Avioane IAR-99 Soim


Advanced trainer/light attack aircraft


This is Avioane’s IAR 99 Soim demonstrator aircraft a capable, cost-effective trainer which makes maximum use of new technology.



omania has a long tradition of aeronautical achievement, and it succeeded in maintaining an independent aviation industry Through the stag­nant years of Communist control – which ended with the 1989 ‘revolution’. In 19/5 the Institute de Aviatic (INAv) began work on what would become the first aircraft to be designed and built completely ’in country’, the IAR-99 basic jet trainer. The project was formally launched in 1979, with the ambitious aim of replacing the Aero L-39 Albatros in Eastern European service. IAR-99 production was conducted by Avioane Craiova. Romania’s only builder of fixed – wing military aircraft, which was founded (as lAv Craiova) in February 1972.

The IAR 99 is a conventionally-configured low-wing, single-engined trainer with a tandem seat layout. For attack training it can be equipped with a ventral GSh-23 23-mm gun pod, and has four undeiwing hardpoints. The prototype first flew on 1 December 1985 and two flying development aircraft were built. The first IAR-99 was equipped with a mix of UK and French-supplied avionics, but the political climate forced a change to less-sophisticated Eastern systems from the second aircraft onwards.

The IAR 99 proved to be an extremely reliable and user-friendly aircraft, with excellent handling
qualities. Deliveries of an initial batch of 20 began to the Romanian air force in 1988. Beginning in 1990, Avioane tried to develop a series of improved aircraft with Western avionics. An IAR 99 fitted with Honeywell avionics first flew on 22 August 1990, while a second demonstrator fitted with Collins systems flew on 7 November 1991. Avioane next collaborated with IAI on another upgraded version. This received the new designation IAR-109 Swift and made its maiden flight on 2 December 1993 – but only a single example was built.

Since 1996 Avioane has been developing the significantly enhanced IAR 99 Soim (falcon), in conjunction with Elbit. This version incorporates many of the advanced avionics systems applied to the Romanian MiG-21 Lancer upgrade, developed for the air force by Aerostar and Elbit, at Bacau. These include a MIL-STD 15S3B databus, Elbit modular multi-role computer, Flight Visions HUD, two cockpit colour MFDs, GPS/INS, integrated Elbit chaff/flare dispenser and the Eibit DASH helmet – mounted display system. In 1998 the Romanian air force ordered 24 Soims for delivery by 2004 (with a view to then upgrading its existing IAR 99s also), and Avioane is actively offering the type on the export market.

Подпись: Romania’s existing fleet of base-line IAR 99 trainers may be upgraded to IAR 99 Soim standard, once procurement of the new aircraft is complete. Specification: Avioane IAR 99 Soim Powerplant one (17 79-kN( 4,000-lb Rolls – Royce (licence-built by Turbomecanica) Viper 532-41M Viper turbojet Dimensions: wing span 9.B5 m (32 ft 3 in), length 11 m |36 ft 1 ini: height 3.8/ m (12 ft 9 in) Weights: take-off, dean 4330 kg (3,680 lb|; maximum take-off 5572 kg (12,285 lb); maximum payload 1000 kg (2,700 lb) Performance: maximum Icve speed 940 kmh (585 mph): service ceiling 17903 m (42,322 ft); maximum mission radius 1100 km (683 miles) Armament: centreline ooirt for podded 23-ТШ GSh-23 twin-barrelled cannon with 180 rounds, and up to 250 kg |550 lb) of stores on each of four underwing hardpoints

Dassault Mirage III, 5 and 50



he classic Dassault Mirage III Mach 2 delta – winged tighter was first flown in prototype form on 17 December 1956. Production of 1,422 Mirage Ills, Mirage 5s and Mirage 50s continued until 1992. Most early Mirage UIC interceptors have been withdrawn, as have most Mirage NIB trainers, although a few remain in use as testbed and research e’rcraft,

The multi-role Mirage HE fighter (end equivalent Mirage HID trainer! was flown in 1961 and intro­duced provision for an AN52 nuclear bomb. France received 183 (plus 20 equivalent IIIBE trainers! which remained in defence-suppression and con­ventional attack roles until late 1993. The Armee de Г Air also received 70 Mirage IlIRs with camera nose (including 20 Mirage IlIRDs with Doppler navi­gation). All have now been supplanted by the Mirage F1CR. Mirage Ills are still in service in Argentina (Mirage ІІЇЕА and Mirage IIIDA), Brazil (upgraded Mirage IIIEB and Mirage HIDB snown locally as the F-103E/F-103D). Pakistan (ex – Australian Mirage IIIOs, ex-Lebanese Mirage IIIBLs and a variety of oTher second-hand aircraft sourced via Dassault and Switzerland (upgraded Mirage HIS, Mirage IIIRS and Mirage IIIDS). Both Brazil and Switzerland have fitted their Mirages with canards.

Pakistan has a large and varied fleet of Mirage It I and Mirage 5 variants, including this Mirage IIIDP trainer acquired from Dassault.

Brazil maintains a single squadron of upgraded Mirage HIE air defence aircraft, operated by 1° Esq ‘Jaguares’ based at Anapolis.

In 1966, a simplified (non-radar) attac< version of the Mirage III was developed as the Mirage 5. The Mirage 5D trainer and camera-nosed Mirage 5R are related variants. The original simp ified aircraft later became available with an ever-greater range of avionics options, including the re-introduction of lightweight radars. The Mirage 50 first flew in April 1979 and introduced the Mirage FI’s Atar ЭК-50 engine endowing better field performance, faster acceleration, a larger weapon load and improved manoeuvrability.

Current operators include Argentina (Mirage 5), Chile (Mirage 5 and Mirage 50), Colombia (Mirage 5), Congo (Mirage 5), Egypt (Mirage 5). Gabon (Mirage 5), Libya (Mirage b), Pakistan (Mirage 5), Peru (Mirage 5), the United Arab Emirates (Mirage 5) and Venezuela (Mirage 5Ql. Argentina’s aircraft are a mix of IAI-built Finger’ (upgraded Mirage 5s) and locally-upgraded Mara’ aircraft. Chile’s Mirage 60s have been upgraded by ENAER to Pantera standard, while the FACh also operates upgraded former-Belgian Mirage 5 Elkans. Peru’s Mirage 5P3/P4 aircraft have been upgraded with new on-board systems (such as an RWR and a laser range-finder), while Venezuela’s Mirage SOEV/DVs have been fitted with canards.


Specification: Dassault Mirage 5 Powerplant: оле 60.8-kM (13.668 lb)

SMECfv’-A Atar 9C-3 turbojet Dimensions: span 8 22 in (20 ft 11.5 in). length 15.56 m (51 ft 0.5 in); height 4 50 m (It It 9 ‘1) Weights: empty equipped 7150 kn (15.763 lb); maximum take-off 14700 kg (32,407 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2333 kmh (1,453 rrpi), maximum rate of climb ai sea level 11160 m (36,614 ft) per minute, service ceiling 18000 m (59,055 ft!; combat rariius_

1315 km; 817 miles) of a hi-hi hi interception mission with two AAMs and tiiree drop tanks Armament: two internal DEFA552A 30-mm cannon with 125 rpg, plus up to 4000 kg (8,818 lb) of ordnance


Lockheed С-141 StarLifter


Though the C-141B is slowly being retired, in favour of the C-17, the USAF cannot afford to replace its hard-working C-141s on a one-for-one basis.



irst fiown on 17 December 1963, the Lockheed C-141A StarLifter has orovided the USAF with a fast and versatile long-range jet transport since it entered serv’ce in 1964. The design features a fuselage of similar cross-section to the C-130, two large clamshell doors and a rear ramp which can be opened in flight for зіг-droppirg. Swept wings were adopted for high-speed cruise, with powerful high – lift devices provided for good low-speed field performance. Power came from four podded TF33 fuei-eff;cient furbofans, ano ell fuel was housed in integral wing tanks. The aircraft commenced squadron operations with MAC in April 1965, supplying the war effort in Vietnam.

If soon became apparent that the C-141A’s maximum payload os 32136 kg {70,847 lb! (or 4Л731 kg/92,000 lb on C-141As configured to carry LGM-30 Minuteman ICBMs) was rarely achieved, with the aircraft ‘bulking out’ before iis weight limit was approached. During the 1970s, the entire fleet (minus four NC-141A test aircraft) was cycled through a programme to bring ail 270 aircraft to C-141B standard. This added a 7.11-m (23-ft 4-in) fuse age stretch and an in-flight refuelling receptacle above the coc<pit for true global airlift capacity. Overall cargo capacity has been increased by over 30 per cent, aoding the equivalent 0і 90 new C-141s to the airlift fleet (in terms of capacity) at a much lower relative cost. The prototype YC-141B StarLifter made its first flight on 24 March 1977 and

Lockheed completed the final C-141B conversion in June 1982. USAF Special Operations Command operates 13 modified C-141B SOLL II (Special Operations Low-Level! aircraft with a FLIR turret and extra defensive aids.

Palletised seats can be fitted for 166 passengers, while by using canvas seats some 205 passengers or 168 paratrooos can be carried, For medevac missions, the C-141B can carry 103 litter patients and 113 walking wounded. It can also carry light armoured vehicles, an AH-1 or U F-|-1 helicopter or five FIMIVIWVs. Thirteen standard cargo pallets can be carried, and other loads can Include aircraft engines, food supplies, fuel drums or nuclear weapons.

As the Boeing C-17 has entered service many of the older StarLifters have been retired with the AMC airlift fleet suffering a shortfall in capacity. Sixty four C-141BS are being converted to C-141C standard with a ‘glass’ EFIS cockpit, GPS navigation, collision-avoidance systems tTCAS) and an all – weather "light control system.

Подпись: White most C-141Bs are in the hands of Air Mobility Command, some are operated by the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve (as seen here). td Specification: Lockheed C-141В StarLifter Powerplant: four9341-kN [21 .DOO-ib) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-7 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 48.74 m (159 ft 11 in): length 51.79 m (168 ft 34 in); height 11.96 m 139 ft 3 in)

Weights: operating empty 87186 kg (148,120 lb): maximum payload 41222 kg (90.88C lb); maximum take-off і 5558C kg (343,000 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed at high altitude 910 kmh (566 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 890 m (2,920 ft) per minute; service ceiling 12680 m |41,600 ft); ferry range 10280 km (8,390 miles); range with maximum payload 4725 km (2,935 miles)

United States

Rockwell B-1 Lancer


The B-1B’s designation (В-one) has led to its ‘Bone’ nick-name. As is often the case, its official title of Lancer is almost never used by B-1 В crews.



uffering one of the more protracted develop­ment periods of any recent military aircraft, today’s Rockwell B-1 В Lancer long-range multi-role strategic bomber is derived from the preceding B-1 A design. The R-1A programme was cancelled in 1977, and then resurrected in September 1981 with an order for 100 B-1 Bs. The design features a nlended low-wing/body configuration with VG outer wing panels and advanced high-lift devices, four GE Fi01 turbofans (mounted in pairs below the wing} with fixed intake geometry, a strengthened landing gear, three internal weapons bays, optional weapons bay fuel tanks for increased range, and external under fuselage stores stations for additional fuel or weapons. A moveable bulkhead in the forward weapons bay allows for the carriage of a diverse range of different sized weapons including ALCMs. The low-altitude, high-speed penetration role against sophisticated air defence systems was to be carried out using electronic jamming equipment, !R countermeasures, radar warning systems and the application of ‘low observable’ technology.

The offensive avionics system is centred around the AN/APQ-164 multi-mode radar, which includes a low-observable phased-array antenna for low-altitude terrain following and accurate navigation The

AN/ALQ-161A system is the core of the B-113*s continuously upgraded defensive capaoility.

The first production B-1 В flew on 18 October 1984. Deliveries began on 27 July 1985 with SAC achieving IOC exactly a year later. Today the Lancer equips three Air Combat Command and two ANG wings. Until 1991. the B-1 В was tasked w th the strategic role and is compatible with a variety of nuclear devices, which it can deliver over an unrefu­elled range of approximately 12000 km (7,455 miles). A conventional munitions upgrade pro­gramme (CMUP) was begun in 1993, with block numbers denoting successive improvements. Block D is the current standard, allowing use of many precision weapons such as JSOW and WCMD (Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser), and Block F (to be completed in 2009) will see the defensive systems upgraded to meet the highest threat levels. The capacity for regular Mk 82 bombs is 84 in the three bomb bays and another 44 on the external pylons, which are rarely, if ever, used.

The B-1 saw its combat debut in Operation Desert Fox during December 1998, and later in 1999 against Yugoslavia in Operation Allied Force where over 100 sorties were flown and more than 5,000 Mk 82 bombs dropped.

Подпись: For much of its career the B-1 В was sidelined as its specialist nuclear strike role became less and less relevant Now it is an important combat asset. Specification: Rockwell B-1B Lancer Powerplant: four 36,92-kN (30,730 lb)

General Electric F101GE-102 turbofens Dimensions: wig span 41,67 m (136 ft 87 in) (at 15э] and 23.84 in (78 ft 27 in)(at 67° 30 ): length 44.81 m (1471t); height 10.36 m (34(110 in)

Weights: empty equipped 87G81 kg (‘=92.000 lb); maximum take-off 216365 <g(477.00C lb) Performance: maximum level speed a: high altitude about Mach 1.25 or (1324 kmh, 823 inpli); penetration speed at 61 m (200 It) more than 965 kmh (600 mph); range 12000 km (7,455 miles) with standard fuel Armament: maximum internal payload of 34020 kg (75.000 lb)

Beech (Raytheon) King Air


AH of the US Army’s Guardrail-configured RC-12s, like this RC-12N, are festooned with antennas for their communications intercept and Jamming role.



he Beech Super King Air family of six – to 10-seat.

twin-turboprop business aircraft evolved from the King Air 90 and King Air 100 to the Model 200 Super King Air, which first flew on 27 October 1972 (the ‘Super’ title was drooped from all King Airs in 1996), The Model 200 was an enlarged, more powerful derivative, with a T-tail, increased wing span, extra fuel and improved pressurisation.

The Model 200 was rapidly adopted by all US armed services, primarily as utility aircraft/light transports, under The designation C-12 Variants include the C-12A (Model A200 for the US Army, USAF and Greece); UC-12B (Model A200C with cargo door for USMC and USN; TC-12B (USN crew trainers converted from C-12B); C-12C (with uprated PT6A-41 engines for US Army, later US Customs Service); C-12D (Model A200CT for US Army, USAh), C-12E (USAF C-12As refitted with PT6A-42s); C-12F (Operational Support Aircraft similar to B200C for USAF, US Army and National Guard); UC-12F (USN equivalent of РТбА-42-powerod C-12F); UC-12M (C-12F equivalent for USN); C-12R (B200C for US Army). The designation C-12J has been applied to a version of the Beech Model 1900 operated by the USAF and Army, while the C-12S is a Model 350 operated by the US Army.

Other military operators of the (Super) King Air include Argentina, Bolivia. Canada, Chile, Colombia Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,

Japan (Model 350, local designation LR-2), Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Spain, Sri l. anka, Sweden (local designation Tp 101), Thailand. Turkey and Venezuela. A radar-equipped maritime B200T patrol version serves with Algeria, Peru and Uruguay.

The US Army operates battlefield signals intelli­gence (Sigint) RC-12s, urder the Guardrail programme. Current versions include the RC-12D Improved Guardrail V (Model A200CT, fitted with AN/USD-9 remote-controlled communications inter­cept system, associated antenna and wingtip pods); RC-12G (increased weight version based on RC-12D); RC-12H Guardrail Common Sensor (System -3), increased weight version based on RC 12D: RC-12K Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 4), developed from RC-12F1, also delivered to Israel: RC-12N Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 1), developed from RC-12K with new mission fit; RC-12P Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 2), developed from RC-12N RC-12Q Direct Satellite Relay (relay platform for RC-12P).The US Navy also operates two RC-12M RANSAC range patrol aircraft.

Beech (Raytheon) King Air

Dassault Mirage F1


Подпись: Specification: Dassault Mirage F1C Powerplant: one 70.21-kN (15,785-lb) SNECMA Afar 9K-5Q terboje: Dimensions: wing span 9.32 m (30 ft 6/ in) with winglip AAMs; lengti 15.33 m (Ь0 ft 2/ in|; height 4 53 m (14 ft 9 ini1 Weights: empty 74C0 kg 116,314 lb); maximum take-off 16200 kg (35,715 Ibl Performance: maximum level speed 2338 kmh (1,453 mphj; service ceiling 23000 n (85.615 ft), combat radius 425 kin (264 mlEs) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission with 14 250-kg |551-lb) bombs Armament: two internal DEFA 553 30-mm cannon with 13b rpg. maximum ordnance load of 6300 kg (13,889 lb)


espite its suffix, the Mirage F1C was the initial production version of Dassault’s successor to its highly successful Mirage ІП/5 delta. It was deve ooed to meet ап Агтёе de ҐAir fAA) require merit for an all-weather interceptor. Forsaking the Mirage Ill’s delta configuration *’or a high-mounted wing and conventional tail surfaces, the prototype first flew on 23 December 1966, Mirage F1C production deliveries to the AA began in May 1973. The initial 83 aircraft were followed by 79 Mirage F1C-20Qs with fixed refuelling probes (necessitating a small fuselage plug), The AA also received 20 Mirage F1B tandem-seat trainers which retained their Tull combat capability.

Dassault converted 64 F1C-200S to serve as dedicated tactical reconnaissance platforms. These Mirage F1CR-200s arc equipped with an infra-red linescan unit, undernose cameras and centreline pods for SLAR, LOROP or Elint equipment. They also have a modernised cockpit with a Martin-Baker Mk 10 ejection seat, new RWR and two additional underwing hardpoints for chaff/flare dispensers. The F1CR fleet is now being equipped with the PRESTO stand-off reconnaissance pod, replacing the interim DFSIRF system.

The Mirage F1CT (T-Tactique) was a logical product of the shortfall in French ground attack capability and a surplus of air defence fighters following Mirage 2000C deliveries. From 1991, 55 Mirage FICs were converted to F1CT standard

France’s dual-role Mirage FICRs are tasked with reconnaissance and attack missions, and had their combat dehut in 1991, during Desert Storm.

have peer given expanded tactical capability with a laser rangefinoer. improved RWR and chaff/f:are dispensers. FlCTs are most often deployed with the French units still based in Africa. The last remaining AA F1C squadron is also based in Africa, with IEC4/33 in Djibouti,

The Mirage F1 has been widely exported. F1Cs were sold to Soutn Africa (F1CZ. now withdrawn), Morocco (F1CH), Jordan (F1CJ), Kuwait (F1CK, F1CK2. now withdrawn), Greece (F1CG) and Spain (F1CEK The Mirage F1A was a simplified version for day visual attack missions, equipped with the Aida II ranging radar in a reprofiled nose. It was sold to Libya (FIADi and South Africa (F1AZ fitted with a laser-ranger, now withdrawn).

The Mirage FlE (and corresponding Mirage FID trainer) was an upgraded multi-role fighter/attack version for export, fitted with an INS. central nav/attack computer and HUD. F1Es were exported to Ecuador (F1JA/E), Iraq (F1EQi. Jordan (F1EJ), Libya (FlED), Morocco (FlEH and FlEH-200), Qatar (FIEDA and F1DDA) and Spain (F1EE-200)

Between 1999 and 2001 Spain’s 52 Mirage F1s received a cockpit upgrade adding new communications, self – defence and navigation systems

Подпись: Dassault Mirage 2000C, 2000-5 Airdefence/multi-role fighter The Mirage 2000-5F is the Armee de I'Air’s version of the freshly upgraded multi-role fighter. It can carry the Mica missile - with four fitted on this aircraft.

For the third Mirage generation, Dassault returned to the delta configuration, using negative longitu­dinal stability and a fly by-wire flight control system to eliminate many of the shortcomings of a conven­tional delta – As such, the Mirage 2000 has its predecessor’s large internal volume ano low wave drag, but has improved agility, slow-speed handling and lower landing speed. The first of five prototypes was initially flown on 10 March 1978. The first of 37 production Mirage 2000Cs made its maiden flight on 20 November 1982 and deliveries began in April 1983, with IOC in July 1984. All eariy production 2000C-S2. – S3 aircraft had SNECMA M53-5 engines, and introduced successive improvements to the Thomson-CSF RDM radar. The Mirage 2000C-S4 and – S5 introduced the uprated M53-P2 powerplant and the superior RDI radar optimised for look- down/shoot-down intercepts with two MATRA Super 530D missiles. With RDM radar, Mirage 2000Cs carried Super 530F and Magic 1 missiles.

Export versions of the RDM-equipped, M53-P2- powered variant have been delivered to Abu Dhabi (Mirage 2000EAD, 22 aircraft), Egypt (Mirage 2000EM, 16), Greece (Mirage 2000EG, 36), India (Mirage 2000HS Vajra, 46) and Peru (Mirage 2000P 10).

The Mirage 2000B tandem two-seat trainer first flew in August 1983. It loses some internal fuel and both cannon in order to accommodate the second cockpit. Abu Dhabi’s two-seat trainers are known as Mirage 200QDADs, India’s are Mirage 2000THs and Peru’s are Mirage 2000DPs. The reconnais­sance-configured Mirage 2000R has a radar nose and carries podded sensors: multi-camera, side­looking airborne radar, and long-range optical. Abu Dhabi has acquired eight Mirage 2000RADs

The upgraded Mirage 2000-5 introduces an advanced five-screen cockpit display. Mica AAMs, RDY multi-mode radar, and advanced self-protec­tion suite and additional avionics. The 2000-5 is aimed largely at the export market, and significantly improves the basic aircraft’s combat capability. The French air force is also acquiring the Mirage 2000-5F through the conversion of 37 of its existing 2000Cs. The first converted prototype flew on 26 February

1996. The first export customer for the -5 came in 1992 when Taiwan ordered 60 Mirage 2000-5Els (including 12 2000-5DI trainers). Deliveries began in

1997. Other orders have come from Qatar (12 Mirage 2000-5EDA/DDAs). Abu Dhabi (UAE) and Greece are acquiring a further improved version the Mirage 2000-5 Mk II. also referred to as the Mirage 2000-9

Подпись: Qatar’s two-seat Mirage 2000-5s are known as Mirage 2000-5DDAs. These aircraft are quipped with the RDY radar, but are not combat capable. Specification: Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Powerplant: ore 95.12-kN (21,384-lb) SNECMA M53-P2 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9,13 m (29 ft 112 in); length 14.36 nr. (47 ft 1И in): height 5 20 m (17 ft/in)

Weights: empty /500 kg (16,534 lb), maximum take-off 17000 kg (37.478 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed more than 2338 kmh (1.453 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 17060 m (55,971 ft) par minute: service ceiling 18900 m (59.055 ft); combat range over 1480 km (920 miles) with four 250-kg bombs

Armament: two 30 mm 0EFA 554 cannon with 125 rpg: 6300-kg (13,890-lb) ordnance

Lockheed S-3 Viking Carrier-based ASW and ASuV aircraft


Each US Carrier Air Wing embarks a single S-3B squadron for battle group ASW protection, but the Vikings have many other useful functions.


Подпись: Specification: Lockheed S-3B Viking Powerplam: two 41,26-kN (9,275-lb) General flectrfc TF34-GE-2 turbarans Dimensions: wing span 20.93 m (68 ft 3 rn); length overall 1 S.26 m (53 ft 4 in) height overall 6.93 m (22 ft 9 in) Weights: empty '2038 kg (26,660 lb); (42.5Ю lb); maximum take-off 23832 kg (52,540 lb) Performance: max speed at sea level 814 kmh: (506 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 1280 m (4,200 It) per minute; service ceiling 10670 m 136.000 ft]; combat radius over 1751 km (1,088 miles) Armament: maximum ordnance 3175 kg (7.000 lb) with 1814 kg (4.000 lb) carried internally


eveloped to counter the new generation of Soviet navy quiet, deep-diving nuclear-powered submarines, the Lockheed S-3 Viking is the US Navy’s standard carrier-based, fixed-wing ASW aircraft. It is a conventional high-wing, twn-turbofan aircraft with four crew (pilot co-pilot, tactical co­ordinator and acoustic sensor operator) The first of eight service-test YS-3As made its maiden flight on 21 January 1972, and was followed by 179 production S-3A Vikings equipped with an AN/APS-116 search radar and OR-89 FUR. The heart of the ASW suite is an AN/ASQ-81 WAD sensor housed in a retractable Tailboom. The S-3A carried 60 sonobuoys in its aft fuselage and has a ventral bomb bay and wing hardpoints for bonnbs, mines torpedoes or depth charges. The S-3A entered fleet service in July 1974. Lockheed produced four US-ЗА COD aircraft which have now been retired, and a single KS-3A tanker demonstrator.

The current in-service S-3B Viking variant is the result of a 1981 upgrade programme, which added the APS-137 Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar, the ALR-76 ESM system and the ALE-39 chaff/flare dispenser. The Viking’s anti surface warfare capability was greatly improved througn the integration of the Harpoon and Maverick missiles. About 160 S-3 As

For the future the US Navy is looking to its Common Support Aircraft requirement to replace the S-3 Viking, E-2 Hawkeye and C-2 Greyhound.

were upgraded to S-3B standard. In recent years the Viking fleet has placed less emphasis on the ASW role as the Russian naval threat receded. Vikings instead took on an increased attack and special missions role, while also acting as the de facto tanking aircraft for carrier air wings. Specialist S-3B programmes include the Outlaw Viking (over-the-horizon targeting! Beartrap Viking (ASW development), Orca Viking (ASW development) and the Grey Wolf (overland reconnaissance, com­mand and control with a podded SAR radar)

The ES-3A Shadow was a carrier-based Elint aircraft modified from the S-3A with extensive sur­veillance equipment. The co-pilot’s position was replaced by a third sensor station and the bomb bays were modified to accommodate avionics. The ES-3A had a new radome, direction-finding antenna, and other equipment in a dorsal ‘shoulder’ on the fuselage, an array of seven receiving antennas on its underfuselage, an omnidirectional Elint antenna on each side of the rear fuselage, and wingtip AN/ALR 76 ESM antennas. Two squadrons operated the ES-3A from 1995 to 2000 when it was retired in favour of land-based Elint aircraft. Studies for an S-3 replacement are now being conducted under the US Navy’s Common Support Aircraft programme.



arly variants of the Lockheed U-2 had successful (if clandestine) careers as high-altitude recon­naissance platforms. However, these models were limited by the size and weight of sensors which they could carry, and so Lockheed developed the improved U-2R which first flew in August 1967. It was larger overall, offering greatly improved range/ payload, endurance and handling characteristics Twelve early-production U-2Rs served with the USAF (in Vietnam) and with the CIA.

In 1979 the production line re-opened to provide the USAF with 37 new airframes for the TR-1A tactical reconnaissance programme, using the U-2R as a platform for the ASARS-2 synthetic aperture battlefield surveillance radar, the PLSS radar location system, and all-new Sigint-gathering equipment. The batch also nc:uded two two-seat TR-1B (later TU-2R and TU-2S) trainers and one U-2RT All three two-seat trainers are identical. Finally, two ‘civilianised’ U-2Rs were built for NASA as ER-2 earth resources monitoring aircraft. In 1991 the USAF abandoned the TR-1 designation and renamed all its aircraft as U-2Rs.

All U-2R and U-2R i aircraft were re-engined with the General Electric FI01 (later redesignated F118- 101) replacing the original J75 engine, to become the U-2S and the U-2ST, respectively. The new engine had a dramatic effect on performance and operating costs. Flight tests began in 1991 and the aircraft were redelivered between 1994 and 1998.

The chief identifying feature of the U-2R/U-2S are the ‘super pods’fitted to the inboard wing. These large pods carry a range ofSigint systems

The U-2S most resembles a large powerea g ider. The retractable main bicycle undercarriage is aided by plug in detachable ‘pogo’ outriggers. The wingtips incorporate skids, above which are RWR$, Sensors are carried in the nose, a large ‘Q-bay‘ for cameras (behind the cockpit), smaller bays along the lower fuselage ano in two removeabie wing ‘super pods’. Sensors include Comint and Elint recorders, imaging radars, radar locators and high resolution cameras. A common mission fit combines a nose – mounted ASARS-2 radar and the Senior Glass Elint system with its substantial ‘farm’ of Sigint antennas on the rear fuselage and in the ‘super pods’. Recorded intelligence can be transmitted via datalink ю ground stations, and some aircraft can carry the Senior Span/Spur satcom antenna in a large rear-mounted teardrop radome. The U-2S has also been re-equipped with the SYERS (Senior Year Electro-optical Relay System) camera, which uses imaging technology developed for US reconna s- sance satellites. The electro-optical camera at the heart of SYERS is carried in the aircraft’s nose.

ine senior spur satellite communications antenna allows the U-2S to relay ASARS-2 imagery back to base from the other side of the world.



Specification; Lockheed U-2S Powerplant: une 81.4-kN (18,300-lb) General Electric F118-101 non-afterburning lurbo’an Dimensions: wing span 31.39 m (103 ft in); lergth 19 13m {Б2 ft 9 in); height 4.88 in (16 ft) Weights: operating empty about 6441 kg (14,199 lb); maximum take-off 18733 kg (41.300 lb)

Performance: maximum cruising speed at 21335 m (70,000 Ilf over 692 kmh (430 mpb). operational ceiling approximately 25450 m (83,500 ft), maximum range over 12500 km (7767 miles); mission endurance over 12 hours


Saab 37 Viggen


High performance strike fighter



aab’s System 37, tne Viggen (thunderbolt) was developed as a relatively low-cost Масо 2 fighter capable of deployed short-field operations. The design pioreerec the use of flap-equipped canards with a stabie delta-wing configuration. The selected RM8A turbofan was based on the commercial P&W JT8D-22 and equipped with a thrust reverser and Swedish afterburner.

The initia AJ 37 Viggen all-weather attack variant featured sophisticated nav/attack and landing sys­tems and the PS-37 multi-role radar. The first of seven Viggen prototypes initially flew on 8 February 1967 and deliveries of the first of 109 AJ 37s began in 1971. The primary armament comprised Saab Rb 04E anti-ship missiles (replaced by the far more capable long-range Rbs 15) and licence-built AGM-65 Maverick ASMs.

Several AJ 37-based variants were developed. The SF 37 was tasked with all-weather day and night overland reconnaissance. It is equipped with various optical and IR cameras, and carries podded sensors. The SH 37 was modified for all-weather sea surveillance and patrol with a secondary maritime strike role. It has a modified radar, ventral night reconnaissance and long-range camera pods. A tandem two-seat SK 37 trainer was also developed with a stepped rear cockpit fitted with a bulged canopy and twin periscopes.

The next-generation JA 37 Jakt Viggen (fighter Viggen) was developed as a dedicated interceptor.

The Viggen’s operational career is being cut short by budget cuts and the arrival of the next generation Gripen. The last JA 37s will be withdrawn in 2003.

It introduced a new pu se Doppler look-down/shoot – down PS-47 radar, new avionics, an uprated and modified RM8B engine and a ventral 30 mm cannon. A modified AJ 37 was flown as the JA 37 prototype on 27 September 1974. Overall production of this variant was increased to 149, tak­ing total Viggen procurement to 330. JA 37s entered service in 1978. A number of aircraft have now undergone the JA 37 Mod D upgrade, giving them AIM-120 AMRAAM capability.

Force cuts during the 1990s brought about the retirement of many AJ 37s as squadrons were dis­established and aircraft were scrapped. The advent of the JAS 39 Gripen brought about a rationalisation of the Viggen fleet. The attack/recce Viggens were upgraded to a new ‘multi-role’ standard, allowing them to familiarise pilots with Gripen weapons and procedures. Under this upgrade AJ 37s became AJS 37s, SF 37s became AJSF 37s and SF!37s became AJSH 37s. A number of two-seat SK 37s have also been radically modified to serve as SK 37E EW/SEAD aircraft.

Sweden’s fighter Viggens wear a mix of overall grey and green/brown splinter camouflage. The splinter scheme was applied to all attack/recce Viggens.

image200Specification: Saab JA 37 Viggen Powerplani: one 125 04-kN (28,11 C-lb) Volvo Flygmotor RMI33 turbofar with Swedish anerhi. rner and thrust reverser Dimensions: wing span 10.30 m (34 ft 0/1 ini, length 16.40 m (53 ft 9/1 in) including probe; heigh 5.90 m (19 ft 4И in)

Weights: normal take-off 15000 <g (33,069 lb); тзхіпшпі take-oil 17C00 kg (37.478 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2126 kmh [1,321 mph); combat radius more than 1000 km (622 miles) on hi-lo-hi profile Armament: one ventral 30-mm Oerlikon KCA cannon with 150 rounds; maximum ordnance 13,000 lb (5897 kg)

Bell Model 205, 212 and 412


This Turkish army UH-1H is typical of the huge number of UH-1Hs that are still in miiitaiy service around the world.



erived from the Bell Model 204/UH-1 Iroquois, the improved Model 205 was first flown In August 1961. Retaining the existing T53 turboshaft, it introduced a larger-diameter main rotor, additional fuel capacity and a lengthened fuselage. Over 2,000 UH-IDs were built for the US Army, followed by the similar UH-1H, which introduced the uprated T53-L-13 engine. A total of 2,008 UH-1Ds and 3,573 UH-lHs were built for the US Army alone, and the type was exported to over 50 countries, With several thousand Model 205/UH-1Hs still in service, a number of companies offer modernisation and upgrade programmes. Bell Helicopter has developed the Huey II upgrade, which adds the uprated T53-703 engine and a new transmission system. The Huey II has been ordered by Colombia and more sales in South America are likely. Other UH-1 conversions include the Global Helicopter Huey 800. which completely replaces the T53 with an LHTEC T800-800 engine and UNC Helicopter’s UH-1/T700, which adds the GE T700 engine.

The Model 212 ‘Twin Huey’ is a twin-turbine UH-1 H, fitted with two PT6T-3 turboshafts driving a single shaft. Announced in May 1968, the 212 was launched with a Canadian order for 50 CH-135 aircraft. The USAF, USN and USMC acquired it as the UH-1N
and the Marines are now upgrading their aircraft to UH-1Y standard (in parallel with the AH-1Z Cobra upgrade). The UH-1Y will be fitted with an all-new four-bladed composite rotor system and new cock­pit systems. Italy’s Agusta has built the Bell 212 under licence as the AB 212, and also developed a range of special missions versions. The most important of these is the shore-/ship-based anti­submarine variant, the AB 212ASW.

In 1978 Bell introduced the Model 412, Essentially similar to the Model 212 it featured an entirely new four-bladed main rotor system. The Model 412 has been built by Agusta as the AB 412 and by Indonesia’s IPTN as the NB 412. Developed versions include the Model 412SP (Special Performance) with extra fuel and increased maxi­mum take-off weight; Model 412HP, with uprated transmission; and the Model 412EP (Enhanced Performance) powered by a refined PT6T-3D engine and fitted with a three-axis digital flight con­trol system. This is now the standard production model. In 1992 Canada ordered 100 aircraft, based on the Model 412EP, as the CH-148 Griffon

Since 1986 all Bell helicopter production has been undertaken in Mirabel, Quebec, by Bell Helicopter Textron Canada.

Подпись: In British service the Model 412 is known os the Griffin HT.Mk 1. The type serves with the tri-service Defence Helicopter Flying School. SPECIFICATION: Bell 412EP Powerplant: two 1342-kW (1,BG0-hp) Pro il & Whitney Canada РГ6Т-30 Turbo Twin-Pac turboshafts

Dimensions: таіп rotor diameter 14.02 m (46 ft); height, tail rotor turning 4.57 m (15 ft); length, rotors turning 17.12 m (56 ft 2 in)

Weights: empty, standard 3079 kg (6,769 lb): maximum take-off 5397 kg 111.900 lb); maximum external hook load 2041 kg (4,500 lb) Performance: max cruising speed, at sea level 226 kmh(KOnnph); hovering ceiling, in ground effect 311C m (10,200 ft) and 1585 m (5.200 ft) out of ground effect, maximum range, with no reserves 745 km (463 mrles|



rench requirements for a Mirage IVP replace­ment to carry the ASMP stand-off nuclear missile resulted in Dassault receiving a contract in 1979 for two Mirage 2000P (Penetration) prototypes (later designated Mirage 2000IM (Nucleaire)). Based on the 2D00B two-scat trainer, the 2000IM has a strengthened airframe for low-leve! flight and considerable differences in avionics, including twin INSs. and Antilope 5 radar optimised for terrain following, ground mapping and navigation. It provides automatic terrain following down to 91 m (300 ft) at speeds up to 1112 kmh (691 mph). Both pilot and WSO have moving map displays. ASMP delivers a 150- or 300-kT warhead up to 80 km (50 miles) from a low-altitude launch point. Outboard, the Mirage 2000N carries a pair of large, 2000-litre (440-lmp gall drop tanks and two self- defence MATRA Magic AAMs. Further protection is provided by the Serval RWR, Sabre electronic jammers and a Spirale chaff/flare system.

The prototype Mirage 2000N was flown on 3 March 1986. The first 30 production aircraft were built to Mirage 2000IM-K1 standard, without the Spirals countermeasures equipment. The – Kl was a dedicated nuclear strike variant, and was armed with two AM.52 free-fall bombs before the ASMP missile was ready for service The second batch of 44 deliveries were Mirage 2000IM-K2S, which had a dual nuclear/conventional capability, and full ASMP compatibility. France’s Mirage 2000N deliveries
were completed in 1993. The 2000N-K1 aircraft have since been upgraded to acquire a limited conventional attack capability.

While the Mirage 200QN is largely dedicated to nuclear strike, Dassault has also developed a similar version for conventional long-range precision attack missions. This is the Mirage 2000D, which out­wardly looks almost identical to the 2000N According to Dassault the D suffix stands for ‘Diversifie’ (diversified). The prototype Mirage 2000D first flew on 19 February 1991 (in fact, this aircraft was modified from the 200QN prototype). France has ordered a total of 86 Mirage 2000Ds and the final aircraft was delivered in 2001.

As with previous Mirages increasing levels of capability have been introduced during the aircraft’s life. The initial production Mirage 2000IM-R1 aircraft d;d not have the full weapons capability of the late production standard Mirage 2000IM-R2s. The -R2 aircraft introduced the Apache and Scalp stand-off missiles, the Samir self-protection fit, and the Atlis II laser-designation system.

Подпись: The Mirage 2000D looks very similar to the 2000N, but does not have a nuclear role. This aircraft is carrying a single Apache stand-off missile. Specification: Dassault Mirage 2000D Powerplant: one 95.12-kN (21,384-Eb) SWECMA M53-P2 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9,13 m (29 ft 112 in); length 14.55 n |47 ft 9 in); height 5.15 m (16 ft Ш in)

Weights: empty 7600 kg (16,755 lb): maximum take-off 17000 kg (37.478 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed more than 2338 kmh (1.453 mph); maximum rate of Climb a! sea level 17060 m (55.971 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18000 m (59.055 ft): combat range over 1480 km (920 miles) with four 25Q-kg bombs

Armament two 30 mm DEFA 554 cannon with 125 rpg, 6300-kg (13,830-fb) ordnance