su-25s were later split between the independent Czech and Slovakian air forces.



he Su-25 was developed during the late 1960s, as a jet shturmovik, using the tried and trusted weapons system of the Su-17M-2. A prototype flew on 22 February 1975 with RD-9 engines and a depressing GSh-23 cannon under the nose. Further prototypes introduced the R-95Sh turbojet (a non – afterburning version of the MiG-21 ‘s R-13-300), a twin-barrelled AO-17 30-mm cannon and the upgraded weapons system of the Su-17M3.

The production Su-25 ‘Frogfoot-A’ introduced enlarged engine intakes and increased armour around cockpit and critical components, and was evaluated under combat conditions in Afghanistan led to the addition of bolt-on chaff/flare dispensers, and an exhaust IR suppressor. From 1987 the R-195 engine was introduced, as fitted to all two – seaters, and to 50 Su-25BM dual-role attack/target – towing aircraft. Single-seat Su-25 production ended in 1989, after 330 aircraft had been delivered, including export Su-25Ks ю Angola, Ви garia, Czechoslovakia, Iraq and North Korea, and, according to some reports, Afghanistan. Peru has recently taken delivery of a number of probabiy second-hand Su-25s, while Iran obtained ex-Iraqi aircraft curing the Gulf War.

The Su-25UB ‘Frogfoot-B’ trainer featured a lengthened fuselage with stepped tandem cockpits, and a taller tailfin. Similar Su-25UBKs were provided to export customers. The Su-25UT (later Su-28) had all armament and weapons systems removed
and was intended for the pilot training role with the VVS and DOSAAF. The Su-25UTG was a carrier trainer with strengthened undercarriage and hook.

ne Su-25T and Su-25TM (briefly the Su-34> are extensively modernised Su-25 derivatives – single – seaters based on the Su-25UB airframe, using the rear cockpit to house avionics and fuel. To give true night capaoility, the aircraft have new avionics, sen­sors and systems, including provision for podded radars or LLLTV/FLIR systems. Eight Su-25Ts were reportedly built for Frontal Aviation, plus a handful completed as Su-25TMs. The Russian air forces reportedly have an outstand ng requirement for 24 Su-25TMs to meet regional reinforcement and out-of-area requirements, while Georgia has a requirement for 50 aircraft. The export Su-25TK or Su-39 Strike Shield has also been offered to Abu Dhabi and Bulgaria.

In April 2001 Israel’s Elbit and Georgia’s TAM unveiled the Su-25 Scorpion upgrade, maturing a modernised cockpit with two MFDs, HUD and a new weapons delivery and navigation system.

Подпись: The Su-25 ‘Frogfoot-A’ has remained largely unchanged throughout its front-line career, and proved its combat worth in Afghanistan. Specification: Sukhoi Su-25K Trogfoot-A’ Powerplant: two 44.13-kN |9,921-lbj MNPK ’Soyuz’ ITunianskii] R 195 turbojets Dimensions: wing span 14.30 n (47 f11.4 in); length 15.53 m [50 ft 1VA in); height 4.80 m (15 ft 9 in)

Weights: empty equipped 9500 kg (20,944 lb); maximum take-off 17Б0С kg (33,ВСІ Ibl Performance: maximum level speed ‘clear’ at sea level 975 kmh (BOB mph); service ceiling /GDI] m |22.9Bb ft); combat radius 550 km |34? miles) nn hi-ln-hi attack mission with a 4000 kg (3.818-lb) warload and two drop tanks Armament: one 30-mm A0-17A cannon with 250 rounds; maximum ordnance 440C кц (9,700 lb)


Air superiority fighter, long-range interceptor


The Su-27 shocked Western air forces, because it combined long-range and a heavy warload, with dramatic manoeuvrability.



ukhoi began work on a new long range heavy fighter for Frontal Aviation in 1969. This was to be a highly manoeuvrable aircraft, with long range, heavy armament and modern sensors, capab e of intercepting low-flying or high-level bombers, and of out-fighting the F-15. The requirement was re-drafted to cover two separate but complementary Designs, one heavy and with a long range, and the other a cheaper, lower cost tactical fighter.

Sukhoi was awarded a contract to develop the heavy aircraft, as the T10, The T10-1 ‘Flanker-A’ prototype flew on 20 May 1977, but testing revealed serious problems and the type underwent a total redesign. Four TIQs (TIQ-I to -4) were built in the OKB’s own workshops, and five more (T10-5, -6. -9. -10 and -11) at Komsomolsk. The planned seventh prototype (T10-7) was completed as the T10S-1 ‘Flanker-B’ with a redesigned wing, under­carriage and fuselage, and a spine-mounted airbrake, and flew on 20 April 1981. An early T10S was stripped and lightened and fitted with uprated engines. As the P-42 this aircraft set a series of time-to-height records between 1986 and 1988. The new configuration formed the basis of the production Su-27 ‘Flanker-B’, which entered service in 1985, and was officially ‘accepted’ in 1990.

The ‘Flanker-B’ has an advanced pulse-Doppler radar, backed up oy a sophisticated EQ complex with an IRST system and a laser rangefinder. This allows the Su-27 to detect, track and engage a target without using radar. The Su-27 is also com­patible with a helmet-mounted target designation system. The prototype Su-27UB ‘Flanker-C’ trainer featured a lengthened fuselage with stepped tandem cockpits under a single canopy and increased height/area tailfins and airbrake and flew on 7 March 1985.

About 600 Su-27s have been built, and 567 were estimated to be in service by the end of 1999. About 395 of these were in service with the Russian air forces, serving with Frontal Aviation and The PVO atr defence force. Most of the remainder served in small numbers with former Soviet republics, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Some of these aircraft have been sold on, to Angola, and Ethiopia. Fifty new-build export Su-27SKs and two-seat Su-27UBKs have been delivered to the People’s Republic of China, where 200 more are to be built under licence by Shenyang as the J-11. The first Chinese-built Su-27 flew in December 1998. Some 12 aircraft have also been delivered to Vietnam.

Подпись: The Su-27 ‘Flanker-B’ can carry up to 10 modern and effective air-to-air missiles, a load that gives it immense combat persistence. Specification: Sukhoi Su-27 ‘Flanker-B1 Powerplant: two 122.58-kN (27,557-lb) NP0 Saturn (Lyul’ka) AL-31F turbafans Diin elisions: wing span 14.70 nn (48 ft 2 ‘A in): length 21.935 m (71 It 11 /fin) Excluding probe; height 5.932 m (19 ft 5)? in)

Weights: empty 17700 <g {39.021 lb}: maximum take-off 30000 kg 165,138 lb) Performance: maximum ‘eveI speed 2500 kmli (1.553 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 183ІЮ m (60,039 ft) per minute; service ceiling 18000 m (59,055 ft): combat radius 1500 km (932 miles) with four AAMs Armament: one 30-mm GSh-30-1 cannon in starboard wingroot with 150 rounds: maximum ordnance 6000 kg (13,228 lb) no


Advanced strike fighter


The sectored-thrust Su-ЗОМК! strike/attack aircraft, now under development for the Indian Air Force, is fitted with canards and AL-37FP engines,



he Su-27PU (later Su-30) was designed to fulfil a long-standing requirement for a long-range fighter-interceptor to replace the Tu-128 in defending Russia’s northern frontiers. The basic Su-27’s long range was further Improved through the use of inflight refuelling, (the aircraft being fitted with a retractable AAR prone), long range navigation equipment was provided and systems were tested and proved for long endurance use. The IA-PVO received about five Su-27PUs before production was halted by funding constraints, and the type was marketed to export customers as the Su-30K Sukhoi also designed and built a single-seat Su-27P with the same systems as the Su-27PU, but its single cockpit made it difficult to exploit the aircraft’s long endurance potential operationally, and none were delivered to frontline customers. At least one example was built to become the Su-30KI demonstrator, in anticipation of an Indonesian order. Two more long-endurance were delivered as aerobatic demonstration aircraft, as the Su-27PD

Sukhoi added limited air-to-ground capabilities to the two-seat Su-30 to produce the Su-ЗОМ <M for multi-role) marketing the aircraft to export customers as the SU-30MK Although a succession of aircraft appeared at international airshows in colourful ground attack camouflage colour schemes, festooned with dummy weapons, most of these were standard Su-27UB trainers, and it
took some time for the Su-30MK’s mult’-role avionics to catch up with the marketeers’ promises. Thus, when India took delivery (late) of eight Su-30MKIs in 1997 the aircraft were little more than probe- equipped Su-27UBs, and it will be some time before ground-attack capable aircraft are delivered.

China has ordered 60 of the baseline aircraft as the Su-ЗОМКК, and Chinese ‘Flanker’ production will switch to this version after the 80th Su-27SK. Vietnam has also ordered the type, under the simple designation Su-30K.

India’s full-standard Su-30MKIs are planned to be much more capable aircraft, with canard fore­planes, thrust-vectoring engines and advanced air-to-ground precision weapon capability. Sukhoi is now flying aircraft to this standard, but production deliveries are not yet imminent. Some sources expect this two-seat configuration (sometimes referred to as the Su-35UB or Su-37UB) to replace the vectored-thrust Su-37 single-seater as the Russian air forces’ next-generation ‘Super Flanker’ of choice.

Small numbers of the baseline Su-30 long-range interceptor have entered service with Russian units, such as the 54 ZAP operational training regiment.



Specification: Sukhoi Su-30 Powerplant: two 122.58 kN 127.557 lb) NPO Saturn IlyulTal AL-31F afterburning turbofans Dimensions: wing span 1 4 70 m (48 ft ТА in); length 21.335 n 171 ft 11 JAn) excluding probe: height 6.30 гіібО ft 10k in)

Weights: empty 17700 kg (39,02′ lb): maximum take off 33,500 kg (73,850 lb) Performance: maximum level speec 2500 kmh (1.550 mph). service ceiling 17500 m (57,420 ft) combat radius 1500 km (932 miles) on a hi-hi-hi interception mission with (our AAMs

Armament: опеЗО-mm GSh-30-1 cannon in starboard wingroot with 150 rounds; maximum ordnance 6000 kg (13,228 lb)





Sukhoi has developed several versions of the original two-seat Su-27!В which are all largely identical. These include the Su-32FN and the Su-34.



ith its long range and heavy load-carrying capa­bility the Su-27 offered considerable potential as a tactica strike/attack aircraft, and as a replace­ment for the Su-24.The Su-27IB fighter bomoer began life as a carrier-based trainer aircraft for Su-27K pilots, initially Designated Su-27KU or Su-27KM-2. By the time the prototype was rolled out, the slimmed down carrier programme had removed the need for a dedicated trainer, and the aircraft was redesigned as a fighter-bomber under the new designation Su-27IB. lt first flew on 13 April 1990. The aircraft combined canard toreplanes with a new forward fuselage accommodating a side-by-side two-seat cockpit, with a titanium armoured cockpit, armoured glass, and three large CRT displays. The broad, flat, ‘duck-nose’ led to the Su-27lB’s unofficial ‘Platypus’ nickname, and accommodated a new Leninetz B-004 multi-function radar with з fixed phased array antenna, The intakes were redesigned *or higher low-ievel speeds

The prototype was followed by four aircraft built to the plannee production standard, with twin – wheel main undercarriage bogies, and a raised, thickened tailsting housing a rearward-looking tail warning radar. The first of these productionised Su~27!Bs (designated Su-34s by the OKB) flew on
18 December 1993, l or long range missions the aircraft had a lavatory and a galley, with room for the crew to stand upright or tie prone between the seats, A retractable IFR probe was also provided, together with ejection seats incorporating a ’back massage’ function.

Development of the Su-27IB has been slow, due to funding and technical problems, and the planned in-service date of 1998 slipped by virtually unnoticed. There is still an aspiration for the Su-27IB to replace all Russian air forces’ Su-24s (although not by 2005 as once announced). The programme is progressing slowly, and has not been cancelled. Production Su-27IBs are expected to use more powerful 175-kN (39.240-lb) Saturn AL-41F engines.

The aircraft was marketed as a dedicated maritime attack aircraft under the designation Su-32FIM (using the th’rd pre-production Su-27IB as a demonstrator), and as a multi-role export aircraft as the Su-32MF

The basic side-by-side Su-27IB airframe now forms the basis of the Su-33UB (or Su-27KUB) carrier trainer, an Su-30-2 long range interceptor, and as yet undesignated recce and EW variants. The prototype Su-27KUB trainer made its maiden flight on 29 April 1999.

Подпись: The Sukhoi Su-32FN is a long-range maritime attack aircraft developed from the original Su-27IB. It exists only as a single demonstrator aircraft. Specification: Sukhoi Su-271B Powerplant: Two 130.43-kN (29.320-lb) Lyul’ka AL-31FM (AL-35F) turbcfais Dimensions: wing span ‘4.70 m (48 ft 2У – in); length 23.335 m 176 ft 6’A in) excluding probe; height 6,5 m (71 ft 4 in)

Weights: maximum take-off 451 DO kg 93/28 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed clean’ at 11000 m (36.090 ft) 1.900 kmh (1.180 mph) and at sea level 1,400 kmh 1870 mph]; service ceiling 19800 m 165.000 ft), combat radios 1,113 km (691 miles) on a hi-hi-tn mission Armament: One 30-mm GSb-30-1 cannon, maximum ordnance 8000 kg (17,636 lb)


The key to the Su-37’s performance is its thrust – vecloring AL-37FU engines, that give it a truly unique combat manoeuvring capability



he Su-27M ‘Flanker’ was designed to meet the same Frontal Aviation requirement that spawned the MiG-29M, for a multi-role tactical fighter to rep ace existing first-generatior MiG-29s. Based on the existing Su-27 airframe, the Su-2/М had a higher proportion of carbon fibre composites and aluminium-lithium alloys in its airframe and had minor airframe improvements, including a re­profiled forward fuselage and (on most aircraft) twin nosewheels and taller, square-topped tailfins with integral fuel tanks.

More obviously, the aircraft had canard fore­planes and a new quadruplex digital FBW control system (though the early prototypes retained the original analogue system). Canards were first used on the proof-of-concept T-10-24 (first flown during 1982) and on the navalised. carrierborne Su-27K (later re-designated Su-33). The carrierborne ‘Flanker’ also featured folding wings and tailplanes, strengthened undercarriage and an arrester hook, but retained the original F8W control system and weapons system of the basic Su-27, The new Su-27M, by contrast, had new multi-role avionics, an advanced glass cockpit, new defensive systems and an N011 Zhuk radar. Ths first of six prototypes made its maiden flight on 28 June 1988.

The aircraft was re-designated as the Su-35 by the Design Bureau in the early 1990s. Although the type was once expected to enter service from 1995. Despite marketing it to a number of potential
customers Sukhoi has received no orders for the Su-35. Attention has now largely switched to Su-27 upgrades, and to the thrust-vectoring Su-37

The first Su-37 was the penultimate aircraft of six planned pre-production Su-27Ms, modified before delivery with a pair of thrust-vectoring Saturn/Lyulka AL-31FU engines, and a revised flight control system, with a sidestick controller and new throttle/nozxle control lever. It first flew (with nozzles locked) on 2 April 1996, and was joined by a second aircraft in mid-1998.

The decision was soon taken to abandon the non-thrust vectoring Su-35 and to concentrate on the Su-37, whose planned production version may have used the designation Su-37MR The new variant was to feature further improved avionics, including a new N011M radar with a fixed ohased array antenna. The Su-37MR was expected to enter service with the two-dimensional thrust-vectoring, AL-37FP engine, or the AL-37FU. A three-dimensional thrust-vectoring AL-37PP engine is reportedly under development.

This is one of Sukhoi’s Su-35 demonstrator aircraft, produced in the early 1990s. The Su-35 has since been overtaken by the even more advanced Su-37.



Specification: Sukhoi Su-37

Powerplant two 142.2-kll (31,970-lb) thrust – vectoring SuLurn/Lyulka AL-37FU turbofans Dimensions: wing soan 15.16 m (49 ft 9 in); length 22.185 m (72 ft 97 in) excluding probe; height 6.36 m (20 ft 10K in!

Weights: empty 1200D kg 137,479 lb); maximum take-off 34000 kg (74.957 lb) Performance: maximum level speed cean’ at sea levei 1400 kmh (870 miles); maximum rate of climb at sea level 13800 m (45.27b ft) per minute: service ceiling 18800 nn (61,683 ft): range 3300 km (2.050 miles! on a hi-hi hi intercepbcn mission with four AAMs Armament GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds; maximum ordnance 8.200 kg (18,077 lb)




Подпись: *

From the experience gained by nearly 800 of its successful MB-326 jet trainers, Aermacchi went on to develop a more modern replacement, the MB-339 This retained the MB-326’s licence-buiit (by Piaggio) Viper 632-43 turbojet and the basic airframe aft of the rear cockpit, but introduced a pressurised cockpit in a revised, deeper forward fuselage, an extended canopy with improved all-round view, a larger fin and more advanced avionics. Two prototypes preceded Italian air force (AMI) orders for 100 production MB-339A trainers, with the first making its maiden flight on 12 August 1976,

The MB-339 entered AMI service in August 1979. Variants for Italy included 19 MB-339 PA lis for the ‘Frecce Tricolors aerobatic team and eight specially-equipped MB-339RMs for radio calibration duties. Export customers for the MB-339A included the Argentine navy (10), Dubai air wing (5), and the air forces of Ghana (2), Malaysia (13), Nigeria (12), and Peru (16), Italy has now instigated a mid-life update of its remaining MB-339As, which were boosted by a small batch of attrition replacement aircraft in 1999.

Aermacchi explored several approaches to enhancing the small trainer’s light attack potential. A single-seat variant was built in 1980 as The

No. 14 Sqn, RNZAF, was the first operator of the advanced MB-339C, which entered service in 1991. Note the 30-mm gun pod on the port wing.

M. B.339K Veltro 2, but no orders were forthcoming This was followed by the improveo MB-339B, which introduced the uprated 19.57-kN (4,400-lb) Viper 680 engine and enlarged wingtrp tanks. This version remained as a ‘one off demonstrator, but paved the way for the MB-339C, which first flew in December 1985. This version introduced a digital nav/attack system and other advanced avionics. Eighteen aircraft were acquired, as M. B.339CBs by the Royal New Zealand Air Force.

Aermacchi is now delivering 15 upgraded MB-339CD (C Digital) aircraft to the Italian air force. This version will serve as a lead-in fighter trainer and adds new all-digital cockp t avionics to the basic MB-339C airframe. The first example (a con­verted МВ-339АІ made its maiden flight on 24 April 1936. Italy’s MB-339CDs are powered by the Viper Mk 632-43 engine, as fitted to the MB-339A, A new Sextant mission computer and MIL-STD 15b3B databus have beer added, and the cockpit is equipped with a IIUD, three multi-function displays and HOTAS controls. A variant of the MB-339CD, the MB-339CE, was sold to Eritrea in 1995, with six aircraft delivered in 1997. The definitive export version of the upgraded MB-339CD, the MB-339FD (Full Digital) has been ordered by Venezuela.

Подпись: The upgraded MB-339CD for Italy features a revised engine and new digital cockpit systems. It can also he fitted with an in-flight refuelling probe, Specification: Aermacchi MB-339C Powerplant: one 19.570-kN (4,400-lb) Rolls – Royce Viper Mk 680-43 turbojet Dimensions: wing span, over tip tanks 11 22 m (36 ft 9/ in): length n.24 m (36 ft m in); height 3.99 m (13 (ПИ in)

Weights: empty equipped 3414 kg 17,527 lb), maximum take-off 8350 kg (14,000 lb] Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ at sea level 919 kmh (571 mph); service ceiling 14020 m 146,000 ft); standard range 1965 km (1,221 milesl: combat radius 472 km (293 miles) ‘hi io-hi’ profile with four 500-11) bombs Armament: maximum load of 1814 kg (4,000 lb) on six underwing hardpoints


This aircraft is one of the 12 L-59Ts delivered to the Tunisian airforce in 1995. The L-59 is outwardly similar to the L-39ZA and L-39MS.



he Aero L-39 Albatros was developed in close co-operation with the USSR as the successor to Aero’s L-29 Delfin. It became the Warsaw Pact’s standard jet trainer, and has beer ouilt in greater numbers than all its Western rivals combined. Powered by an Ivchenko (now Progress) AI-25 turbofen, the L-39 used a conventional configuration with modular construction – using only three major sub-assemblies. The L-39 first flew on 4 November 1968 and it entered Czech service in 1974.

More than 2,800 L-39s have been produced, including the L-39C unarmed trainer, L-39V target tug, L-39ZO weapons trainer with lour underwing pylons, and the L-39ZA ground attack and recon­naissance aircraft, fitted with a 23-mm Gsh-23 twin barelled underfuselage cannon.

Large numbers of these ‘first-generation aircraft’ remain in service in Russ;a and the other CIS republics. Other users include Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Congo, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia. Ghana, Hungary, Iraq, Libya, Lithuania. Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Korea, Romania, Slovakia, Syria, Ukraine Uganda, and Vietnam.

An improved version of the multi-role L-39ZA, the L-39ZA/ARTL was acquired by Thailand between 1993-97. The 50 aircraft delivered to date serve as lead-in Trainers but also have a target-tow­ing capability. They have been fitted with a revised avionics fit, with systems supplied by Israel’s Elbit.

In the early 1990s Aero integrated a new weapons delivery and navigation system to produce the L-39M Super Albatros This had a host of new avionics and was powered by the uprated PS/ZfvlK DV-2 engine. Eight were acquired by the Czech air force as the L-39MS. The export version became the L-59, The first customer was Egypt – ordering 48 aircraft as L-59Es, In 1995, 12 similar aircraft were supplied to Tunisia, as the L-59T Fennec

In May 1993 Aero flew the prototype L-139 Albatros 2000, a modernised vers on powered by a US-built Garrett TFE731-4 turbofan. This paved the way for the current L-159 ALCA (Advanced Light Combat Aircraft), which is now in production for the Czech air force. The ALCA comes in both single­seat (L-159A) and two-seat (L-159B) versions. All ALCAs are equipped with a Fiar Grifo-L radar, a much-modernised cockpit with an FV-3000 wide – angle HUD, twin multi-function colour displays and HOTAS controls, an Allied Signal F124-GA-100 turbofan, Sky Guardian 200 RWR and an expanded warload of NATO-standard weapons.

Подпись: The Czech air force has adopted the L-159 ALCA as its new standard combat aircraft and has ordered 72 aircraft. This is a two-seat L-159B. Specification: Aero L-159 ALCA Powerplant: one 6,300-lb (28-kN)

AlliedSignal F124-GA 100 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9.54 m (31 ft 32 in)

including tip tanks; length 12.73 m (41 ft 92 in); height 4.77 m (15 It 74 in)

Weights: empty equipped 4160 kg 19,171 lb); maximum takE-off 8000 kg (17,537 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 936 kmh (581 mph). service ceiling 13200 m (43,300 ft); maximum mission radius (L159A) with two 500-lb bombs 705 km (438 miles)

Armament: centreline point for podded 23-mm GSh 23 twin-barrelled cannon with 180 rounds, and up to 2340 kg (5,159 lb) of stores on all seven hardpoints


The A 129 Multiruio has the new M197 cannon and the five-bladed rotor of the A 129 International, but retains the Mangusta’s Gem engines.



he Agusta A 129 Mangusta (Mongoose) was conceived to meet a 1972 Italian army require­ment for a modern anti-armour helicopter. It was the first combat helicopter lo incorporate a fully computerised, integrated mission system to min:mise crew workload The A 129 features a conventional gunship layout with stepped tandem cockpits (pilot to rear and gunner in front), stub wings for weapons carriage, fixed, crashworthy undercarriage and a slim fuselage for minimum visual signature, Composite materials account for 45 per cent of the fuselage weight.

The first of five prototype A 129s, powered by two Piaggio-built Rolls-Royce Gem Mk 2-1004D turboshafts, made its maiden flight on 11 September 1983, The first five production Mangustas entered Italian Army Aviation (AVES) service in October 1990, The first 15 ‘Batch One’ production-standard aircraft were fitted with the daytime-only Hughes M65 sight for the helicopter’s primary anti-tank weapon, the BGM-71 TOW missile. Deliveries were completed in 1994 and were followed by the 30 aircraft of Batch Two, which were all delivered by 1996. The improved Batch Two A 129s were fitted with the Saab HeliTOW sight and all A 129s have since been upgraded with this system.

Italy deployed its Mangustas on UN-led peace­keeping operations in Somalia between 1992 and 1994. This combat experience led to a revision of the AVES requirement for the A 129. Instead of a dedicated anti-tank helicopter, the service decided it now needed a more flexible multi-role combat helicopter. As a result, Agusta is offering a new version of the A 129 that brings together a range of improvements that have been separately developed for the Mangusta in recent years.

For the export market Agusta is now offering the A 129 International. This aircraft has an all-new five-bladed rotor, AlliedSignal LHTEC CTS800-2 turboshafts, a completely modernised cockpit with a new mission computer and multi-function dis­plays, a nose-mounted IVI197 20-mm cannon and provision for Stinger air-to-air missiles. A new FLIR/EO targeting system will be fitted and the A 129 International can be armed with laser-guided AGM-114 Hellfire missiles – just such an aircraft offered to the Australian Army was dubbed the A 129 Scorpion. The Italian army will acquire 15 new-build A 129s to a similar standard, but retaining the original Gem engine of the basic Mangusta. These aircraft will be known as the A 129 Multiruio, or the Da Combattimento (combat).

Подпись: The A 129 in Italian service today does not yet have a built-in gun. Standard armament includes the TOW missile, 70-mm and 81-mm rockets and gun pods. Specification; Agusta A 129 Mangusta Powerplant: two 615-kW (825-hp) Rolls – Royce Gem 7 Mk 1004D turtrashafts Dimensions: main imor diameter 11.90 m (ЗЭ ft 0.5 in); wing span 3.20 m Г 0 ft 6 in); length overall 14,29 m (46 ft 105 in); height overall 3.35 m [11 ft 0 in)

Weights: empty equipped 2529 kg (5,575 lb); maximum take-off 4100 kg (9,039 lb) Performance: max level speed at sea level 250 kmh [155 mph): hovering ceiling 3140 m (10,300 ft) in ground effect, and 1890 m (6,200 ft) out of ground effect; combat radius 100 km (52 miles) for a 90-minute patrol Armament up to 1200 kg (2.645 !b) of stores on four stub-wing pylons

Ilyushin 11-76, 11-78, Beriev A-50 Transport and AEW platform


This A-50 ‘Mainstay’ is leading a pair ofSu-30 interceptors. The A-50 is a conversion of the II-76MD airframe, conducted by Beriev.



he Ilyushin 11-76 (NATO code-name ‘Candid’) was developec as a successor to the An-12 for both Aeroflot and the Soviet air force. Larger, heavier and more powerful than the contemporary Lockheed C-141. the 11-76 uses extensive high lift devices, thrust reverses and a high flotation under­carriage to achieve much better short – and rough – field performance. The cargo hold is fully pressurised and can be quickly reconfigured by using inter­changeable passenger, freight or air ambulance modules. The first prototype ‘Candid-A’ made its first flight on 25 March 1971 and a development squadron was in service by 1974. Series production began in 1975 and more than 850 had been built by the beginning of 1999, with production continuing ‘for stock’ at a trickle.

‘Candid-A’ (civil) and ‘Candid-B1 (military) sub­types comprise the basic military 11-76, the civil II-76T and military II-76M with additional fuel tank­age, and the similar II-76TD and military II-76MD with uprated Soloviev D-30KP-1 turbofens for improved ‘hot-and-high’ performance. Other mili­tary ‘Candid-As’ include the 11-76 Skalpel and 11-76 Aibolit mobile operating theatres, the II-76PP ECM jammer (four produced, but never deployed), the II-76VKP (11-82) communications relay aircraft, and
the new sireiched II-76MF, with more powerful PS-90AN turbofans. This was flown in August 1995, and eight are in production. There have also been four II-76LL engine testbeds, II-76K, II-76MDK and II-76MDK-2 cosmonaut training aircraft and a single II-76MDP firebomber conversion. Foreign operators include India, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Syria and Yemen.

The II-78M ‘Midas’ is a three-point tanker fitted with three UPAZ external refuelling HDUs, one under each wing and one mounted on the port side of the rear fuselage. Internally the II-78M has two pallet-mounted tanks in the hold; each contains 35 tonnes of fuel.

The A-50 ‘Mainstay’ was developed by Beriev as an AEW and AWACS platform. It has a rotodome above the fuselage, with the nose glazing and tail turret removed and replaced by further radomes. The А-50’s performance is broadly comparable to Boeing’s E-3 Sentry, with an inferior absolute detection range, but a (claimed) superior ability to discriminate against ground clutter. The improved A-50M has the more advanced Shmel-2 radar. Related variants are the II-976 (11-76 SKIP) range control aircraft and Iraq’s indigenously developed Adnan and Baghdad AEW conversions.

Подпись: Most, though not all, military transport versions of the 11-76 have a rear gun turret in the tail fairing. This is a Ukranian air force IL-76MD. Specification: Ilyushin II-76M ’Candid-B Powerplant: four; 17.68-kN (26,455 lb) PNP° ’Aviadvigataf (Soloviev) D-30KP turbofans Dimensions: wing span 50.50 m (165 It 5 in); length 4S 59 m (152 ft 10k in); height 14.76 m I48 ft 5 in)

Weights: max lake-cff 170000 kg (374,780 lb); maximum payload 4CC00 kg (88,183 lb) Performance: max mum level speed 850 kmh (528 mph|; cruising speed between 750 and 800 kmh (465 and 497 mplt): absolute ceiling about 15500 m (50,855 ft); ferry range G700 km (4,163 miles); range 50G0 km (3,107 miles) with maximum payload

Armament: rear turret with gunner and twin radar-directed NR-23 23-mm cannon

Boeing F-15A, F-15B, F-15C, F-15D Air superiority fighter


This mix of F-15Cs (and a single F-15D) are from the two Eagle squadrons of the Kadena AFB-based 18th Wing, one of PACAF’s key units.



he McDonnell Douglas-designed F-15 Eagle is viewed as the world’s best air superiority fighter and interceptor, particularly in the BVR [beyond visual range) air-to-air mission. It was designed for the USAF’s 1966 FX requirement which called for a long-range air superiority fighter to replace the F-4. McDonnell won that competition and flew a proto­type F-15 A on 27 July 1972, followed by a prototype F-15B two-seat trainer in July 1973.

The F-15 has an advanced aerodynamic design with large lightly-loaded wings conferring high agility. It features a sophisticated avionics system and its APG-63 radar introduced a genuine look-down/ shoot-down capability. Radar-guided AIM-7 AAMs form the primary armament, augmented by AIM-9 AAMs. While still in use. the AIM-7 has now been superseded by the far more capable AIM-120 AMRAAM. The USAF is also preparing to introduce the latest AIM-9X off-boresight short-range missile.

The USAF received 360 production F-l5As and 58 F-15Bs from 1976. Most remaining F-15A/Bs now serve with ANG units. The only foreign F-15A/B operator is Israel, which currently operates a force of about 50 A/Bs.

The F-15C, an improved and updated F-15A, was the definitive production version. The two-seat F-15D was a similarly-improved F-15B. First flying on 26 February 1979, the F-15C introduced uprated F100 engines and provision for conformal fuel tanks (CFTs). initial deliveries were made in September
1979 and F-15C/Ds later replaced F-15A/Bs with three wings. The F-15 Multistage lmprovement Program’ was initiated in February 1983, with the first production MSIP F-15C produced in 1985. Improvements included an upgraded central computer, a Programmable Armament Control Set, allowing for advanced versions of the AIM-7, AIM-9, and AIM-120A missiles, and an expanded Tactical Electronic Warfare System that provides improvements to the ALR-56C radar warning receiver and ALQ-135 countermeasure set. The final 4-3 were fitted with a Hughes APG-70 radar.

F-15C/Ds were delivered to the USAF (408/62), Israel (18/9) and Saudi Arabia (98). The equivalent F-15J/DJ is Japan’s principal air superiority fighter. Most of the JASDF’s 213 planned Eagles have been assembled under licence by Mitsubishi.

The USAF is now fitting all its F-15A/Cs with the upgraded APG-63(V)1 radar. The first of these air­craft entered service in April 2001. During 2000, 18 special F-15Cs were fitted with the APG-63(V}2 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar.

A yellow fin stripe marks this F-15C as an aircraft from the 2nd Fighter Squadron, 325th Fighter Wing, based at Tyndall AFB, in Florida.

image43Specification: Boeing F-15C Eagle Rowe rp I ant: two 106.0-Ш (23,830-lb) Pratt & Whitney FI OD-P-220 turbofans Dimensions: span 13.05 m (42 ft 10 in); length 19.43 m |63 ft 9 in); height 5.63 n {18 ft 5/ in) Weights: operating empty 12793 kg 128.600 lb); normal lake-oil 20244 kg (44,630 Ibi; maximum take-off 30844 kg 168.000 lb), with CFTs Performance: maximum level speed more than 2655 kmh (1.650 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level more [ban 15240 ш 150,000 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18290 m (60.000 ft); combat radius 1967 km (1.222 miles) (interception mission)

Armament: one M61 20-mm cannon with 940 rounds; maximum ordnance 7257 kg [16,000 lb)

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom миш-гоіе combat aircraft


The first upgraded Peace Icarus F-4E for Greece made its maiden flight on 28 April 1999. The bulk of the actual upgrade is being handled by HAI.



he McDonnell F-4 Phantom was originally designed as e shipboard interceptor for the USN and USMC. The prototype (XF4H-1) first flew on 27 May 1958. The first production version was The F-4B None of the naval versions remain in jse as fighters and even the handful operated by test agenc:es have now been_retired. saving only QF-4INI/S drones in service. I he USAF’s initial F-4C variant was followed by the F-4D optimised for air-to-ground operations. All US F-4C/Ds have been retired, but the model remains active n Iran end Sooth Korea.

The definitive F-4E for the USAF first flew in June 1967, and introduced a 20-miri cannon fitted under the nose. F-4Es remains in service with Egypt, Greece, Iran, Israel, South Korea and Turkey. The type has been withdrawn from US service and many have been converted to QF-4E target drones.

The F-4G ‘Wild Weasel’ anti-radar variant resulted from the conversion of 116 F-4E airframes. Deleting the integral cannon and adding an APFi-38 RHAWS. They were the last US Phantoms to see active service, in the 1991 Gulf War. The survivors have been converted to QF-4G drores.

Five irso’ Pnantom operators have upgraded their surviving aircraft, extending airframe ives and adding modern radar, improved avionics and self- defence systems. In the mid-1980s Israeli launched the Kurnass 2000 upgrade, which adds a completely new mission avionics package to ts
remaining F-4Es and RF-4E/RF-4E(S) Oref (raven) reconnaissance aircraft. Israel is now upgrading Turkish F-4Es to Phantom 2000 standard with EL/IV1-2032 multi-mode radars, a digita cockoit anc enhanced weapons capability.

The Luftwaffe’s F-4F ICE (Improved Combat Efficiency) upgrade added the APG-65 radar and AMRAAM capability to about 150 aircraft. DASA is also upgrading 39 Greek F-4Es to a similar level, under the Peace Icarus programme. Japan operates about 90 upgraded F-4EJ Kais, with APG-66 ‘adars, expanded weapons capability and updated avionics.

The reconnaissance-configured RF-4Cand RF-4E have a modified nose housing ootical cameras, e. ectronic equipment,. IR sensors and a mapping/ terrain avoidance radar. RF-4Es remain active with Greece, Iran, Turkey and Israel, while Spain operates modernised RF-4Cs. Israel’s armed RF-4Es are equipped with ndigenous reconnaissance and avionics equipment and have fixed refuelling probes. Japan operates 14 UQgraded RF-4EJ Kais with new radars and modernised recce systems.

Подпись:Specification: McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom II

Powerplant: two r9.82-klN (17,900-lb) General Electric J79-GET7A afterburning turbojets Dimensions: wing span 11.71 m (38 ft b n), length 19.70 n (03 ft); height 5.02 mfl6 ft 5/ in) Weights: basic empty 13757 kg I33.328 ib); combat take-off 18818 kg (41,487 lb): maximum take-off 28C30 kc (51,795 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2393 kmh (1,485 mpn), maximum rate of climb a: sea level 18715 m (31,400 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18Э75 in [62,250 ft); area interception combat radius 1266 km (786 miles)

Armament: one V151 20-mrr cannon with 640 rounds, maximum ordnance 7253 <п 116.0DCI lb!



assault’s Avion de Combat Experimentale

(ACX), evolved s$ an early 1980s technology demonstrator for a national combat aircraft programme even before France’s withdrawal from the~EFA (Eurofighter) project in August 1985. The Rafale A ACX testbed was first flown on 4 July 1986. It established and proved the basic design, configuration ard performance of the defirr – tive’Rafale, or ACT (Avion de Combat Tactique: as well as Its fly-by-wire cont’ol system and mainly composite structure. Rafale is powered by a pair of SNECMA M88-2 turbofans, with the more powerful M88-3 now under development. Rafale’s RBE2 mum-mode electronically-scanned radar is one of the first phased-array fighter radars to be developed in the west, and will be fully-integrated with the OSF IRST/FLIR sensor package above the nose. Ra’ale will also be fitted with tne Spectra RF/laser/ IR self-protect:on system.

The Armee de I’Air’s generic "Rafale D’ (discret, ‘stealth’) family is four per cent smaller than the prototype Rafale A. and uses ‘low-observable’ (stealthy) elements in its airframe. In addition to these design techniques, Dassault may also have developed a classifieo ‘active stealth’ system to further reduce the aircraft’s radar-cross section.

The Rafale C is the Armee de I’Air’s production – standard single-seat multi-role combat version, and a prototype first flew on 19 May 1991. Rafale M is the Aeronavale’s single-seat carrierborne hghter, modified for carr’er operations w’th an arrester hook, a ‘jumo strut’ nosewheel eg and no forward centreline pylon. The prototype Rafale M flew on 12 December 1991. The Rafale В was originally planned as a straightforward dual-contro trainer, but :s now neinc developed into a fully operational version. The first prototype flew on 30 April 1993.

Rafale’s deve opment and acquisition plans have been very badly hampered by budget restrictions. The first aircraft to enter service wi I be the Aeronavale’s 60 Rafale Ms – the first production – standard example flew on 6 July 1999. Rafale M wili be fully operational in 2002, The two-seat Rafale BM will enter service in 2007. The initial Rafale M-F1 si’ defence a’rcrsft will be reolacec oy the mult-role Rafale IVI-F2 in 2004/05. Deliver’es of the full-standard Rafale M-F3 will begin in 2007, and all 60 Rafale Ms will oe in service by 2012

The Armee de ҐAir Is acquiring a total of 212 Rafales, with the first to be de ivered in 2003. The air force is splitting its Rafales 60:40 between the fully combat-capable Ra’ale В and Rafale C aircraft,

Подпись: The Fiench navy’s Rafale Ms will initially be dedicated to air defence. Here the M01 prototype is seen firing a Mica EM active radar-guided AAM. Specification: Dassault Rafale C Powerplant: two 86.Э8 kM (19,555-le) SNECMA M88-2 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 10 fi m (35 ft 9/ in) with tip-mounted AAMs: ength 15.30 n (5C ft I/. in!: height’ 5.34 m (17 ft 6 A ir) Weights: empty, equipped 9060 kg (19.973 lb); maximum ta<e off 21530 kg (47,399 !b) Performance: maximum level speed ’dean’ 2125 krli {1,321 mph), combat radius 1055 km (655 m les) or an air-to-air miss on with eight Mica ‘Missiles and lour IjuI tanks Armament: one 30-mn GIATCITA 791В cannon in port engine intake trunking; 14 stores stations Icr maximum о: 8C0C kg (17,637 lb) af ordnance

Transall С. 160

France/Germany Tactical transport and special missions aircraft


The C.160G is the only tactical transport aircraft in service with the Luftwaffe. They will be replaced by the Airbus A400M airlifter now under development.



he Franco-German Transall C.160 was originally conceived as a Nord Noratias replacement and was one of the first successful joint European aerospace ventures. Of similar configuration to the C-130 Hercules, albet rather smaller and powered by a pair of Rods Royce Tynes, the Transall is robust, reliable anc enjoys excellent performance characteristics. Initial procurement comprised 50 C.160F aircraft for France anc HO C.160D aircraft for West Germany, The first of three prototypes made its maiden flight on 25 February 1963. Production-configured C.160s were delivered from 1967-72. Exports comprised nine C,160Zs for South Africa (now retired) and 20 C.160Ts (former Luftwaffe C.160Ds} for Turkey.

The production line was reopened in France in the late 1970s. The Armee de I’Air ordered 29 C.160IMG (Nouvelle Generation) aircraft which introduced additional fuel capacity, improved avionics and an IFR probe above the cockpit. Maximum payload is 16000 kg (35,275 lb), while 93 troops or 88 paratroops can be accommodated. Ten aircraft were completed with a hose-and-drum air-to-air tanking system in the port undercarriage sponson for refuelling tactical aircraft, and five more have provision for this feature so that they can be rapidly

France has converted some C. IGONGs to act has supplemental air-to-air tankers. These Transalls carry a HDU in a modified undercarriage fairing.

re-roled as tankers. France’s 77 C.160s serve in the transport role with four transport squadrons, various test units and overseas detachments. The French Transall fleet underwent an upgrade to C.160 Remove standards from 1993, gaining a multi-screen EFIS cockpit, a HUD and a new inte­grated defensive suite.

France operaies six NG-standard aircraft that have been assigned to two forms of special duties. Two have been converted to C.160 GABRIEL (C.160G) Elintand jamming configuration and these entered service with EE54 ‘Dunkerque’ in 1988. They are distinguished by wingtip pods with blade antennas, five fuselage blade antennas, a blister fairing on each side of the rear fuselage and a retractable ventral dome. Both retain IFR probes and HDUs.

Four C.160NGs were were converted to C.160FI ASTARTE standards, being adapted to carry TACAMO VLF radio transmission equipment (also used by the US Navy’s Boeing E-6A). This takes the form of a long trailing-wire aerial which enables underwater communication with the ballistic missile-armed nuclear submarines of the Force Oceanique Stratdgique The ASTARTE entered service in January 1988.

image230Specification: Transall C.160F/G Powerplant: two 4548-kW (6,1 DO-hp) Rolls – Royce Tyne RTy.20 Mk 22 turboprops Dimensions: wing span 40.00 m (131 ft 3 in); length 32.40 m (106 ft 3/ in); height 11.65 m (38 ft 5 in)

Weights: empty eqi pped 28258 <g (63,430 lb); maximum take-off 491 DO kg (1D8.245 lb); maximum payload 130D0 kg (35,273 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 536 kmh (333 mph); maximum rata of climb at sea level 44-0 m (1.444 ft) per minute; service celling 85-30 m (27,885 ft); take-off distance to 10.7 m (35 ft) 1100m(3.609 ft); landing distance from 15 m (50 ft) 640 m (2,100 ft); range 4500 km (2,796 miles) with an 8000-ky (17,637-lb) load

t їх – • Soviet Union (Russia)

AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-Kuo


This line up of Ching Kuo fighters is seen at Ching Chuan Kang AB. home of the 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing. The wing м/as the lead unit to receive the tDF,


Подпись: Specification: AIDC F-CK-1A Ching Kuo Powcrplant: iwo 42.3&-kN (9.460-lbl ITEC (AlliedSiprgl/AIDC)TFE1042-70 turbofans Dimensions: wing span over wingtip missile rails 9.46 m (31 ft $ in); length, including probe 14.21 m (46 ft 7Jf in) Weights: operating empty 6486 kg 114,330 lb): maximum rake-off 12247 kg (27.000 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 1295 kmh (805 mph); service ceiling 16460 m (54,000 ft), Armament: one internal 20-mm M61A1 cannon mounted beneath the port LERX, six hardpoints (two underfuselage, one under each wing and one wingtip missile rail) for a maximum of 3.901 -kg (8,600-lb) of stores


aiwan’s ambitious programme to develop the advanced Indigenous Defence Fighter (IDF) to replace its fleet of F-bs and F-104s began in 1982 after a US arms embargo was imposed to appease mainland China. However, no restrictions were placed on technical assistance, and US companies collaborated closeiy’with AIDC to develop the new airframe (General Dynamics), radar (Westinghouse). engine (Garrett) and other systems.

The resulting Ching Kuo fighter (named in honour of a Taiwanese president, in 1988) is of conventional all-metal construction and configuration, bearing a passing resemblance to an F-16/F-18 hybrid with wing/fuselage blending. Elliptical intakes are located below :ong leading-edge root extensions (LERXes). The pressurised cockpit is fitted with a sidestick controller (like the F-16), a wide-angle HUD and two multi-function displays. The GD-53 Golden Dragon multi-mode radar is derived from Lockheed Martin’s AN/APG-67V, wrth elements of the Northrop Grumman (formerly Westinghouse) AN/APG 66 also. Power is supplied by two ITEC TFE1042-70 turbofans, licence-built versions of the Garret (AlliedSignal) F125.

The first of three single-seat prototypes made its maiden flight on 28 May 1989, followed by the first two-seat prototype in July 1990. The first of 10 pre – production aircraft was rolled out on 9 March 1992 and-introduced new enlarged engine intakes and a small ventral fin, following the loss ox one of the
prototypes in development flying. Deliveries to the Republic of China Air Force began nearly one year earlier than scheduled with the public unveiling of the first squadron in February 1993.

Several indigenously-developed weapons have been fielded for the Ching Kuo, including the Tien Chien (sky sword] 1 IR dogfight missile, and the Tien Chien 2 medium-range air-to-air missile. The Ching Kuo can also carry the Hsiung Feng 2 (male bee) anti-ship missile.

The single-seat version of the Ching Kuo has received the ROCAF designation Е-СКЙд, while the F-CK-1 В is the combat-capable two-seater. Due to the cost of the project (and the renewed availability of F-16s to Taiwan), the ROCAF require­ment for 250 aircraft was cut back to 130 – of which 28 were F-CK-1 Bs. The last two Ching Kuos were handed over in January 2000 and Taiwan currently has six squadrons (two wings) equipped with the type. AIDC is now working on a simplified version of the Ching Kuo as a lead-in fighter trainer for export. A prototype is expected to fiy in 2002.

The Ching Kuo carries the indigenously-developed Sky Sword / IR-guided short-rangeAAMs and Sky Sword II radar-guided medium range AAMs.

Подпись: This Тогда Aerea Brasileira A-1 (AMX) is carrying a pair of MAA-1 Piranha air-to-air missiles on its wingtip launchers.

Development of the AMX started in April 1978 when Aeritalia (now Alenia) and Aermacchi combined their resources to meet an Italian air force (AMI) requirement for a multi-purpose strike/reconnaisssnce aircraft. The programme rece ved extra impetus in 1980 when Brazil’s EMBRAER joined the two Italian companies. A common specification called for good short-field performance, high subsonic operating speeds end advanced nav/attack systems for low-level day/night missions in poor visibility. This resulted in a conventional aircraft with a relatively compact airframe and moderately-swept high-mounted wings, and powered by a single Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan. Seven single-seat prototypes were built and the first of these made its maiden flight on 15 May 1984. Design work on a two-seat version, the AMX-Т, began in 1986. The first AMX production batch included 21 aircraft for Italy and nine for Brazil The first production-standard AMX was rolled out at Turin on 29 March 1988, and flew on 11 May.

In 1988 a second production contract for 84 AMXs was placed, following on from the initial batch of 30. This second order comprised 59 for Italy (including six AMX-Ts) and 25 for Brazil (with three AMX-Ts). The first deliveries to the Italian air

The upgraded and modernised AMX-ATA is based on the two-seat AMX-T airframe, hut adds a new radar, avionics and digital cockpit systems.

force took olace in April 1989, while Brazil too* delivery of ;ts firs: aircraft in Octooer 1989. In Brazilian service the AMX is known as the A-1. The first of three AMX-T trainer prototypes flew on 14 March 1990. The first production-standard AMX-T was delivered to Brazil in May 1992, while the first Italian aircraft was handed over in 1994, In Brazilian service the AMX-T is designated TA-1.

Italy has acquired a total of 136 aircraft (110 AMXs, 26 AMX-Ts) and the fina! delivery was made in 1997. Brazil has ordered a total of 79 aircraft (65 A-1s, 14 TA-1s) and deliveries from EMBRAER are almost complete. The main difference between the Brazilian A-1 and Italian AMXs is that the former are armed with two 30-mm cannon, in place of the latter’s single 20-mm gu;n. Some of the single-seat A-1s have been converted to RA-1 reconnaissance aircraft

Подпись: Specification: AMX International AMX Powerplant: one 49.1*klM (11,030-lb St) licence- built Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 807 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9.97 m (32 І10/ in), ever wingtip AAMs; length 13.23 IT (43 ft 5 in); height 4.5b rn (14 ft 1 / ini Weights: operating empty 6730 kc (14,837 lb), maximum lake-oil І3003 kg (28.660 lb) Performance: max level speed Mach 0.86; service ceiling 13000 m [42,650 ft); combat radius 883 km (553 miles) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission with a 907-kg (2.000-lb) warload Armament: one internal M61A1 ?D-mm Vulcan cannon (Italy) and two 30-mm DEFA 554 cannon (Brazil); seven stores stations lor up to 3800 kg [8,377 lb) of ordnance

In September 1999 Venezuela ordered 24 improved AMX-ATA (Advanced Trainer and Attack! aircraft, which will have a new digital cockpit, new radar and avionics derived from the EMBRAER ALX programme. Both Italy and Brazil are now looking at applying similar upgrades to their existing aircraft – particularly in the light of the AMX’s impressive combat debut during Operation Allied Force.

Подпись: Dwindling numbers of military An-12s survive in Russian service, with many aircraft now in the hands of commercial cargo airlines.

Designed by the Ukrainian-based Antonov Bureau, the four-engined Antonov An-12 (allocated the NATO code-name ‘Cub’), was the standard military atrlifter of the Soviet Union and its allies from the early 1960s onwards. Roughly equivalent to the C-130 Hercules, the An-12 was a high-wing, rear-loading freighter, which was also adapted to a wide range of other specialist roles. Unlike the Hercules many versions were armed with a rear gun turret at the base of the fin. The prototype An-12 made its maiden flight on 16 December 1957. Approximately 1,265 aircraft were built at factories in Irkutsk, Tashkent and Voronezh by the early 1970s.

The first major production variant was the An-12A (1961) which had more fuel and more powerful engines than the An-12. In 1963 this was replaced by the An-12B (1963), now fitted with an independent APU. Aircraft with extra underfloor fuel tanks were designated An-12APs or An-l2BPs. A wealth of special missions conversions began to appear during early 1970s. These included the An-12PS ‘Cub-B’ Elint aircraft, the An-12B-VKP Zebra airborne commend post and the An-12RKR NBC reconnaissance aircraft.

The definitive transport version, the An-12BK. appeared in 1967 to replace the An-126. These air­craft were exported to a number of friendly air forces, including India which used its An-12BKs as makeshift bombers during the war with Pakistan in 1971 The An-12PP ‘Cub-C’ was another specialised EW variant, with a large extended tailcone and a
comprehensive jamming fit. The simiiar-loo<inc An-12BK-PPS ‘Cub-D’ was another airborne janmerj this time fitted with a number of large scabbed-on Sirena jamming pods. Other An-12s are modified for tasks such as weather research (An-12BKTs Tsyklon) and ejection-seat development (An-12LL)

The An-12 was exported to 14 countries; Algeria. Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Poland, Yemen and Yugoslavia. Many of fhese aircraft have now been retired, but a few hundred are still in service The An-12 is alive and well in China, were it is built as the Shaanxi Y-8 (based on the An-12BK airframe). The Y-8 is an unlicensed copy of the An-12. It is currently in production, with a range of new var ants still under development. The first Y-8 flew on 25 December 1975 and somewhere between 70 and 100 nave been built. This includes the improved Y-8A military transport, the civil Y-8B, the pressurised Y-8C freighter, the export Y-8D with Western-supplied avionics, the Y-8E drone-launching platform, Y-8F livestock carrier and Y-8X maritime-patrol aircraft.

Подпись: Chinese-built Y-8s, like this /-SB, have been fitted with a distinctive, extended glass nose, the same as that found on China’s H-6 (Tu-16) bombers. Specification: Antonov Ait-12BP Cub-A’ Powerplant: lour 2983-kW(4.000-hp)ZMOB Progress (Ivchenko) AI-20K turboprops Dimensions: span 38.00 m (:24 ft 8 in), ienoth 33.10 m (108 ft 7.25 fn); height 10.53 m (34tt5.5 in!

Weights: empty 28000 kg (G.728 lb): maximum take-off 61000 kg 1134,480 lb); maximum payload 20000 kg (44,092 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 777 kmh (482 mph); maximum rata of climb at sea level 600 m (1,969 ft) per minute: service ceiling 10200 m (33,465 ft); range 5700 km (3,542 miles) with maximum fuel or 3600 km (2.237 miles) with maximum payload

Ukraine (China)

Kaman SH-2 Seasprite


Подпись: Specification: Kaman SH-2G Seasprite Powerplant: two ' 28b kW (1.723 hp} Geoe'al Electric T700-GF 401 turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 1341 m (44 ft); length overall, rotor turning IB m (52 ft 6 in], fuselage 12.3£ m (40 tt 5 in); overall 4.62 m (15 ft 2 in] Weights: empty 4173 kg 19.200 lb); maximum take-uff Є124кд 113,500 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 255 kmh (159 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea leve 762 m (2.500 it) per minute, hovering ceiling 6350 m (20.800 ft) IGE. and 5486 m (18,000 ft) 0GE; maximum range 885 km (500 miles) Armament: provision for two ASW torpedoes


veteran of the Vietnam war, and almost retired from US Navy service, Kaman’s venerable SH-2 Seasprite is enjoying a new lease of life. Though the original design dates to the 1950s the Seasprite has found a new niche for itself as a compact ship­board helicopter, with advanced on-board systems.

The prototype SH-2 flew as the HU2K-1 in July 1959, the first Kaman helicopter to have a conven­tional rotor configuration. The H-2 designation was applied in October 1962 ana Kaman built 100 single- engined UH-2Ar and UH-2B aircraft for the US Navy. In 1970 the redesigned, twin-engined SH-2D was adopted for the ASW role, as the Navy’s LAMPS aircraft – a small helicopter capable of operating from the decks of smaller frigates and destroyers. The definitive LAMPS I version was tho SH-2F Seasprite, which entered service in 1973. This version was powered by two General Electric T58-GE-8F turboshafts, and was fitted with an LN 66HP search radar, a towed MAD, side-mounted sonobuoy rack, tactical mission system. In 1981 Kaman re-opened the Seasprite line to build 60 new SH-2Fs for the USN

In 1985 the Navy began to upgrade its SH-2Fs to SH-2G Super Seasprite standard, re-engining them with T700 turboshafts and significantly increasing performance. The first SH-2F testbed flew in April 1985 and the first production-standard SH-2G conversion flew in March 1990. During the mid- to Iate-I990s the US Navy began to retire

Egypt has acquired 10 SH-2G(E)s to operate from its former-US Navy ‘Knox’-class frigates. The Seasprites are equipped with a dipping sonar.

many of the Oder, smaller vessels which deployed SH-2s, and the Seasprite’s place in the feet was increasingly taken over by the Sikorsky SH-60. Currently the US Navy has just two Reserve squadrons equipped with the SH-2G,

However, the surplus of ex-US Navy aircraft allowed Kaman to embark on an aggressive export sales campaign with the Seasprite. In February 1995 Egypt ordered 10 SH-2(GE)s – remanufactured from SH-2F airframes – and they were delivered in 1997/98. Australia has ordered 11 SH-2G(A)s to operate from its ANZAC class and FFG frigates. The first (remanufactured) SH-2G(A) flew in October 1999 and the first delivery was made to the reformed No 805 Sqn in March 2001 The Australian aircraft are fitted with the Litton ITAS advanced cockpit and mission system. The Royal New Zealand Navy has ordered five new-bude SH-2G(NZ)s and deliveries began in 2001. An interim batch of four unmodified SH-2Fs was acquired to provide training and familiarisation before the RNZN’s Super Seaspiites were delivered.

New Zealand took delivery of four Т-58-powered SH-2F Seaspiites as a ‘bridging loan’ until its full – standard SH-2G(NZ) aircraft could be delivered.


Kaman SH-2 Seasprite
iven the unflattering NATO code-name ‘Hokum’, the Ka-50 was developed as a rival to the Mil Mi-28 in the competition to provide в new battle­field he icopter for the Soviet armed forces. Realising that it would be difficult to achieve АЧ-64 levels of performance with existing Soviet technology and equipment, Kamov followed an individualistic course, retaining its trademark coaxial contra-rotating rotor configuration. This was felt to give a more compact, more agile airframe, and to reduce vulner­ability to hostile fire. To minimise weight, Kamov also decided to design a single-seat helicopter, using the contra-rotating coaxial’s inherently good handling characteristics to make this possible, and drawing on its experience of sophisticated auto-hover systems on Kamov’s naval helicopters, The single- pilot cockpit was successfully demonstrated on the testbench, and in a modified Ka-29TB. A novel fea­ture rs the pilot’s Severin/Zvezda K-37 ejection seat. The ejection sequence begins with automatic rotor separation, then jettisons the doors before a rocket pack drags the seat from the helicopter.

The A80 prototype made its maiden flight on 27 July 1982. The competitive evaluation ended in October 1986 and the Ka-50 was reportedly selected in preference to the Mil Mi-28, although the
requirement was then revised, leading to a new competition between the night-attack optimised Mi-28N and the Ka-5ON,’Ka-50Sh, wnic’n feature advanced new avionics.

Customer resistance has led to the development of a number of two-seat derivatives of the Ka-50, including the tardem-seat Ka-50-2 end Ka-50-2 Erdogan (this to meet a Turkish requirement) and the Ka-52 Alligator, with side-by-side seats, a mast – and roof-mounted sighting system and advanced night attack systems.

The tube-launched, laser-beam-riding Vikhr (NATO АТ-Э ‘Whirlwind’) missile forms the Ka-bO’s primary armament. Sixteen can be carried, aug­mented by the built-in 30-mm cannon. Developed for the BMP AFV, the gun has variable rates of fire and selective feed from two 250-round ammunition boxes. The gun is installed on the starboard side of the fuselage below the wing root and is electro- hydraulically driven and can be traversed through 30° in elevation, and can also move 155 in azimuth. Combat survivability is enhanced by the IR suppres sors in the exhaust assemblies, the heavily armoured pressurised cockpit, the foam-filled, self­sealing fuel tanks. Wingtip pods house chaff/flare dispensers.

Подпись: Kamov has marketed the Ka-50 abroad under several names, first as the ‘Werewolf but more recently as the ‘Black Shark’. Specification: Kamov Ka-50 Powcrplant: two 1650-kVV {2.22o-hp) Klimov (I sow) TV3-1 )7VK turboshafts Dimensions: rotor diameter, each 14.50 m (45 (t 6.9 in), length overall, rotors turning 15.00 її (52 ft 5.9 irj. and fuse ape excluding probe anrl g. m 13.50 in (44II 3/ in); height 5.40 m Г / ft 0.6 in)

Weights: maximum take-off 7500 kg 116,534 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 350 krh (217 mph) maximum vertical rate of climb at 2500 m (8,200 ft) 600 m (1.969 ft) per minute, hovering ceiling 4DC0 m (13,125 ft) OGE; combat radus about 250 km (155 miles) Armament: one 2A12 30-mm cannon with two 250-round drums, plus 3000-kg (6,610-lb) stores


Подпись: Kawasaki Т-4Basic/advanced training aircraft


These T-4s wear the yellow and black checkerboard markings of 1 Коки-dan, the JASDF’s 1st Air Wing and its primary jet training unit.



he Kawasaki T-4 rs an intermediate jet trainer to replace the Lockheed T-33 and Fuji T-1 A/В. Design studies were completed in 1983 and *’our proto­types (designated XT-4) were funded in 1984. The first of these made its maiden fight on 29 July 1985. The T-4 is a conventional design, featuring high subsonic manoeuvrability and docile handling characteristics. It shares a similar high-wing config­uration to the Dassault-Dornier Alpha Jet. to which it bears s similar appearance – with pronounced anhedral on the wings and tailplane, and large ‘dog tooth’ leading edges. Visibility for both instructor and pupil is excellent, with a frameless wrap­around windscreen and a one-piece canopy, For its secondary liaison role, the T-4 has a baggage compartment fitted in the centre fuselage with external access via a door in the port side.

The T-4 is a collaborative venture, in which Fuji builds the rear fuselage, supercritical section wings and tail unit, and Mitsubishi constructs the centre fuselage and air intakes, Kawasaki builds only the forward fuselage, but is responsible for final assem­bly and flight test. Virtually all components are indigenously built, and most are locally designed, including the Ishikawajima-Harima F3-IHI-30 turbofan engines. A single underwing pylon on each side can accommodate a 450-litre <99-lmp gal) drop tank, and a centreline pylon can be fitted for a target towing winch, air sampling pod, ECM pod or chaff dispenser.

T-4 production deliveries began in September 1988, to meet an original Japan Air Self Defence Force requirement for some 200 aircraft, replacing the T-33 and Fuji T-1 in the basic training role. By mid-January 2001 212 T-4s had been funded The T-4 is today in service with Nos 31 and 32 Squadrons of No. 1 Air Wing at Hamamatsu, and with some operational squadrons and wings as a liaison aircraft, sometimes wearing the same camouflage scheme and unit markings as the oper­ational aircraft. Nine aircraft serve with the Blue Impulse aerobatic team (No.11 Squadron. No.4 Wing), having replaced T-2s in 1994. These aircraft are modified to carry smoke generators and also have a re-inforced canopy, a revised rudder limiter system, ground-proximity warning system end additional cockpit lighting and instruments to aid aerobatic flight.

An advanced version of the T-4, with more pow­erful engines and improved avionics, has been offered to the JASDF to replace the ageing and uneconomical T-2 in the advanced training role.

The first and third T-4 prototypes are seen here in the markings of the TRDl development and test wing, where they are retained for trials flying.

Specification: Kawasaki T-4 Powerplant: two 16.32-kN (3,671-lb) Ishlkawajima-Hsriina F3-IHI-30 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 9.94 m (32 ft ТА in), length 13,00 in (42 ft 8 in): height 4,SO m 115 ft 14in)

Weights: empty 3/00 <q (8,15/ lb); maximum take-off 7500 kg (16.534 lb)

Performance: maximum love* speed 1038 kmh |645 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea levei 304Я m 110,000 ft) per minute: service ceiling 15240 m (50.000 ft): ferry range 1658 km (1,035 miles) with drop tanks Armament structural provision for up to 2000 kg (4,409 lb) of ordnance on two underwing hardpoinls