Antonov An-24f An-26, An-32 (Xian Y-7) Tactical transports


Libya has a small number of An-26 transports. The rear ramp of the ‘Curl’ slides down and then forward along tracks, to lie directly under the fuselage.



he twin-turboprop Antonov An-24 (NATO code – name ‘Coke’) made its maiden flight on 20 December 1959, and was aimed at an Aeroflot requirement to replace piston-engined 11-14s and 11-12s. Its robustness, strength and performance appealed to military customers, and approximately 1,200 were built by the time production finished in 1978, The major production An-24V variant has seat­ing for 28-40. a side freight door and a convertible cabin.

Although derived from the An-24, the An-26 (‘Curl-A’) is a new design with a fully-pressurised cargo hold, uprated engines and a new rear-loading ramp to facilitate loading from trucks. All An-26s are fitted with an RU-19 turbojet in the rear of the star­board engine nacelle. As well as actirg as an APU, this can be useo as a take-off booster.

A small number of An-26s have been converted as Elint/Sigint/EW platforms. These bear the NATO reporting name ‘Curl-B’. and have a profusion of swept blade antennas above and below the cabin. Some An-26s delivered to Angola and Mozambique were fitted with exterior bomb-racks along the fuselage.

Along with Russia, Ukraine and most CIS states, current An-26 operators include Afghanistan, Benin, Bangladesh, Bulgaria. Cape Verde, China, Cuba,

Congo, Czech Republic, Germany, Ethiopia, Guinea Bissau, Hungary, Iraq, Laos, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia.

The An-32 ’Cline’ replaced the An-26 in production, and offers dramatically improved take-off performance, ceiling and payload, especially under ’hot-and-high’ conditions. The cabin can accommo­date up to 50 passengers, 42 paratroops, or 24 stretcher patients and three attendants. The basic production aircraft are fitted with 3812-kW (5,112-hp) AI-20D turboprops. These are mounted above the wing in very deep nacelles to give greater clearance for the incrcased-diameter propellers The An-32B offers uprated engines and Antonov has also devel­oped a water-bomber version (fitted with external water tanks), the An-32P Firekiller, In addition to the air forces of Russia, Ukraine and some CIS states, the An-32 has attracted several military customers including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cuba, India, Mongolia and Peru and Tanzania.

China builds ts own military transport version of the An-26 as the Xian Y-7H-500 – while also the building a family of other Y-7 airliner variants based on the civil-standard An-24 airframe.

Подпись: The An-28s formerly operated by the Czechoslovakian air force are now spilt between the Czech and Slovakian airforces (seen here). Specification: Antonov An-26B Curl-A’ Powerplant two 2103-kW (2,820-hp) ZMDB Progress (Ivchenko) AI-24VT turboprops, and

one 7.8b-kN (1,765-lb) Soyuz (Turmanskii) RU-19A-3G0 turbojet

Dimensions: w rig span 29.2C m (95 ft 9.5 in); length 23 80 m (78 ft 1 in), height 8 58 m (28 ft 15 in)

Weights: empty 15400 kg (33,957 Ih); maximum take-off 24400 kg (53,790 lb): maximum payload 5500 kg (12.125 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 540 kmh, (336 mph); range 2550 km (1,585 miles) with maximum fuel or 1100 km (683 miles) with maximum payload

Подпись: Atlas CheetahSouth Africa Multi-role combat aircraft


uring the 1980s South Africa embarked on an extremely ambitious, and extremely secret, transformation of its Dassault Mirage Ills into a highly-modified and improved family of combat aircraft The international arms embargo against the Apartheid regime made the acquisition of any now aircraft impossible, at a time when South Africa felt it was facing an increasing threat from neighbouring, hostile African nations~The state-owned firm of Atlas Aviation, with considerable help from Israel’s IAI, began to adapt the modified airframe and the improved avionics suite of the IAI Kfir to the South African Air Force’s own aircraft, to produce the Cheetah – in several distinct versions.

The most important of these was the two-seat Cheetah D attack aircraft, based on the Mirage IIIDZ airframe (though a few single-seat Mirage IIIEZs were also converted). Atlas modified approxi­mately 16 aircraft to Cheetah D standard. They resemble the IAI Kfir TC-7, with their distinctive extended cranked noses and canard foreplanes. The nose houses an Elta EL/M-2001В ranging radar and the Cheetah Ds are fitted with refuelling probes. The first converted aircraft was rolled out in 1986 and entered service almost immediately.

Cheetah D development paralleled the single­seat Cheetah E conversions, based on the SAAF’s Mirage INEZ fighters. The Cheetah E had much the same systems fit as the Cheetah D (including an advanced RWR, EW jamming suite and chaff/flare

The Cheetah C is now the sole air superiority fighter in SAAF service, but the aircraft also has a formidable attack capability.

dispensers, and bore a strong resemblance to the Israeli Kfir C7. Both the Cheetah E and Cheetah D were fitted with a new, reprofiled wing with a ‘dog­tooth’ leading edge. Sixteen Cheetah Es were built, but they were retired in the early 1990s when a radically superior Cheetah fighter was introduced.

This was the Cheetah СГ which entered service in January 1993. Until then not a single fact about the programme had emerged – this secrecy was doubtless due to the fact that the 38 aircraft used in the Cheetah C conversions were acquired from a source outside South Africa (almost certainly Israel). The Cheetah C was a major step forward because it was fitted with an Elta EL/M-2001 multi – mode radar, and was powered by the more powerful Atar 09K50 engine. The Cheetah C is also stretched, with a plug measuring approximately 58 cm (23 in) inserted between the cockpit and engine intakes The new radar allows the Cheetah C to be armed with the Kentron R-Darter BVR missile, as well as the agile, IR-guided U-Darter dogfight missile, used in conjunction with a helmet-mounted sight.

Подпись: The Cheetah D has a dual training and attack role. Today all South Africa’s Cheetahs are operated by No. 2 Sqn, based at AFВ Louis Trichardt. Specification: Atlas Cheetah C Powerplant: one SNECMA Atar 09K50 turbojet rated at 49,03 kN (11,923 lb st| dry and 70.82 kM (1b.873 lb st) with afterburning Dimensions: wing span B.22 in (26 ft 1Ш in); canard foreplaae span 3.73 mil7 It3 in); length including probe 15.65 m (51 ft 4K in): height 4.5 m (14 ft 11 in)

Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ at 12000 m (39.370 ft). 233Й kmh [1,453 mph); maximum cruising speed at 11000 rn (35,090 ft) 956 kmh (594 mph): service ceiling 17000 m 155.775 ft)

Armament: two internal DEFA 30-тгп cannon plus up to 4000 ky (8,818 lb) of ordnance

Chengdu J-7 (F-7)






hina was granted ajicence to manufacture the MiG-21F-13 anc its I umanskii R-11F-300 engine in 1961, as the J-7. A Shenyang-built prototype Lew on 17 January 1966 followed by a few development aircraft, and full production began at Chengdu in June 1967. Ihe production-standard J-7I entered service in small numbers anc was replaced by the J-7II, powered by an uprated WP7B turbojet. The J-711 has become the standard production variant for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force, and the baseline for a range of improved export aircraft.

Shenyang used the more advanced MiG-21 MF to develop the J-7III This version is powered by a WP13 engine, has day/night capability thanks to its JL-7 radar, increased fuel capacity and the charac­teristic enlarged spine of the MiG-21 MF (compared to earlier versions). Flowover, the J-7III has been slow to enter Chinese service and the first examples were not ready until 1992. Mo J 7111s are under­stood to have been exported.

Albania and Tanzania wore customers for the first export version of the of the J-71, the F-7A. The improved F-7 В (J-711) was delivered to Egypt, Iraq, Sudan and Zimbabwe. The F-7B can be armed with the MAlRA R.550 Magic air-to-air missile (copied in China as the PL-7). A hybrid version has been deliv-

The F-7MG is a development of the J-7//. While it retains the familiar lines of an early-model MiG-21, it boasts an entirely new wing design.

ered to Sr Lanka as the F-7BS. These aircraft have the fuse.-age, tail and systems of the F-7B with the four-hardpoint wing of the F-7M.

Western avionics were incorporated for the first t me in the F-7M Airguard, which was equipped with a GEC-Marconi HUDWAC, a Skyranger ranging radar, air data computer, radar altimeter, IFF and other improved systems. F-7Ms have been delivered to Bangladesh, Iran and Myanmar (Burma).

Pakistan has acquired its own version of the F-7M, the F-7P Airguard which can carry four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles and has a Martin-Baker Mk 10L ejection seat. A developed version of this aircraft, the F-7MP, is equipped with the Italian FIAR Grifo 7 fire-control radar and a further improved (western-sourced) avionics fit.

Shenyang has moved on to develop Ihe export – driven F-7MG with an entirety new double delta wing and WP13F engine. Pakistan is reported to be acquiring up to 100 aircraft as the F-7PG, while the PLAAF aerobatic team ‘1st August’ is equipped with an equivalent version, the J-7EB.

China has developed a two-seat training version of the J-7, the JJ-7 (export version FT-7). This aircraft has been developed by Guizhou and is based on the J-7ll/MiG-2lUS.

Подпись: The J-7IJI would appear to be the best available version of the J-7 as it is based on the MiG-21 MF design, but few aircraft have entered PLAAF service. Specification: Chengdu F-7M Airguard Powerplant: one 59.82-kll (13,448 lb st)

I iyang |LMC) Wopen-78(BM] turbojet Dimensions: wing span 7 15m {23 ft 5/ in), length 13.95 m (45 ft 9 in) excluding probe; height 4.10 m (13 ft 5/ in)

Weights: empty 5275 kg (11,629 !b); normal take off 7531 kg (16,603 o)

Performance: maximum level speed 2175 kmh (1.350 mph); service ceiling 17500 m (57.420 ft); combat radius 850 km (5?0 miles) on a hi-hi-hi air superiority mission with two AIM-9 missiles and three 500-litre (132-US gal) drop tanks

Armament two Type 30 30-mm cannon with 60 rpg, plus 1000 kg (2,205 lb) of ordnance

Dassault Atlantic, Atlantique



1957 NATO requirement for e long-range maritime patrol aircraft inspired the French-designed Breguet Br.1150 Atlantic. Breguet set up the pan – European SECBAT consortium with partners in Belgium, Holland. Germany and Italy to provide components for the aircraft, which was assembled at Toulouse.

The Atlantic is a twin-turboprop maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft, with a crew of 12, It was originally equipped with a Thomson-CSF search radar and US-supplied mission systems, similar to those of the P-2 Neptune. A ‘double­bubble’ fuselage provides for a 9.15-m (30-ft> long internal weapons bay underneath the main cabin floor. The prototype aircraft made rts maiden flight on 21 October 1961. The Atlantic became the standard patrol aircraft for the French, German and Italian navies. It entered service in 1965 with France and German taking delivery of 40 and 20 aircraft, respectively. Another nine were delivered to the Dutch navy between 1969 and 1972 (later replaced by P-З Orions) and Italy took delivery of 18 Atlantics between 1972 and 1974. Beyond the SECBAT partner nations, the only export sale was three former – French aircraft delivered to Pakistan in 1975-76.

Germany converted five aircraft to serve as ‘Peace Peek’ intelligence-gathering platforms, using a US-supplied Sigmt/ЕІІпт system. The ‘Peace Peek’ aircraft are outwardly very similar to the standard Atlantic, but they are fitted with distinctive

The upgraded Atlantique is now the standard maritime patrol aircraft in French service. It is most readily identified by its nose-mounted FUR turret.

underwing antennas. In recent years Italy has upgraded its aircraft, adding a new radar and mission avionics. The upgraded aircraft have ben painted in an overall grey scheme and now carry a prominent antenna housing above the extended dorsal sp:ne fairing.

Dassault took over Breguet in 1971 and it led the effort to develop an improved version of the original Atlantic, the Atfantic INouvelle Generation (AIMGI.

The result of this was the Dassaull Atlantique (or ATL 2) a version of the Atlantic with new avionics and some structural improvements/strengthening. The sole customer for the Atlantique is France’s Aeronavale which acquired 30 aircraft (down from a planned total of 42). A prototype flew in May 1981, the first production standard Atlantique flew in October 1988 and deliveries began in 1989 The final example was delivered in January 1998. Dassault is now offering an improved Atlantique 3 design – with an FFIS cockpit, AF2100 turboprops and an all-new mission system – to replace the first-generation Atlantics in Italy and Germany.

Germany’s Atlantics have been upgraded to carry wingtip ESM pods> and this aircraft is also carrying an undenting FUR pod (to port)

Specification: Dassault Atlantique (ATL 2) Powerplant; ‘.wo 4549-kW (6,1 OQ-hp^ Rolls – Royce Tyne RTy.2U Mk 21 turboprops Dimensions: wing span 3745 m (122 ft Ш in); length 3* .71 m (104 ft); height 10.8Э rr (35 ft 8# in)

Weights: empty 2570C ко (56559 lb); normal take-off 46200 kg {101,850 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed 648 kmh 1402 nph); service ceiling 9145 m (30,000 ft); operational radius 1850 km (1.150 miles) a five-hour ASW patrol, or 1110 km (6ЭС miles! for an eight hour patrol Armament: 3606 kg (7.936 lb) internal ordnance. 3500-kg (7.71 B-lb) external ordnance on four underwing hardpomts



Lockheed C-5 Galaxy


The C-5 is still the cornerstone of the United States’ heavy strategic airlift capability, and the centre of great debate about how it can ever be replaced.



he Lockheed C-5 Galaxy heavy logistics trans­port originated from a 19S3 USAF CX-HLS (Cargo Experimental-Heavy Logistics System! recuirement for a capability to carry a 113400-kg (250,000-loJ payload ever 4828 km (3,000 miles) without air refuelling. The resulting design incorpo­rates a high-wing. T-tailed configuration, powered by four urtderwrng codded TF39 turbofans. Key to the С-5’s mission is its cavernous interior and ‘roll on/roL off’ cargo loading capability, with access to the vast cargo bay at both front end rear via an upward-lifting visor nose and standard rear clamshell doors. The C-5A first flew cn 30 June 1968 and operational C-5s were delivered between 17 December 1969 and May 1973 T. ne C-5A suffered initially from wing crack problems anc infamous cost overruns, but has served well since then and is an irreplaceable asset for the US At Force’s Air Mobility Commard. To extend their service lives, 77 C-5As underwent a re-winging programme from 1981 to ‘987.

In the mic-1980s, the production line was reopened to meet an urgert USAF demand for additional heavy airlift capacity. Fifty C-5B aircraft were built, essentially similar to the C-5A, but incorporating numerous mocifications and improve­
ments resu ting from operations with the C-5A. The C-5B model dispensed with the C-5A’$ complex crosswind main landing gear ard introduces an iinproved AFCS (automated flig. nt control system). The first production C-5B was delivered on 8 January 1986 and Deliveries were completed by 1989. A further variant is the secretive C-5C, (two converted! which is optimised for carrying satellites and space equipment, The C-5C has a bulged rear cargo door and a sealed nose door.

Typical C-5 loads include two ІУІ1А1 Abrams MBTs, 16%-ton trucks, 10 LAV-25S, or a CH-47. Although not usually assigned airdrop duties, the Galaxy can also drop paratroopers. С-БА/Bs serve with the USAF’s AMC, AFRC, and the ANG. Ga axies have served in airlifts supporting US operations in Vietnam, Israel (October 1973 Wad and Deser: Shield/ Storm (1990-91), during which they flew 42 per cent of cargo and 18.6 per cent of passenger missions.

Under the recently announced C-5 Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RtRP), the Galaxy wil be refitted with General Electric CF6-80C2 engres and a modernised cockpit. All 126 aircraft will be upgraded between 2005 ard 2014, possibly receiving the C-5D designation.

Подпись: The Galaxy is the only US aircraft able to cany the M1 main battle tank, and is also highly prized for its ability to carry large numbers of smaller vehicles. Specification: Lockheed C-5B Galaxy Powerplant: ‘o ur 191.27-kN (43,D0D-lb) General Electric TF33-GE-1C tirbofars Dimensions: wing span 6/.8B rr (222 ft 8/ ini; length /5,54 m 1247 ft 10 in); heigh" 19 35 m [65 ft 1 ik in)

Weights: operating empty 169843 <g (374,000 lb); maximum payload 115387 kg (251,000 Ibl; maximum take-off 379657 kg (837.000 Ibl Performance: max level speed at 7620 m (25.000 (1) 913 knit; maximum cruising speed between 888 and 908 krm (552 and 564 mph), [571 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea leve 525 m (1,725 ft) per minute; service ceding 10595 m [35,750 ft); range 10411 km (5/69 miles] with maximum fuel


Long-range interceptor and air defence aircraft


The Royal Saudi Air Force’s Tornado ADVs serve alongside the RSAF’s F-15s to provide air defence for the Kingdom.



eveloped from the Tornado interdictor to meet a unique British requirement, the Tornado ADV (Air Defence Variant) was optimised for iong – rarge, all-weather interception. Its primary mission is the defence of the UK Air Defence Region and UK maritime forces, with an important out-of-area commitment. The ADV was designed around the Marconi AI. Mk 24 Foxhunter radar and an armament of four Sky Flash AAMs. One 27-mm cannon was retained, but the other was removed to make room for a fully-retractable inflight refuelling probe. The radar suffered development problems and delays, before being brought to an acceptable standard by 1990. Carrying the’ primary missile armament semi- recessed under the fuselage necessitated a length­ened airframe and increased internal fuel capacity.

The first of three prototypes flew on 27 October 1979 and these were followed by 18 interim Tornado F. Mk 2s with RB 199 Mk 103 engines. These early aircraft initially flow with lead ballast in place of radar and performed only conversion training duties until January 1988. Plans for their conversion to operational standards as F. Mk 2As were never implemented, and they were scrapped.

The definitive Tornado F. Mk 3 first flew in November 1985. BAe produced 144 aircraft (38

This Tornado F. Mk 3 was a development aircraft for the CSP upgrade and is carrying four AMRAAM missiles, replacing the less capable Sky Flash.

with dual-controls), including a cancelled Omari order for eight aircraft which were transferred to the RAF before completion. Some 24 more were built for Saudi Arabia from 1989, but a second Saudi batch was cancelled. 24 ex-RAF Tornado F. Mk 3s were leased to Italy from 1995 as a stop­gap measure, pending the availability of the Eurofighter Typhoon. Their replacement by F-16s was announced in 2001.

The Tornado F. Mk 3 Introduced Mk 104 engines, a second INS, and provision for four AIM-9L Sidewinders (instead of two). Upgrades in service ‘fixed’ the radar problems, added FIOTAS controls, added Flermes RHAWS and other defensive sys­tems improvements A Tornado Capability Sustainment Programme launched in 1996 wil provide a MIL STD 1553B dataous and an enhanced main computer. It will also integrate the AIM-120 AMRAAM and the short range ASRAAM on the Tornado F. Mk 3, and will parcel together a number of other improvements, some of which were already underway, including provision for JTIDS and a towed radar decoy.

Five front-line RAF units operate the Tornado F. Mk 3, and the type has seen extensive opera­tional service in the Middle East and the Balkans.


Specification: Panavia Tornado F. Mk 3 Powerplant two 73.48-kN (16,520-lb)

Turbo Union R8.199-34R Mk 104 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 13.91 m (45 ft ТА in) spread end 8.60 m (?§ ft? Y. in) swept; length 18.68 m |61 ft 3’/ in): height b.95 m (19 ft 671 in) Weights: operating empty 14502 <g (31,970 lb), maximum take-off 27986 kg (61.700 lb) Performance; maximum level speed clean at 13975 m (36,000 ft) 2338 kmh mph (1.453); operational ceiling about 12192 m (40.000 ft), combat radius more than 1852 km (1,151 miles)

Armament: one internal 2/-mm Mauser cannon, plus four semi-recessed Sky Flash/AMRAAM and four AIM-9L/M AAMs





Turboprop basic and advanced trainer


The Royal Thai Air Force took delivery of 36 PC-9 trainers, beginning in 1991. They are operated by the Flying Training School at Kamphaeng Saen.



witzerland’s Pilatus PC-7 is derived from the piston-engined P-З, but with a PT6A-25 turbo­prop, a new wing, bubble canopy and six hardpoints for up to 1040 kg (2,293 lb) of stores,

The first production PC-7 Turbo Trainer made its maiden flight on 18 August 1978. First deliveries were to Burma in 1979. With the Beech T-34C Turbo Mentor then its sole production competitor, the PC-7 achieved growing export success, supple­mented (after a two-year evaluation) in June 1981 by a Swiss order for 40.

Over 500 PC-7s have been sold to military customers in 20 countries including are Abu Dhabi, Angola, Austria, Bolivia, Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Burma, Brunei. Chile, France, Guatemala, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands. Nigeria, South Africa, Surinam. Switzerland and Uruguay. PC-7s are believed to have been used operationally by both sides in the Iran/lraq war. In 1985, Pilatus offered an optional installation of twin Martin-Baker СИ Mk 15A light­weight ejection seats.

The prototype Pilatus PC-9 made its first flight on 7 May 1984, was powered by an 857-kW (1,150-hp) P&WC PT6A-62 turboprop. Although derived from the PC-7, there is only 10 per cent structural com­monality between the two. The PC-9 is dimension – ally similar, but is distinguished by its larger canopy, ‘stepped’ tandem cockpits with ejection seats, ventral airbrake and four-bladed propeller.

Approximately 250 PC-9s have been acquired Angola, Australia Croatia, Cyprus, Iraq, Myanmar, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Switzerland. Thailand and the US Army. Most of Australia’s 67 PC-9As were licence-built with a Bendix EFIS cockpit.

Pilatus teamed with Beech (now Raytheon) to win the USAF/USN JPATS (Joint Primary Aircraft Training System) contest in June 1995 with the re-engineered PC-9 Mk 2 (Beech Mk II). Featuring almost a 70 per cent redesign of the basic PC-9, the new aircraft introduced a strengthened fuselage, a PT6A-68 engine and a pressurised cockpit with new digital avionics The JPATS PC-9 has been given the service designation T-6A Texan II. The prototype flew in 1992, the first production aircraft in 1998, and the first T-6A was delivered to Randolph AFB, Texas in March 2000 for operational test and evalu­ation. The T-6A became operational with the USAF in 2001 the US Navy will follow in 2003. Total US orders for the T-6 exceed 700. Canada is to acquire 24 T-6A-1s as the CT-156 Harvard II while Greece has ordered 45 Texan IJs.

Подпись: The subtle differences in line between the PC-7 and the PC-9 are evident in this formation of a green Burmese air force PC-9 with a PC-7 demonstrator. Specification: Pilatus PC-7 Turbo-Trainer Pouverplant one 485-kW |650-hp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25A turboprop Dimensions: wing span 10 40 m (34 ft 1 in); length 9.78 m (32 ft 1 in); height 3.21 rn (10 ft 6 in)

Weights: basic empty 1330 kg (2,932 lb); normal take-off 1900 kg (4,188 lb) for aerobatics; maximum take-off 2700 kg (5,952 lb) Performance: never exceed speed 500 kmh (311 mph); maximum cruising speed at 6095 m (29.000 ft) 412 kmh (256 mph), max rate of climb at sea level 655 m (2,150 ft) per minute, climb to 5000 m (56,400 ft) in 9 mins; service ceiling 10060 m (33,000 It); range 1200 km (74S miles); endurance 4 hours 22 minutes

Avioane IAR-99 Soim


Advanced trainer/light attack aircraft


This is Avioane’s IAR 99 Soim demonstrator aircraft a capable, cost-effective trainer which makes maximum use of new technology.



omania has a long tradition of aeronautical achievement, and it succeeded in maintaining an independent aviation industry Through the stag­nant years of Communist control – which ended with the 1989 ‘revolution’. In 19/5 the Institute de Aviatic (INAv) began work on what would become the first aircraft to be designed and built completely ’in country’, the IAR-99 basic jet trainer. The project was formally launched in 1979, with the ambitious aim of replacing the Aero L-39 Albatros in Eastern European service. IAR-99 production was conducted by Avioane Craiova. Romania’s only builder of fixed – wing military aircraft, which was founded (as lAv Craiova) in February 1972.

The IAR 99 is a conventionally-configured low-wing, single-engined trainer with a tandem seat layout. For attack training it can be equipped with a ventral GSh-23 23-mm gun pod, and has four undeiwing hardpoints. The prototype first flew on 1 December 1985 and two flying development aircraft were built. The first IAR-99 was equipped with a mix of UK and French-supplied avionics, but the political climate forced a change to less-sophisticated Eastern systems from the second aircraft onwards.

The IAR 99 proved to be an extremely reliable and user-friendly aircraft, with excellent handling
qualities. Deliveries of an initial batch of 20 began to the Romanian air force in 1988. Beginning in 1990, Avioane tried to develop a series of improved aircraft with Western avionics. An IAR 99 fitted with Honeywell avionics first flew on 22 August 1990, while a second demonstrator fitted with Collins systems flew on 7 November 1991. Avioane next collaborated with IAI on another upgraded version. This received the new designation IAR-109 Swift and made its maiden flight on 2 December 1993 – but only a single example was built.

Since 1996 Avioane has been developing the significantly enhanced IAR 99 Soim (falcon), in conjunction with Elbit. This version incorporates many of the advanced avionics systems applied to the Romanian MiG-21 Lancer upgrade, developed for the air force by Aerostar and Elbit, at Bacau. These include a MIL-STD 15S3B databus, Elbit modular multi-role computer, Flight Visions HUD, two cockpit colour MFDs, GPS/INS, integrated Elbit chaff/flare dispenser and the Eibit DASH helmet – mounted display system. In 1998 the Romanian air force ordered 24 Soims for delivery by 2004 (with a view to then upgrading its existing IAR 99s also), and Avioane is actively offering the type on the export market.

Подпись: Romania’s existing fleet of base-line IAR 99 trainers may be upgraded to IAR 99 Soim standard, once procurement of the new aircraft is complete. Specification: Avioane IAR 99 Soim Powerplant one (17 79-kN( 4,000-lb Rolls – Royce (licence-built by Turbomecanica) Viper 532-41M Viper turbojet Dimensions: wing span 9.B5 m (32 ft 3 in), length 11 m |36 ft 1 ini: height 3.8/ m (12 ft 9 in) Weights: take-off, dean 4330 kg (3,680 lb|; maximum take-off 5572 kg (12,285 lb); maximum payload 1000 kg (2,700 lb) Performance: maximum Icve speed 940 kmh (585 mph): service ceiling 17903 m (42,322 ft); maximum mission radius 1100 km (683 miles) Armament: centreline ooirt for podded 23-ТШ GSh-23 twin-barrelled cannon with 180 rounds, and up to 250 kg |550 lb) of stores on each of four underwing hardpoints

Dassault Mirage III, 5 and 50



he classic Dassault Mirage III Mach 2 delta – winged tighter was first flown in prototype form on 17 December 1956. Production of 1,422 Mirage Ills, Mirage 5s and Mirage 50s continued until 1992. Most early Mirage UIC interceptors have been withdrawn, as have most Mirage NIB trainers, although a few remain in use as testbed and research e’rcraft,

The multi-role Mirage HE fighter (end equivalent Mirage HID trainer! was flown in 1961 and intro­duced provision for an AN52 nuclear bomb. France received 183 (plus 20 equivalent IIIBE trainers! which remained in defence-suppression and con­ventional attack roles until late 1993. The Armee de Г Air also received 70 Mirage IlIRs with camera nose (including 20 Mirage IlIRDs with Doppler navi­gation). All have now been supplanted by the Mirage F1CR. Mirage Ills are still in service in Argentina (Mirage ІІЇЕА and Mirage IIIDA), Brazil (upgraded Mirage IIIEB and Mirage HIDB snown locally as the F-103E/F-103D). Pakistan (ex – Australian Mirage IIIOs, ex-Lebanese Mirage IIIBLs and a variety of oTher second-hand aircraft sourced via Dassault and Switzerland (upgraded Mirage HIS, Mirage IIIRS and Mirage IIIDS). Both Brazil and Switzerland have fitted their Mirages with canards.

Pakistan has a large and varied fleet of Mirage It I and Mirage 5 variants, including this Mirage IIIDP trainer acquired from Dassault.

Brazil maintains a single squadron of upgraded Mirage HIE air defence aircraft, operated by 1° Esq ‘Jaguares’ based at Anapolis.

In 1966, a simplified (non-radar) attac< version of the Mirage III was developed as the Mirage 5. The Mirage 5D trainer and camera-nosed Mirage 5R are related variants. The original simp ified aircraft later became available with an ever-greater range of avionics options, including the re-introduction of lightweight radars. The Mirage 50 first flew in April 1979 and introduced the Mirage FI’s Atar ЭК-50 engine endowing better field performance, faster acceleration, a larger weapon load and improved manoeuvrability.

Current operators include Argentina (Mirage 5), Chile (Mirage 5 and Mirage 50), Colombia (Mirage 5), Congo (Mirage 5), Egypt (Mirage 5). Gabon (Mirage 5), Libya (Mirage b), Pakistan (Mirage 5), Peru (Mirage 5), the United Arab Emirates (Mirage 5) and Venezuela (Mirage 5Ql. Argentina’s aircraft are a mix of IAI-built Finger’ (upgraded Mirage 5s) and locally-upgraded Mara’ aircraft. Chile’s Mirage 60s have been upgraded by ENAER to Pantera standard, while the FACh also operates upgraded former-Belgian Mirage 5 Elkans. Peru’s Mirage 5P3/P4 aircraft have been upgraded with new on-board systems (such as an RWR and a laser range-finder), while Venezuela’s Mirage SOEV/DVs have been fitted with canards.


Specification: Dassault Mirage 5 Powerplant: оле 60.8-kM (13.668 lb)

SMECfv’-A Atar 9C-3 turbojet Dimensions: span 8 22 in (20 ft 11.5 in). length 15.56 m (51 ft 0.5 in); height 4 50 m (It It 9 ‘1) Weights: empty equipped 7150 kn (15.763 lb); maximum take-off 14700 kg (32,407 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2333 kmh (1,453 rrpi), maximum rate of climb ai sea level 11160 m (36,614 ft) per minute, service ceiling 18000 m (59,055 ft!; combat rariius_

1315 km; 817 miles) of a hi-hi hi interception mission with two AAMs and tiiree drop tanks Armament: two internal DEFA552A 30-mm cannon with 125 rpg, plus up to 4000 kg (8,818 lb) of ordnance


Lockheed С-141 StarLifter


Though the C-141B is slowly being retired, in favour of the C-17, the USAF cannot afford to replace its hard-working C-141s on a one-for-one basis.



irst fiown on 17 December 1963, the Lockheed C-141A StarLifter has orovided the USAF with a fast and versatile long-range jet transport since it entered serv’ce in 1964. The design features a fuselage of similar cross-section to the C-130, two large clamshell doors and a rear ramp which can be opened in flight for зіг-droppirg. Swept wings were adopted for high-speed cruise, with powerful high – lift devices provided for good low-speed field performance. Power came from four podded TF33 fuei-eff;cient furbofans, ano ell fuel was housed in integral wing tanks. The aircraft commenced squadron operations with MAC in April 1965, supplying the war effort in Vietnam.

If soon became apparent that the C-141A’s maximum payload os 32136 kg {70,847 lb! (or 4Л731 kg/92,000 lb on C-141As configured to carry LGM-30 Minuteman ICBMs) was rarely achieved, with the aircraft ‘bulking out’ before iis weight limit was approached. During the 1970s, the entire fleet (minus four NC-141A test aircraft) was cycled through a programme to bring ail 270 aircraft to C-141B standard. This added a 7.11-m (23-ft 4-in) fuse age stretch and an in-flight refuelling receptacle above the coc<pit for true global airlift capacity. Overall cargo capacity has been increased by over 30 per cent, aoding the equivalent 0і 90 new C-141s to the airlift fleet (in terms of capacity) at a much lower relative cost. The prototype YC-141B StarLifter made its first flight on 24 March 1977 and

Lockheed completed the final C-141B conversion in June 1982. USAF Special Operations Command operates 13 modified C-141B SOLL II (Special Operations Low-Level! aircraft with a FLIR turret and extra defensive aids.

Palletised seats can be fitted for 166 passengers, while by using canvas seats some 205 passengers or 168 paratrooos can be carried, For medevac missions, the C-141B can carry 103 litter patients and 113 walking wounded. It can also carry light armoured vehicles, an AH-1 or U F-|-1 helicopter or five FIMIVIWVs. Thirteen standard cargo pallets can be carried, and other loads can Include aircraft engines, food supplies, fuel drums or nuclear weapons.

As the Boeing C-17 has entered service many of the older StarLifters have been retired with the AMC airlift fleet suffering a shortfall in capacity. Sixty four C-141BS are being converted to C-141C standard with a ‘glass’ EFIS cockpit, GPS navigation, collision-avoidance systems tTCAS) and an all – weather "light control system.

Подпись: White most C-141Bs are in the hands of Air Mobility Command, some are operated by the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve (as seen here). td Specification: Lockheed C-141В StarLifter Powerplant: four9341-kN [21 .DOO-ib) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-7 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 48.74 m (159 ft 11 in): length 51.79 m (168 ft 34 in); height 11.96 m 139 ft 3 in)

Weights: operating empty 87186 kg (148,120 lb): maximum payload 41222 kg (90.88C lb); maximum take-off і 5558C kg (343,000 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed at high altitude 910 kmh (566 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 890 m (2,920 ft) per minute; service ceiling 12680 m |41,600 ft); ferry range 10280 km (8,390 miles); range with maximum payload 4725 km (2,935 miles)

United States

Rockwell B-1 Lancer


The B-1B’s designation (В-one) has led to its ‘Bone’ nick-name. As is often the case, its official title of Lancer is almost never used by B-1 В crews.



uffering one of the more protracted develop­ment periods of any recent military aircraft, today’s Rockwell B-1 В Lancer long-range multi-role strategic bomber is derived from the preceding B-1 A design. The R-1A programme was cancelled in 1977, and then resurrected in September 1981 with an order for 100 B-1 Bs. The design features a nlended low-wing/body configuration with VG outer wing panels and advanced high-lift devices, four GE Fi01 turbofans (mounted in pairs below the wing} with fixed intake geometry, a strengthened landing gear, three internal weapons bays, optional weapons bay fuel tanks for increased range, and external under fuselage stores stations for additional fuel or weapons. A moveable bulkhead in the forward weapons bay allows for the carriage of a diverse range of different sized weapons including ALCMs. The low-altitude, high-speed penetration role against sophisticated air defence systems was to be carried out using electronic jamming equipment, !R countermeasures, radar warning systems and the application of ‘low observable’ technology.

The offensive avionics system is centred around the AN/APQ-164 multi-mode radar, which includes a low-observable phased-array antenna for low-altitude terrain following and accurate navigation The

AN/ALQ-161A system is the core of the B-113*s continuously upgraded defensive capaoility.

The first production B-1 В flew on 18 October 1984. Deliveries began on 27 July 1985 with SAC achieving IOC exactly a year later. Today the Lancer equips three Air Combat Command and two ANG wings. Until 1991. the B-1 В was tasked w th the strategic role and is compatible with a variety of nuclear devices, which it can deliver over an unrefu­elled range of approximately 12000 km (7,455 miles). A conventional munitions upgrade pro­gramme (CMUP) was begun in 1993, with block numbers denoting successive improvements. Block D is the current standard, allowing use of many precision weapons such as JSOW and WCMD (Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser), and Block F (to be completed in 2009) will see the defensive systems upgraded to meet the highest threat levels. The capacity for regular Mk 82 bombs is 84 in the three bomb bays and another 44 on the external pylons, which are rarely, if ever, used.

The B-1 saw its combat debut in Operation Desert Fox during December 1998, and later in 1999 against Yugoslavia in Operation Allied Force where over 100 sorties were flown and more than 5,000 Mk 82 bombs dropped.

Подпись: For much of its career the B-1 В was sidelined as its specialist nuclear strike role became less and less relevant Now it is an important combat asset. Specification: Rockwell B-1B Lancer Powerplant: four 36,92-kN (30,730 lb)

General Electric F101GE-102 turbofens Dimensions: wig span 41,67 m (136 ft 87 in) (at 15э] and 23.84 in (78 ft 27 in)(at 67° 30 ): length 44.81 m (1471t); height 10.36 m (34(110 in)

Weights: empty equipped 87G81 kg (‘=92.000 lb); maximum take-off 216365 <g(477.00C lb) Performance: maximum level speed a: high altitude about Mach 1.25 or (1324 kmh, 823 inpli); penetration speed at 61 m (200 It) more than 965 kmh (600 mph); range 12000 km (7,455 miles) with standard fuel Armament: maximum internal payload of 34020 kg (75.000 lb)

Beech (Raytheon) King Air


AH of the US Army’s Guardrail-configured RC-12s, like this RC-12N, are festooned with antennas for their communications intercept and Jamming role.



he Beech Super King Air family of six – to 10-seat.

twin-turboprop business aircraft evolved from the King Air 90 and King Air 100 to the Model 200 Super King Air, which first flew on 27 October 1972 (the ‘Super’ title was drooped from all King Airs in 1996), The Model 200 was an enlarged, more powerful derivative, with a T-tail, increased wing span, extra fuel and improved pressurisation.

The Model 200 was rapidly adopted by all US armed services, primarily as utility aircraft/light transports, under The designation C-12 Variants include the C-12A (Model A200 for the US Army, USAF and Greece); UC-12B (Model A200C with cargo door for USMC and USN; TC-12B (USN crew trainers converted from C-12B); C-12C (with uprated PT6A-41 engines for US Army, later US Customs Service); C-12D (Model A200CT for US Army, USAh), C-12E (USAF C-12As refitted with PT6A-42s); C-12F (Operational Support Aircraft similar to B200C for USAF, US Army and National Guard); UC-12F (USN equivalent of РТбА-42-powerod C-12F); UC-12M (C-12F equivalent for USN); C-12R (B200C for US Army). The designation C-12J has been applied to a version of the Beech Model 1900 operated by the USAF and Army, while the C-12S is a Model 350 operated by the US Army.

Other military operators of the (Super) King Air include Argentina, Bolivia. Canada, Chile, Colombia Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,

Japan (Model 350, local designation LR-2), Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Spain, Sri l. anka, Sweden (local designation Tp 101), Thailand. Turkey and Venezuela. A radar-equipped maritime B200T patrol version serves with Algeria, Peru and Uruguay.

The US Army operates battlefield signals intelli­gence (Sigint) RC-12s, urder the Guardrail programme. Current versions include the RC-12D Improved Guardrail V (Model A200CT, fitted with AN/USD-9 remote-controlled communications inter­cept system, associated antenna and wingtip pods); RC-12G (increased weight version based on RC-12D); RC-12H Guardrail Common Sensor (System -3), increased weight version based on RC 12D: RC-12K Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 4), developed from RC-12F1, also delivered to Israel: RC-12N Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 1), developed from RC-12K with new mission fit; RC-12P Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 2), developed from RC-12N RC-12Q Direct Satellite Relay (relay platform for RC-12P).The US Navy also operates two RC-12M RANSAC range patrol aircraft.

Beech (Raytheon) King Air

Dassault Mirage F1


Подпись: Specification: Dassault Mirage F1C Powerplant: one 70.21-kN (15,785-lb) SNECMA Afar 9K-5Q terboje: Dimensions: wing span 9.32 m (30 ft 6/ in) with winglip AAMs; lengti 15.33 m (Ь0 ft 2/ in|; height 4 53 m (14 ft 9 ini1 Weights: empty 74C0 kg 116,314 lb); maximum take-off 16200 kg (35,715 Ibl Performance: maximum level speed 2338 kmh (1,453 mphj; service ceiling 23000 n (85.615 ft), combat radius 425 kin (264 mlEs) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission with 14 250-kg |551-lb) bombs Armament: two internal DEFA 553 30-mm cannon with 13b rpg. maximum ordnance load of 6300 kg (13,889 lb)


espite its suffix, the Mirage F1C was the initial production version of Dassault’s successor to its highly successful Mirage ІП/5 delta. It was deve ooed to meet ап Агтёе de ҐAir fAA) require merit for an all-weather interceptor. Forsaking the Mirage Ill’s delta configuration *’or a high-mounted wing and conventional tail surfaces, the prototype first flew on 23 December 1966, Mirage F1C production deliveries to the AA began in May 1973. The initial 83 aircraft were followed by 79 Mirage F1C-20Qs with fixed refuelling probes (necessitating a small fuselage plug), The AA also received 20 Mirage F1B tandem-seat trainers which retained their Tull combat capability.

Dassault converted 64 F1C-200S to serve as dedicated tactical reconnaissance platforms. These Mirage F1CR-200s arc equipped with an infra-red linescan unit, undernose cameras and centreline pods for SLAR, LOROP or Elint equipment. They also have a modernised cockpit with a Martin-Baker Mk 10 ejection seat, new RWR and two additional underwing hardpoints for chaff/flare dispensers. The F1CR fleet is now being equipped with the PRESTO stand-off reconnaissance pod, replacing the interim DFSIRF system.

The Mirage F1CT (T-Tactique) was a logical product of the shortfall in French ground attack capability and a surplus of air defence fighters following Mirage 2000C deliveries. From 1991, 55 Mirage FICs were converted to F1CT standard

France’s dual-role Mirage FICRs are tasked with reconnaissance and attack missions, and had their combat dehut in 1991, during Desert Storm.

have peer given expanded tactical capability with a laser rangefinoer. improved RWR and chaff/f:are dispensers. FlCTs are most often deployed with the French units still based in Africa. The last remaining AA F1C squadron is also based in Africa, with IEC4/33 in Djibouti,

The Mirage F1 has been widely exported. F1Cs were sold to Soutn Africa (F1CZ. now withdrawn), Morocco (F1CH), Jordan (F1CJ), Kuwait (F1CK, F1CK2. now withdrawn), Greece (F1CG) and Spain (F1CEK The Mirage F1A was a simplified version for day visual attack missions, equipped with the Aida II ranging radar in a reprofiled nose. It was sold to Libya (FIADi and South Africa (F1AZ fitted with a laser-ranger, now withdrawn).

The Mirage FlE (and corresponding Mirage FID trainer) was an upgraded multi-role fighter/attack version for export, fitted with an INS. central nav/attack computer and HUD. F1Es were exported to Ecuador (F1JA/E), Iraq (F1EQi. Jordan (F1EJ), Libya (FlED), Morocco (FlEH and FlEH-200), Qatar (FIEDA and F1DDA) and Spain (F1EE-200)

Between 1999 and 2001 Spain’s 52 Mirage F1s received a cockpit upgrade adding new communications, self – defence and navigation systems

Подпись: Dassault Mirage 2000C, 2000-5 Airdefence/multi-role fighter The Mirage 2000-5F is the Armee de I'Air’s version of the freshly upgraded multi-role fighter. It can carry the Mica missile - with four fitted on this aircraft.

For the third Mirage generation, Dassault returned to the delta configuration, using negative longitu­dinal stability and a fly by-wire flight control system to eliminate many of the shortcomings of a conven­tional delta – As such, the Mirage 2000 has its predecessor’s large internal volume ano low wave drag, but has improved agility, slow-speed handling and lower landing speed. The first of five prototypes was initially flown on 10 March 1978. The first of 37 production Mirage 2000Cs made its maiden flight on 20 November 1982 and deliveries began in April 1983, with IOC in July 1984. All eariy production 2000C-S2. – S3 aircraft had SNECMA M53-5 engines, and introduced successive improvements to the Thomson-CSF RDM radar. The Mirage 2000C-S4 and – S5 introduced the uprated M53-P2 powerplant and the superior RDI radar optimised for look- down/shoot-down intercepts with two MATRA Super 530D missiles. With RDM radar, Mirage 2000Cs carried Super 530F and Magic 1 missiles.

Export versions of the RDM-equipped, M53-P2- powered variant have been delivered to Abu Dhabi (Mirage 2000EAD, 22 aircraft), Egypt (Mirage 2000EM, 16), Greece (Mirage 2000EG, 36), India (Mirage 2000HS Vajra, 46) and Peru (Mirage 2000P 10).

The Mirage 2000B tandem two-seat trainer first flew in August 1983. It loses some internal fuel and both cannon in order to accommodate the second cockpit. Abu Dhabi’s two-seat trainers are known as Mirage 200QDADs, India’s are Mirage 2000THs and Peru’s are Mirage 2000DPs. The reconnais­sance-configured Mirage 2000R has a radar nose and carries podded sensors: multi-camera, side­looking airborne radar, and long-range optical. Abu Dhabi has acquired eight Mirage 2000RADs

The upgraded Mirage 2000-5 introduces an advanced five-screen cockpit display. Mica AAMs, RDY multi-mode radar, and advanced self-protec­tion suite and additional avionics. The 2000-5 is aimed largely at the export market, and significantly improves the basic aircraft’s combat capability. The French air force is also acquiring the Mirage 2000-5F through the conversion of 37 of its existing 2000Cs. The first converted prototype flew on 26 February

1996. The first export customer for the -5 came in 1992 when Taiwan ordered 60 Mirage 2000-5Els (including 12 2000-5DI trainers). Deliveries began in

1997. Other orders have come from Qatar (12 Mirage 2000-5EDA/DDAs). Abu Dhabi (UAE) and Greece are acquiring a further improved version the Mirage 2000-5 Mk II. also referred to as the Mirage 2000-9

Подпись: Qatar’s two-seat Mirage 2000-5s are known as Mirage 2000-5DDAs. These aircraft are quipped with the RDY radar, but are not combat capable. Specification: Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Powerplant: ore 95.12-kN (21,384-lb) SNECMA M53-P2 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9,13 m (29 ft 112 in); length 14.36 nr. (47 ft 1И in): height 5 20 m (17 ft/in)

Weights: empty /500 kg (16,534 lb), maximum take-off 17000 kg (37.478 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed more than 2338 kmh (1.453 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 17060 m (55,971 ft) par minute: service ceiling 18900 m (59.055 ft); combat range over 1480 km (920 miles) with four 250-kg bombs

Armament: two 30 mm 0EFA 554 cannon with 125 rpg: 6300-kg (13,890-lb) ordnance