Category Praxis Manned Spaceflight Log 1961-2006

Future Flight Manifest 2006-2011 (as at 1 October 2006)

Date

Mission

Flight

Country Crew

Objective

2009

Jan STS-128 ? (128) 17A USA Establish six person crew capability on ISS

No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three crew quarters, galley, second treadmill (TYIS2); Crew Flealth Care System 2 (CHeCS 2)

Mar

Soyuz TMA13

ISS-19

Russia

Krikalev (TMA/ISS Cdr)?; Surayev (FE) plus ?

Additional EO crew members?

Apr

STS-129? (129)

ULF-3

USA

No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC 1); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC 2)

Jul

STS-130? (130)

19A

USA

No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)

Sep

Soyuz TMA14?

ISS-20

Russia

No crew assigned

Sep?

Shenzhou 8 & Shenzhou 9

China

China

No crew assigned No crew assigned

Shenzhou 8 & 9 to perform first Chinese manned docking and creation of small short-stay space station

Oct

STS-131? (131)

ULF-4

USA

No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC 3); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC 4); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency

2010

Jan

STS-132? (132)

20A

USA

No crew assigned

Node 3 with Cupola

Mar

Soyuz TMA15?

ISS-21

Russia

No crew assigned

816 Appendix С

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC 5); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 6 (ELC 6); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency

ISS Assembly complete – Shuttle fleet retired Sep Soyuz TMA16 ? ISS-22 Russia No crew assigned

2011

Mar Soyuz TMA17 ? ISS-23 Russia No crew assigned

Apr

The following information was compiled with the help of Collect Space 7 Oct 2006, Robert Pearlman

Soyuz TMA-crewing 2007-2008

TMA10 ISS-15: April 2007-September 2007

Commander

FE1

FE2a

FE2b

FE2c

Oleg Kotov Fyodor Yurchikhin

Suni Williams (up on STS-116) until June 2007 Clay Anderson (up on STS-118) until September 2007 Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007

TMA11 ISS-16:

Commander

FE1

FE2a

FE2b

FE2c

FE2d

September 2007-March 2008 Yuri Malenchenko Peggy Whitson

Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007 Leopold Eyharts (up on STS-122) until December 2007 Bob Thirsk (up on STS-123) until March 2008 Koichi Wakata (up on STS-124) until April 2008

TMA12 ISS-17:

Commander

FE-1

FE-2

FE-2b

FE-2c

March 2008-September 2008 Sergei Volkov

Peggy Whitson (stays on ISS for 9 months returns on STS-119) Shalizhan Sharipov (launched on TMA-12)

Sandy Magnus (up on STS-119) until September 2008 Greg Chamitoff (up on STS-126) until November 2008.

A Selected Timeline

1961

Apr Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person fly into space and completes one orbit May Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space on a sub-orbital flight Aug Gherman Titov is launched on the first 24-hour mission, of 17 orbits

1962

Feb John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth, with 3 orbits Jul First X-15 flight to exceed 50 miles (Robert White)

Aug Andrian Nikolayev sets new endurance record (3 days 22 hours)

1963

Jun Valeri Bykovsky sets new endurance record (4 days 23 hours)

Valentina Tereshkova becomes first woman in space (2 days 22 hours)

Aug Highest X-15 flight (66.75 miles) – Pilot Joseph Walker

1964

Oct First multi-person space crew (3) – Voskhod 1; First civilians in space

1965

Mar Alexei Leonov becomes first person to walk in space

Mar First US multi-person crew (2) on Gemini 3

Jun Ed White becomes first American to walk in space

Aug Gemini 5 sets new endurance record (7 days 22 hours)

Cooper becomes first person to orbit Earth a second time Dec Gemini 7 set new endurance record (13 days 18 hours)

First space rendezvous – Gemini 6 with Gemini 7

1966

Mar First space docking – Gemini 8 with Agena target

Sep Gemini 11 attains highest altitude of Earth orbital manned flight (850 miles)

1967

Jan 27 Three Apollo 1 astronauts killed in pad fire

Apr Soyuz 1 pilot Vladimir Komarov killed during landing phase

Oct X-15 fastest flight (4520 mph – Mach 6.7) (Pete Knight)

Nov X-15 pilot Michael Adams is killed in crash of #3 aircraft after attaining

50.4 miles

1968

Aug Thirteenth and final X-15 “astro-flight”

Oct First three-man Apollo flight (Apollo 7)

Schirra becomes first person to make three orbital spaceflights Dec Apollo 8 becomes first lunar orbital mission

1969

Jan Soyuz 5/4 first manned docking and crew transfer (by EVA)

Mar Manned test of LM in Earth orbit (Apollo 9)

May Manned test of LM in lunar orbit (Apollo 10)

Jul First manned lunar landing – Apollo 11

Oct First triple manned spacecraft mission (Soyuz 6, 7, 8)

Nov Second manned lunar landing Apollo 12

1970

Apr Apollo 13 aborted lunar landing mission

Lovell becomes first to fly in space four times Jun Soyuz 9 cosmonauts set new endurance record (17 days 16 hrs)

1971

Feb Third manned lunar landing (Apollo 14)

Apr Launch of world’s first Space Station – Salyut (de-orbits Oct 1971)

Jun First space station (Salyut) crew. Killed during entry phase (Soyuz 11) Jul Fourth manned lunar landing (Apollo 15)

1972

Apr Fifth manned lunar landing (Apollo 16)

Dec Sixth and final (Apollo) manned lunar landing (Apollo 17)

1973

Apr Salyut 2 (Almaz) fails in orbit (de-orbits in 26 days)

May Launch of unmanned Skylab (re-enters Jul 1979)

First Skylab crew sets new endurance record of 28 days Jul Second Skylab crew increases endurance record to 59 day 11 hrs

Nov 3rd and final Skylab crew increases endurance record to 84 days 1 hr

1974

Jun Launch of Salyut (Almaz) 3 (de-orbits Jan 1975)

Jul First successful Soviet space station mission (Soyuz 14)

Dec Launch of Salyut 4 (de-orbits Feb 1977)

1975

Apr Soyuz 18 crew survive launch abort

Jul Soyuz 19 and Apollo dock in space – first international mission

1977

Sep Salyut 6 launched (de-orbits Jul 1982)

Dec First Salyut 6 resident crew set new endurance record of 96 days 10 hrs

1978

Jan First Soyuz exchange mission (Soyuz 27 for Soyuz 26)

Mar First Soviet Interkosmos mission (Czechoslovakian)

First non-Soviet, non-American person in space (Remek)

Jun Second Salyut 6 crew sets new endurance record of 139 days 14 hrs

1979

Feb Third Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 175 days

1980

Apr Fourth Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 184 days 20 hrs Jun First manned flight of Soyuz T variant

1981

Apr First Shuttle launch (Columbia STS-1) on 20th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight

John Young becomes first to make five space flights
Nov First return to space by manned spacecraft (Columbia STS-2)

1982

Apr Salyut 7 launched (de-orbits Feb 1991)

May First Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 211 days 9 hrs

Nov First “operational” Shuttle mission, STS-5, is also the first four-person

launch

1983

Apr First flight of Challenger

Jun Sally Ride becomes first US woman in space during STS-7, the first five – person launch

Sep Soyuz T10-1 launch pad abort

Nov First Spacelab mission – STS-9; first six-person launch John Young flies record sixth mission

1984

Feb First use of MMU (STS 41-B) on untethered spacewalks Feb Third Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 236 days 22 hrs

Jul Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to walk in space (Soyuz T12/

Salyut 7)

Aug First flight of Discovery on STS 41-D Oct First seven-person launch (STS 41-G)

Kathy Sullivan becomes first American woman to walk in space

1985

Jan First classified DoD Shuttle mission (STS 51-C)

Jul First Shuttle Abort-to-Orbit profile (STS 51-F)

Oct First flight of Atlantis (STS 51-J)

Oct First eight-person launch (STS 61-A)

1986

Jan Challenger and its crew of seven lost 73 seconds after launch (STS 51-L) Feb Mir core module launched unmanned

Mar First resident crew to Mir (Soyuz T15)

1987

Feb Second Mir resident crew sets new endurance record of 326 days 11 hrs First manned Soyuz TM variant

Dec First flight of over a year as third Mir resident crew sets endurance record of 365 days 22 hrs

1988

Sep Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission (STS-26)

1990

Apr Hubble Space Telescope deployment (STS-31)

1992

May First flight of Endeavour (STS-49)

1993

Dec First Hubble Service Mission (STS-61)

1994

Jan Valery Polyakov sets new endurance record (437 days 17 hrs) for one mission (lands Mar 1995)

Feb First Russian cosmonaut to fly on Shuttle (Krikalev STS-60)

1995

Feb First Shuttle-Mir rendezvous STS-63/Mir

Eileen Collins becomes first female Shuttle pilot Mar First American launched on Soyuz (Thagard – TM21)

Jul First Shuttle docking with Mir (STS-71 – Thagard down)

Nov Second Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-74)

1996

Mar Third Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-76 – Lucid up)

Sep Fourth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-79 – Lucid down, Blaha up)

Nov Longest Shuttle mission (17 days 15 hrs – STS-80)

Musgrave becomes only astronaut to fly all five orbiters

1997

Jan Fifth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-81 – Blaha down, Linenger up)

Feb Second Hubble service mission (STS-82)

May Sixth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-84 – Linenger down, Foale up)

Jun Collision between unmanned Progress vessel and Mir space station damages Spektr module

Sep Seventh Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-86 – Foale down, Wolf up)

1998

Jan Eighth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-89 – Wolf down, Thomas up)

Jun Ninth and final Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-91 – Thomas down)

Oct John Glenn returns to space aged 77, 36 years after his first space flight Nov First ISS element launched – Zarya FGB Dec First ISS Shuttle mission (STS-88)

1999

Jul Eileen Collins becomes first female US mission commander (STS-93)

Aug Mir vacated for first time in ten years Dec Third Hubble service mission (STS-103)

2000

Apr Last (28th) Mir resident crew (72 days)

Oct First ISS resident crew launched

2001

Mar Mir space station de-orbits after 15 years service

Apr Dennis Tito becomes first space flight participant, or “tourist”

2002

Mar Fourth Hubble service mission (STS-109)

Apr Jerry Ross becomes first person to fly seven missions in space Oct First manned flight of Soyuz TMA

2003

Feb Columbia and crew of seven lost during entry phase of mission STS-107

Apr ISS assumes two-person caretaker crews

Oct First Chinese manned spaceflight (Shenzhou 5)

Yang Liwei becomes first Chinese national in space

2004

Sep Spaceship One flies to 337,500 ft (102.87 km)

Oct Spaceship One flies to 367,442 ft (111.99 km) claiming $10 million X-Prize

2005

Jul Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission 1 – STS-114 Oct First Chinese two-man space flight – Shenzhou 6

2006

Jul Second Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission – STS-121 Aug ISS returns to three-person capability

Resumption of ISS construction – STS-115

Bibliography

The authors have referred to their own extensive archives in the compilation of this book. In addition, the following publications and resources were of great help in assembling the data:

The Press Kits, News releases and mission information from NASA, ESA, CSA, RKK-Energiya, JAXA (NASDA), CNES, and Novosti have been invaluable resources for many years

Magazines:

Flight International 1961-2006

Aviation Week and Space Technology 1961-2006

BIS Spaceflight 1961-2006

Soviet Weekly/Soviet News 1961-1990

Orbiter, Astro Info Service 1984-1992

Zenit, Astro Info Service, 1985-1991

ESA Bulletin 1975-2006

British Interplanetary Society Books:

History of Mir 1986-2000; Mir: The Final Year Supplement, Editor Rex Hall 2000/ 2001

The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 1 Ed Rex Hall 2002 The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 2, Ed Rex Hall 2005

NASA Reports:

NASA Astronautics and Aeronautics, various volumes, 1961-1995

Mir Hardware Heritage, David S. F. Portree NASA RP-1357, March 1995. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Trevino, NASA Monograph in Aerospace history, #7 October 1997

NASA Histories:

1966 This New Ocean, a History of Project Mercury, SP-4201

1977 On the Shoulders of Titans: A history of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203

1978 The Partnership: A history of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209

1979 Chariots for Apollo: A history of manned lunar spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 1983 Living and working in space: A history of Skylab NASA SP 4208

1977 Where No Man Has Gone Before: a history of Apollo lunar exploration missions, NASA SP-4214

2000 Challenge to Apollo: the Soviet Union and the Space Race 1945-1974, Asif Siddiqi, NASA SP-2000-4408

Other Books:

1980 Handbook of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Nicholas L. Johnson, AAS Vol 48, Science and Technology Series

1981 The History of Manned Spaceflight, David Baker

1987 Heroes in Space: From Gagarin to Challenger, Peter Bond

1988 Space Shuttle Log: The First 25 Flights, Gene Gurney and Jeff Forte

1988 The Soviet Manned Space Programme, Phillip Clark

1989 The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Space Technology, Chief Author Ken Gatland

1990 Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Dennis Newkirk

1992 At the Edge of Space: The X-15 Flight Program, Milton O. Thompson 1999 Who’s Who in space: The ISS Edition, Michael Cassutt 2001 Space Shuttle, History and Development of the National STS Program, Dennis Jenkins

Springer-Praxis Space Science Series (which include extensive references and bibliographies for further reading)

1999 Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions, David M. Harland

2000 Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight, David J. Shayler

2000 The Challenges of Human Space Exploration, Marsha Freeman

2001 Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier, Brian Harvey

2001 The Rocket Men, Vostok & Voskhod, the First Soviet Manned Spaceflights, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler 2001 Skylab:; America’s Space Station, David J. Shayler 2001 Gemini: Steps to the Moon, David J. Shayler

2001 Project Mercury: NASA’s First Manned Space Programme, John Catchpole

2002 The Continuing Story of the International Space Station, Peter Bond

Creating the International Space Station, David M. Harland and John E. Catchpole

Apollo: Lost and Forgotten Missions, David J. Shayler

Soyuz, a Universal Spacecraft, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler

China’s Space Programme: From Concept to Manned Spaceflight, Brian

Harvey

Walking in Space, David J. Shayler

The Story of the Space Shuttle, David M Harland

The Story of Space Station Mir, David M. Harland

Women in Space: Following Valentina, David J Shayler and Ian Moule

Space Shuttle Columbia: Her Missions and Crews, Ben Evans.

Russia’s Cosmonauts: Inside the Yuri Gagarin Training Center, Rex Hall, David J. Shayler and Bert Vis

Apollo: The Definitive Source Book, Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland

2002

2002

2003

2004

2004

2004

2005

2005

2005

2005

2006

2006

NASA Scientist Astronauts, Colin Burgess and David J. Shayler

Flight Log

The first of what were originally to be seven manned sub-orbital Mercury flights, then reduced to three, could have taken place in March 1961, before Gagarin, had the programme not hit technical problems. Al Shepard decided to name his spacecraft Freedom. Adding the number seven to the name became too irresistible, as the capsule and rocket were both serial number seven and there were seven astronauts. This established a precedent for later manned flights. Shepard simulated the flight inside Freedom on Cape Canaveral’s Pad 5 three times before the first launch attempt on 2 May was thwarted by bad weather.

On 5 May, the astronaut was up at 01: 10 hours and inside Freedom 7 at 05: 20 hours. Compelled to urinate in his spacesuit because of the unforeseen 2 hr 34 min launch holds, the laconic Shepard finally got airborne at 09: 34 hours, uttering the first of 78 statements, practised so many times in the simulator, announcing lift-off. His heartbeat was monitored at 126 beats per min. The period of maximum dynamic pressure reached at T + 58 sec buffeted the vehicle and caused some concern. The launch escape system tower separated at T + 2 min 32 sec, as Shepard was experiencing a maximum 6.3 G force. The Redstone shut down at T + 142 sec and Shepard arced even higher over the Atlantic Ocean, at a maximum speed of 8,262 kph (5,134 mph), reaching a maximum altitude of 185.6 km (115.3 miles).

During his 4 min 45 sec period of weightlessness, Shepard fired his thrusters to orientate the spacecraft in yaw, pitch and roll movements for a period of 40 sec. He only saw the Earth as black and white out of his periscope and not the porthole, and then he moved the craft to a nose down angle of 34° before firing the retros, although they were not needed during this sub-orbital flight. The descent was uneventful, the 0.5 G light coming on at 60,960 m (200,000 ft) and with Shepard enduring 11 G deceleration. The

Flight Log

Flight Log

Mercury Redstone 3 is launched on a sub-orbital trajectory from Cape Canaveral, with America’s first astronaut Alan B. Shepard aboard

 

drogue chute deployed at 6,400m (21,000 ft) and the main chute at 3,048 m (10,000 ft). Freedom hit the sea at a speed of 10.7m/sec (35.1 ft/sec), 475.2 km (295miles) down – range from the Cape at T + 15 min 28 sec, the shortest manned space flight in history. Shepard removed the hatch and was hauled aboard a helicopter from the recovery ship Lake Champlain.

Milestones

2nd manned space flight

1st US manned space flight

1st to make orientation manoeuvres

1st flight to splashdown in the sea

1st flight to end with the crew aboard

MERCURY REDSTONE 4

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Launch Vehicle Duration Callsign ObjectiveNone – sub-orbital flight 21 July 1961

Pad 5, Cape Canaveral, Florida 21 July 1961 Atlantic Ocean

Redstone No. 8; capsule no. 11 15 min 37 sec Liberty Bell 7

Second sub-orbital test of Mercury spacecraft with a human occupant, further system qualification towards manned orbital missions

Flight Crew

GRISSOM, Virgil Ivan “Gus”, 35, USAF, pilot

SOYUZ 4 AND 5

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Launch Vehicle Duration Callsign Objective 1969-004A (Soyuz 4)/1969-005A (Soyuz 5)

14 (Soyuz 4) and 15 (Soyuz 5) January 1969

Pad 31, Site 6 (Soyuz 4), Pad 1, Site 5 (Soyuz 5), Baikonur

Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan

17 (Soyuz 4) and 18 (Soyuz 5) January 1969

Soyuz 4-40 km (25 miles) northwest of Karaganda;

Soyuz 5 – 200 km (124 miles) southwest of Kustanai R7 (11A511); spacecraft serial numbers (7K-0K)

#12 (Soyuz 4) and #13 (Soyuz 5)

2 days 23 hrs 20 min 47 sec (Soyuz 4); 3 days 54 min 15 sec (Soyuz 5)

Amur (Amur – Soyuz 4); Baikal (Baikal – Soyuz 5) Docking of two manned Soyuz spacecraft and the EVA transfer of two crew members from Soyuz 5 to Soyuz 4

Flight Crew

SHATALOV, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, 42, Soviet Air Force, pilot Soyuz 4 VOLYNOV, Boris Valentinovich, 34, Soviet Air Force, commander Soyuz 5 YELISEYEV, Aleksey Stanislovich, 34, civilian, flight engineer Soyuz 5 KHRUNOV, Yevgeny Vasilyevich, 35, civilian, research engineer Soyuz 5

Flight Log

Cosmonaut Vladimir Shatalov was launched alone aboard Soyuz 4 at about 12: 29 hrs local time. Within ten minutes he was in his initial 51.7° inclination orbit, from which he would eventually manoeuvre to a new orbit with a maximum altitude of 222 km (138 miles). The next day, Soyuz 5 entered its initial 51.6° orbit after a launch from the freezing Baikonur at about 12: 05 hrs local time. It carried Boris Volynov and the two cosmonauts who should have flown Soyuz 2 in 1967, Aleksey Yeliseyev and Yevgeny Khrunov. On 16 January, the two craft docked. Soyuz 4 was the active spacecraft both during the automatic approach to a distance of 100 m (328 ft) and for the manual, Shatalov-controlled soft dock, followed by a hard dock minutes later.

The whole event had been seen on television via a camera on Soyuz 4, and was accompanied by ribald comments from the crew, much to the chagrin of ground control. The Soviets claimed that they had achieved an “experimental space station”, but at 12,926 kg (28,502 lb), the combined weight of the two spacecraft was lighter than a single Apollo. The first docking between two manned spacecraft was followed by an even more eventful space transfer, which was made externally because the docking mechanism prevented an internal transfer and there were no internal hatches.

SOYUZ 4 AND 5

Soyuz 5 cosmonauts Khrunov (left) and Yeliseyev wearing EVA suits. Except that this is a pre – Soyuz 1 image, with Komarov on the far left and Gagarin far right. The Soyuz 5 EVA was originally to have been attempted in a docking between Soyuz 1 and 2, but was cancelled when Komarov’s fatally flawed spacecraft developed problems.

First, Yeliseyev and Khrunov floated into the Soyuz 5 Orbital Module, donned spacesuits and depressurised the module, leaving Volynov alone in the flight cabin. Wearing upgraded spacesuits to that worn by Leonov with a lifeline tether and a small breathing air pack strapped to the legs, Khrunov opened the Orbital Module hatch and floated towards the depressurised Orbital Module of Soyuz 4, followed closely by Yeliseyev and both watched by a television camera (which unfortunately returned very poor pictures of the historic event).

The first EVA to involve two spacewalkers ended after 37 minutes. After sealing the outer hatch and re-pressurising the OM, the hatch to the Descent Module was opened and Shatalov welcomed his new crew, receiving some post and reports on the launch of Soyuz 4. The event that should have occurred between Soyuz 1 and 2 two years earlier had been achieved, ahead of the USA which was, coincidentally, planning a similar EVA exercise for Apollo 9 in March 1969.

The combined spacecraft undocked on 16 January after 4 hours 33 minutes 49 seconds together. The crews conducted separate experiments in geography, geology, navigation, medicine and radio communications before Soyuz 4 came home on 17 January, carrying two crewmen who had been launched in another craft. They came down 40 km (25 miles) northwest of Karaganda, in bitter temperatures of —35°, with a flight time of 2 days 23 hours 20 minutes 47 seconds. Yeliseyev and Khrunov, the hitchhikers, had clocked up a space time of just 1 day 23 hours 45 minutes. The deserted Volynov, who reached a maximum altitude of 237 km (147 miles) in Soyuz 5, came home on 18 January, 200 km (124 miles) southwest of Kustanai, with a flight time of 3 days 0 hours 54 minutes 15 seconds.

The re-entry of Soyuz 5 almost ended in disaster as the Propulsion Module failed to separate cleanly from the Descent Module. This caused the spacecraft to begin its entry the wrong way round, with the sealed inner hatch facing forward instead of the heat shield. Volynov, who was not wearing a pressure suit, heard the separation charges fire but also saw the PM still attached out of the side window. Smelling the burning rubber of the hatch gasket, Volynov thought he would not survive re-entry. As the G forces increased, the PM suddenly separated by atmospheric friction, causing the DM to swing around to the correct orientation for re-entry. Volynov realised he would indeed survive re-entry after all but then found, like Komarov on Soyuz 1, that his main parachute had tangled. This time it untangled, but the landing was so hard, despite the soft-landing rockets working, that he broke several teeth in his upper jaw. He had landed 600 km from the intended landing site due to the difficulties in separating the components. He got out of the capsule shaken, but able to walk to a nearby peasant hut to await the rescue team. It took some time for him to fully recover from the ordeal.

Milestones

29th and 30th manned space flights 11th and 12th Soviet manned space flights 3rd and 4th Soyuz manned space flight 1st docking between two manned spacecraft 1st crew transfer

1st landing by crew launched in another spacecraft

1st “spacecraft” with four crew

2nd Soviet and 7th flight with EVA operations

Подпись:

Подпись: APOLLO 9
Подпись: 1969-018A 3 March 1969 Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 13 March 1969 Western Atlantic Ocean Saturn V AS-504; spacecraft designations: CSM-104, LM-3 10 days 1 hr 0min 54 sec CSM - Gumdrop; LM - Spider Demonstration of crew, spacecraft, and mission support facilities during a manned Saturn V mission in Earth orbit with a CSM and LM; demonstration of LM crew and vehicle performance in Earth orbit

Flight Crew

MCDIVITT, James Alton, 39, USAF, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 4 (1965)

SCOTT, David Randolph, 36, USAF, command module pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 8 (1966)

SCHWEICKART, Russell Louis “Rusty”, 33, lunar module pilot

Flight Log

If Apollo 11 was going to make the first manned landing on the Moon, Apollo 9 would have to be a spectacular success. And so it was. The main objective of the mission was to test-fly the Lunar Module in Earth orbit. Bad colds delayed the launch of the all-up Apollo stack from 28 February to 3 March, at 11: 00 hrs local time. Once in orbit, command module pilot Dave Scott separated from the S-IVB stage and performed the first transposition and docking manoeuvre to extract the LM, which had been nick­named Spider because of its arachnid-like appearance. The Command Module was called Gumdrop after the appearance of the CM when it was covered in blue wrappings as it was transported across the US. The individual names were chosen because of the need to identify the communications sources during the joint flight, a procedure that continued to the end of the Apollo lunar programme in 1972.

Interestingly, the S-IVB stage was restarted twice for the injection into solar orbit, but with slightly less speed than planned. Had the burn been for a manned trans-lunar injection, a Moon-landing mission could have been aborted. Meanwhile, in Earth orbit, Jim McDivitt commanded the SPS engine to fire four times, changing the altitude parameters of the 32.6° inclination orbit and testing the structural dynamics of the joint spacecraft. The maximum altitude achieved during the mission was 200 km (124 miles). On the third day, dressed in full space gear, McDivitt and Rusty

SOYUZ 4 AND 5

Dave Scott performs a stand-up EVA during Apollo 9

Schweickart entered Spider for the first checkout, while it was still attached to Gumdrop. This included a 367-second firing of the descent engine, which for the final 59 seconds was manually throttled by McDivitt, the first such manoeuvre in space history.

The SPS engine was fired again to fine-tune the orbit for the joint Spider – Gumdrop rendezvous and docking mission, but space sickness hit Schweickart, cancelling his EVA wearing the fully independent Apollo Portable Life Support System (PLSS) spacesuit, during which he planned an external transfer from the porch of the LM to the Command Module. However, he did recover enough to perform a 37-minute EVA standing on the porch on 7 March. The EVA resulted in some classic photographs. On 8 March came the big test. Spider was separated from

Gumdrop and fired its descent engine twice, ending up 19.2km (12 miles) higher. Then, for the first time, the LM ascent engine was fired, after separation of the descent stage, placing it 120 km (75 miles) behind and 16 km (10 miles) below Gumdrop, to simulate lunar ascent and the rendezvous and docking manoeuvre.

Six hours later, Spider and Gumdrop were together, but not before McDivitt’s eye-straining final docking, which resulted in the recommendation that on future flights this should be performed by the CMP. The ascent stage of Spider was separated as its engine fired again, to place it in a high-Earth orbit as the crew in Gumdrop wound down the mission with detailed Earth observations and photography. Re-entry was delayed one orbit because of fears of high seas in the splashdown area, giving Apollo 9 another first – the first extended US manned space flight. After a 3.6m/sec (12 ft/sec) burn of the SPS, reducing the speed by 353 kph (219 mph), enough to induce re-entry, Apollo 9 splashed down safely at 23.25° north 68° west at T + 10 days 1 hour 0 minutes 54 seconds, some 5 km (3 miles) from USS Guadalcanal. Only one more test remained before the Moon landing.

Milestones

31st manned space flight 19th US manned space flight 3rd manned Apollo CSM flight 1st manned Apollo LM flight

1st manned flight in spacecraft unable to return to Earth

1st manual engine throttling

6th US and 8th flight with EVA operations

Подпись:

Подпись: APOLLO 10
Подпись: 1969-043A 18 May 1969 Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 26 May 1969 Pacific Ocean Saturn V AS-505; spacecraft designations: CSM-106; LM-4 8 days 0 hrs 3 min 23 sec CSM - Charlie Brown; LM - Snoopy Demonstration of crew, spacecraft, mission support facilities during a manned Saturn V mission to lunar orbit with a CSM and LM; demonstration of LM crew and vehicle performance in the cis-lunar, and lunar (orbital) environment

Flight Crew

STAFFORD, Thomas Patten Jr., 38, USAF, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: Gemini 6 (1965); Gemini 9 (1966)

YOUNG, John Watts Jr., 38, USN, command module pilot, 3rd mission Previous missions: Gemini 3 (1965); Gemini 10 (1966)

CERNAN, Eugene Andrew, 34, USN, lunar module pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 9 (1966)

Flight Log

The riskiest space flight yet, Apollo 10 was to simulate a Moon landing in the final test before Apollo 11. Had development of the Lunar Module not been delayed, it is quite possible that Apollo 10 would have made the first real landing, making its commander Tom Stafford and LMP Eugene Cernan the first men on the Moon. Apollo 10 left new launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center at 12: 49 hrs local time on 18 May 1969 and placed the S-IVB and Apollo stack in a 32.5°, 184 km (114 miles) apogee Earth­parking orbit. Then the orbital speed was increased from 7,800 m/sec to 11,171 m/sec (25,593 ft/sec to 36,651 ft/sec) by the S-IVB’s engine.

Soon after, Apollo 10 became Charlie Brown and Snoopy (named after the popular Peanuts cartoon characters created by Charles L. Schultz). For the mission, Charlie Brown exchanged his WWI flying ace goggles and scarf for a space helmet, while Snoopy the beagle was a symbol of quality performance. As the LM was extracted from the spent stage, it was seen live on the first colour television show from space. Happy TV shows were beamed from the light-hearted crew en route to the Moon, which needed only one SPS mid-course manoeuvre, rather than the planned

SOYUZ 4 AND 5

Stafford (left) and Young in the Apollo 10 Command Module

four, such was the accuracy of the flight profile. At about T + 76 hours, Apollo 10 reached lunar orbit, which was circularised at 110 km (68 miles). Some 14 hours later, the risky, untried part of the mission began.

Snoopy undocked and flew in station-keeping mode for a while before firing its descent engine for a brief 27.4 seconds, simulating a lunar landing and taking Stafford and Cernan to within 15.52 km (10 miles) of the lunar surface. Amid high excitement, the crew described the scene of boulders bigger than houses and a magnificent Earthrise, as Snoopy flew over the Sea of Tranquillity – Apollo 11’s target – testing the all-important LM radar. The descent engine was fired again, twice, before staging. Because a switch had been left in the wrong position in Snoopy’s cockpit, the staging, achieved at the second attempt, placed the ascent stage in an uncontrollable gyration, which at least led the LMP Cernan volubly to consider his fate.

Control regained, Stafford fired the ascent engine for 15 seconds, to simulate the rise from the lunar surface to rendezvous with Charlie Brown – and the lonely John Young. Careful RCS thruster firings gently nudged the LM towards the CM and at T + 106 hours, docking was achieved. After 31 lunar orbits, in 61 hours 31 minutes, Apollo 10 leapt from the Moon, and three days later flew into Earth’s atmosphere at a record manned speed of 39,897 kph (24,792 mph), landing at T + 8 days 0 hours 3 minutes 23 seconds, at 165° west 5°south, some 6.4 km (4 miles) from the USS Princetown.

Milestones

32nd manned space flight

20th US manned space flight

4th Apollo manned flight

4th Apollo CSM manned flight

2nd Apollo LM manned flight

1st flight by experienced multi-crew

1st flight by two manned craft in lunar orbit

1st crewman to fly solo in lunar orbit (Young)

2nd manned flight to and orbit of the Moon

Fastest Apollo re-entry speed from lunar distance – 39,897 kph

Подпись:

Подпись: APOLLO 11
Подпись: 1969-059A 16 July 1969 Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 24 July 1969 Pacific Ocean Saturn V AS-506; spacecraft designations: CSM-107; LM-5 8 days 3hrs 18 min 35 sec CSM - Columbia; LM - Eagle The primary objective of the Apollo programme: a manned lunar landing and a safe return to Earth

Flight Crew

ARMSTRONG, Neil Alden, 38, civilian, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 8 (1966)

COLLINS, Michael, 38, USAF, command module pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 10 (1966)

ALDRIN, Edwin Eugene “Buzz”, 39, USAF, lunar module pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 12 (1966)

Flight Log

Commander Neil Armstrong reckoned that the chances of total success for the first attempt to land on the Moon on Apollo 11 were 50: 50. Six hundred million people all over the world watched on television as Apollo 11 began its journey at 09: 32 hrs local time from the Kennedy Space Center. Eleven minutes 46 seconds later, Armstrong and his crew of Mike Collins and Buzz Aldrin were over the first hurdle – 184 km (114 miles) above the Earth in a 32.7° inclination orbit. The mission was starting quietly and it continued this way, with the rather sombre crew keeping comments to a minimum. The trans-lunar injection burn, lasting 5 minutes 47 seconds, was a success, as was the transposition and docking manoeuvre by Collins.

Some TV broadcasts were made and the avidly-followed mission continued with Armstrong and Aldrin, in their spacesuits, checking out the LM, which had been named Eagle. Apollo 11 achieved lunar orbit with a 347-second SPS burn at T + 75 hours 50 minutes. The orbit was circularised by a second SPS “tweak” at 110 km (68 miles). The climax approached as Eagle separated from the Command Module Columbia at T + 100 hours 12 minutes. One hour 20 minutes later, with Eagle on the far side of the Moon, the descent engine fired for 30 seconds to begin descent orbit insertion (DOI). Fifty-seven minutes later, both Eagle and Columbia emerged from

SOYUZ 4 AND 5

Apollo 11 astronauts Aldrin and Armstrong deploy the Stars and Stripes at Tranquillity Base

the far side, with Eagle now approaching its 14.56 km (9 miles) low point or perilune, when the powered descent initiation burn (PDI) was to begin.

The 756.3-second long burn seemed interminable to the waiting world, but to the crew it went so fast that neither could recall very much about it, other than the computer alarms that nearly aborted the landing. An overloaded computer was protesting, but ground controller Stephen Bales reported that all was well. The mission was given a go to land, but with seconds left Armstrong could see that the autopilot was taking Eagle into a boulder-strewn crater. He took partial control and amid clouds of dust, landed with between 15 and 20 seconds of fuel left, at T + 102 hours 45 minutes. The time in the UK was 21: 18 hrs on 20 July.

The landing site, named Tranquillity Base by Armstrong, was about 6.4 km (4 miles) downrange of the planned touchdown point, at 0°41’15" north 23°0’26" east. Having reached the Moon, Armstrong could start to think about what his first words would be when he stepped upon it. Although in the Gemini programme the pilot went for the walks, on Apollo, because of the design of the Lunar Module hatch which opened towards the LMP thus trapping him, the commander would go out first, which was regarded as a logical thing to do anyway given the prestigious nature of the event. Armstrong’s right boot touched the lunar dust at T + 109 hours 42 minutes, 03: 56 hrs British time on 21 July. As he stepped onto the lunar surface, Armstrong said: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.’’ Armstrong was

joined by Aldrin, who took the TV camera and placed it on a tripod some distance away so that both astronauts could be seen, looking like ghosts on the black and white TV.

The flag was raised and the short moonwalk was interrupted by a gushing President Nixon. The astronauts rushed to finish the deployment of EASEP experi­ments but Armstrong did find time to take some classic photographs of Aldrin, the first person to make two spacewalks. Although he had the camera briefly, to take pictures of his boot print and a panorama of the surface, Aldrin did not take a formal still of the first man on the Moon, although he did happen to feature in one of the panoramas with his back to camera and standing in the shadow of the Lunar Module. The moonwalk lasted 2 hours 31 minutes 40 seconds, during which Armstrong was on the surface for 2 hours 14 minutes and Aldrin for 1 hour 33 minutes.

After 21 hours 36 minutes on the Moon, the critical ascent engine burn began, firing for 435 seconds to place Eagle’s ascent stage in orbit for its rendezvous with Collins. The SPS engine fired for 2 minutes 29 seconds and after 59 hours 30 minutes in lunar orbit, Columbia was en route for its landing at 169°west 13°north, coming down near the USS Hornet at T + 8 days 3 hours 18 minutes 35 seconds. The epic mission was over, rather ironically overshadowed by the antics of the late President Kennedy’s younger brother Edward, who was involved in a fatal traffic accident at Chappaquidick.

Milestones

33rd manned space flight 21st US manned space flight 5th Apollo manned space flight 5th Apollo CSM manned flight 3rd Apollo LM manned flight 1st manned landing on the Moon 1st walk on the Moon

3rd manned flight to and orbit of the Moon 7th US and 9th flight with EVA operations

STS-26

Int. Designation

1988-091A

Launched

29 September 1988

Launch Site

Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

3 October 1988

Landing Site

Runway 17, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-103 Discovery/ET-28/SRB BI-029/SSME #1 2019;

#2 2022; #3 2028

Duration

4 days 1 hr 0 min 11 sec

Callsign

Discovery

Objective

Return-to-Flight mission; TDRS-C deployment

Flight Crew

HAUCK, Frederick Hamilton “Rick”, 47, USN, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-7 (1983); STS 51-A (1984)

COVEY, Richard Oswalt, 42, USAF, pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 51-1 (1985)

LOUNGE, John Michael, 38, civilian, mission specialist 1, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 51-1 (1985)

HILMERS, David Carl, 38, USMC, mission specialist 2, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 51-J (1985)

NELSON, George Driver, 38, civilian, mission specialist 3, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS 41-C (1984); STS 51-C (1985)

Flight Log

Following the release of the findings of the Rogers Commission into the Challenger disaster in June 1986, NASA was directed to follow nine major recommendations to improve the safety and management of the Space Shuttle programme. The path to recovery was a tortuous one. At first, a re-launch in late 1987 seemed a possibility, or early 1988, or June 1988. Discovery finally and patriotically made it to the pad on 4 July. A successful launch and flight of the Space Shuttle was considered crucial. It was to be the most important manned mission of the US space programme. A failure of any kind could have spelled the death knell of the programme and NASA knew it. No. chances were being taken; so much so that many experienced space watchers reckoned that a few abortive countdowns were going to be unavoidable and once Discovery did take off, it would be an anticlimax, perhaps what NASA wanted.

True to form, as the all-veteran crew of STS-26 – a Shuttle first – left the crew quarters on 29 September, looking like astronauts again wearing high-altitude press­ure suits, the chances of launching that day were put at 50-50, mainly because the winds at high altitude were not strong enough. The flight computer was programmed

STS-26

Return to flight. The launch of STS-26 was the start of America’s journey back to space

 

to expect stronger seasonal winds. It was re-programmed during holds caused by other niggling problems and the count stood at T — 9 minutes for 1 hour 38 minutes. The go for launch was suddenly given and people realised that perhaps Discovery was going to get off first time after all. Things went well until it was announced that the count would hold at T — 31 seconds because a problem had been experienced. This proved to be an erroneous switch and at 11: 37 hrs local time, on Challenger’s Pad 39B, America returned to space with a smooth lift-off and ascent.

Concern was caused by the sight of flames around the SRBs just before burn out but these were caused by the SSME exhaust being sucked into an aerodynamically low pressure area of the Shuttle stack as it rose at Mach 4. It was all so smooth that observers did indeed feel the anticlimax, a tribute to the launch team under former astronaut Bob Crippen. The STS-26 mission continued on its winning way, perform­ing an OMS burn to circularise the 29.45° orbit at 284 km (176 miles), and deploying the TDRS-C satellite on its IUS upper stage.

The crew conducted several science experiments, practiced donning and doffing the ascent/descent suit to see how quickly it could be done in an emergency, and experienced, for a short while, uncomfortably high cabin temperatures of 29°C due to ice blocking a cooling duct. On day four, the crew made a moving tribute to the Challenger Seven, covered live on TV. The flight was also a re-qualification of Discovery within the Return-to-Flight programme.

Only the landing remained. The de-orbit and re-entry were routine and Discovery came home in triumph, to a rapturous welcome from observers at Edwards Air Force Base, including Vice President George Bush, landing on runway 17 at T + 4 days 1 hour 0 minutes 11 seconds. The Shuttle was poised for routine operations again but the difference was that even NASA admitted that things could go wrong again, something that before Challenger would have seemed a sacrilege, such was the apparent ease and safety of the system.

Milestones

121st manned space flight 56th US manned space flight 26th Shuttle flight 7th flight of Discovery 3rd TDRS deployment mission

Подпись:

Подпись: SOYUZ TM7
Подпись: 1988-104A 26 November 1988 Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 26 April 1989 140 km northeast of Dzhezkazgan R7 (11A511U2); spacecraft serial number (7K-M) #57 151 days 11 hrs 8 min 23 sec (Volkov and Krikalev) 24 days 18 hrs 7 min 25 sec (Chretien) Donbass (Donbass) Mir EO-4 research programme; French Aragatz visiting mission

Flight Crew

VOLKOV, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, 40, Soviet Air Force, commander, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz T14 (1985)

KRIKALEV, Sergei Konstantinovich, 30, civilian, flight engineer CHRETIEN, Jean-Loup, 50, French Air Force, cosmonaut researcher, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz T6 (1982)

Flight Log

France’s close ties with the Soviet space programme produced beneficial results, none more so than the Soyuz TM7 mission in which the highest ranking spaceperson, Brigadier General Jean-Loup Chretien would make his second flight on a Soviet space­craft and be the first non-US and non-Soviet spaceman to walk in space. His 30-day mission would also be considerably longer than the usual seven-day jaunts by foreigners. The longer flight was provided in return for the supply of much French scientific equipment for use by the Soviet crews on Mir, but it was the last to be provided free by the Soviets; the next Frenchman had to pay $12 million.

France’s President Mitterand scored a spectacular own goal before the mission by insisting on going to Baikonur to watch the launch, which would therefore have to be delayed four days to 26 November, reducing Chretien’s time in space. Mitterand winged his way in and out of Baikonur on a Concorde with an entourage of such high number and rank that Baikonur’s modest hospitality facilities and traditional pre­launch pomp and circumstance became unmanageable. The result was a chaotic crew walk out in which Mitterand and other officials were bundled about by hordes

STS-26

French cosmonaut Chretien (left) joins his Soviet colleagues Volkov (centre) and Krikalev for the Soyuz TM7 crew photo

of eager bystanders and press, as crew commander Aleksandr Volkov tried to make his traditional speech of dedication of the mission to General Kerim Kerimimov, the president of the state commission.

The launch, the 301st from Pad 1 at Baikonur, was spectacularly routine, with the Soyuz booster that had only been rolled out to the fog-bound pad two days previously lighting up the sky at 20:49hrs local time. Once aboard Mir, after the two-day rendezvous flight, Chretien, Volkov and the impassive young flight engineer Sergei Krikalev, got to work with Titov, Manarov and Polyakov, the high point of which was Chretien’s EVA with Volkov on 9 December, three days earlier than planned origin­ally. During the 5 hour 57 minute EVA, Chretien and Volkov deployed an experiment called ERA, provided by France, which comprised folded carbon fibre tubes that could be unfurled to form a cube structure in a test of erectable space structures. The $8 million experiment seemed doomed to failure when it could not be commanded to unfurl and engineers considered jettisoning it. Volkov saved the day – he admitted later – by giving it a hefty kick with his space boot. Both spacemen were utterly exhausted by their efforts.

The fruitful French mission ended with Chretien returning to Earth with the record-breakers Titov and Manarov on 21 December, leaving Volkov, Krikalev and the doctor Polyakov to remain until 27 April, to be replaced by the TM8 crew. The fresh Soyuz TM7 craft was moved to the front and Progress 39 linked up on 27 December with New Year supplies.

Delays in launching new modules to Mir meant that this crew, like previous ones on Mir, were rather limited in what experiments they could conduct, most of which seemed to focus on the astrophysics telescopes on the Kvant module and Polyakov’s surgery. The crew also spent much of their time repairing balky equipment, particu­larly environmental control systems which were misbehaving so badly that some electrical equipment was covered in condensation. The module delays and these niggling equipment problems raised concerns over whether Mir, three years old on 20 February 1989, would ever see out its operational life before being declared operational with all four modules.

But life went on. Progress 40 replaced No.39 on 12 February, delivering pickled cucumbers by request. A planned EVA by Volkov and Krikalev was cancelled and there were suggestions that Polyakov might remain on Mir with the next crew. When Progress 40 departed on 3 March it remained close to Mir for the cosmonauts to observe a unique experiment in which the unmanned tanker deployed two folding structures, which were unfurled from it by heating electrical wires in its body in a space structures test. Progress 40 was destroyed during a controlled re-entry two days later and was replaced by Progress 41 on 18 March.

Meanwhile, on the ground, cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Balandin, the latter having replaced Aleksandr Serebrov because of the delays in the launches of the new modules which Serebrov had been trained specifically to operate, were ready to launch on 19 April onboard Soyuz TM8, to replace the crew of TM7 which was to come home with Polyakov on 27 April. Then, on 12 April, the Soviets sprang a surprise, saying that the Soyuz TM7 crew would leave Mir empty for several months. Flying another crew when the new modules were not ready for launch seemed wasteful and leaving Mir empty would save money. So Volkov and Krikalev clocked up a TM7 flight time of 151 days 11 hours 10 minutes, landing on 27 April northeast of Dzhezkazgan, the prime recovery zone, as planned. Polyakov had clocked up 240 days 22 hours 36 minutes flight time, the fourth longest individual space mission.

Milestones

122nd manned space flight 66th Soviet manned space flight 59th Soyuz manned space flight 6th Soyuz TM manned space flight 6th Soyuz international mission

1st non-Soviet, non-US crewman to make two space flights 1st non-Soviet, non-US crewman to perform EVA 14th Soviet and 37th flight with EVA operations

Volkov celebrates his 41st and Polyakov his 47th birthday (27 Apr) on the day both returned to Earth on TM7

. SOYUZ TM16

Flight Crew

MANAKOV, Gennady Mikhailovich, 42, Russian Air Force, commander, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz TM10/Mir EO-7 (1990)

POLESHCHUK, Alexandr Fedorovich, 39, civilian, flight engineer

Flight Log

The flight of the Soyuz TM16 spacecraft had a different background to most Soyuz ferry missions. Originally, it was intended to use the Soyuz as a one-man “rescue vehicle”, on standby for the first manned flight of the Buran Space Shuttle. If required to bring the two Buran pilots back to Earth, the Soyuz would dock with Buran’s Androgynous Peripheral Docking Assembly (APAS-89) to allow internal transfer between the two spacecraft. However, the first manned flight of Buran slipped into 1990 and the profile changed so that the Soyuz TM would dock directly with Buran and then go on to dock with Mir. Three spacecraft were ordered for rescue missions with Buran (serial numbers 101,102 and 103). Spacecraft 101 eventually flew as TM16 when it became clear that Buran would never fly with a crew aboard. The Russian space shuttle programme was finally abandoned in 1992. TM16 would also utilise the outermost docking port of the Kristall module on Mir, which was intended for use with Buran but would now be tested by TM16 in preparation for the forthcoming US Shuttle-Mir docking missions. This programme had been agreed in June 1992 between the US and Russia, as part of the Phase 1 joint space station (Freedom) programme starting in 1995.

The EO-13 resident crew was the first two-man crew since August 1990, and only the fifth two-man TM launch in 15 missions. The planned Israeli commercial flight was cancelled and no third-seat replacement was scheduled. The docking occurred without a hitch, qualifying both the system and the port for docking vehicles off the longitudinal axis of the target spacecraft. After testing the structural integrity of the seven-spacecraft combination, the crew got down to the hand-over period with the

. SOYUZ TM16

The Progress M18 is shown undocked from the Mir complex, with the Progress M17 (right at the aft Kvant port) and Soyuz TM16 (bottom at the Kristall docking port) attached to the station. This photo was taken from the approaching TM17 spacecraft (ESA image)

previous resident crew. The EO-12 crew eventually departed in TM15 on 1 February 1993.

During their busy residency, in addition to the continuing Mir science pro­gramme and normal housekeeping and maintenance chores, the Vulkan crew would work with four Progress spacecraft (Progress M15 through M18). When Progress M15 undocked, the attached Znamya (New Light, or Banner) 40 kg triangular reflector was dragged out of the rolling spacecraft by centrifugal force, unfurling to 20 m. It reflected sunlight to generate a 4,000-m-wide spot of light on Earth, demonstrating the feasibility of using space mirrors to illuminate polar regions during periods of extended darkness. The Progress later re-rendezvoused with Mir at a distance of 200 m and, using a monitor and recently fitted control columns in the Mir base block, Manakov was able to put the Progress through a series of manoeuvres to demonstrate that it was possible for a cosmonaut on Mir to automatically man­oeuvre a vehicle nearby and, eventually, to dock remotely if the automatic system failed. The next Progress (M16) was undocked and re-docked by the cosmonaut using the new TORU manual docking system. M15 could not have done this, as it carried the older Znamya package.

During the first of three planned EVAs (19 Apr, 5 hours 25 minutes), the cosmo­nauts installed electrical drives on the side of Kvant, ready for deployable solar arrays that would be installed later. Using the Strela boom, the cosmonauts transferred one of the containers to the support framework that had been installed on Kvant during 1991. They noted that one of the Strela handles had become detached and had floated away, requiring a replacement to be shipped to Mir on the next Progress (M18). As a result, the second EVA planned for 23 April was cancelled and the third EVA became the mission’s second excursion on 18 June (4 hours 23 minutes). During this EVA, the crew repaired the boom by replacing the handle and also installed the second electrical drive. They also completed a TV documentation of the exterior of the station. The crew landed in TM16 on 22 July, along with French cosmonaut Jean-Pierre Haignere, who had arrived aboard Soyuz TM17 with the EO-14 crew for a three-week mission during the hand-over period.

Milestones

158th manned space flight

75th Russian manned space flight

23rd Russian and 49th flight with EVA operations

16th Soyuz flight to Mir

13th Mir resident crew

68th Soyuz flight

15th Soyuz TM flight

1st seven-docked-spacecraft configuration

Heaviest mass for the Mir complex to date (90 tons)

Manakov celebrates his 43rd birthday in space (1 Jun)

. SOYUZ TM26

Flight Crew

SOLOVYOV, Anatoli Yakovlevich, 49, Russian Air Force, commander,

5th mission

Previous missions: Soyuz TM5 (1988); Soyuz TM9 (1990); Soyuz TM15 (1992); EO-19 (1995)

VINOGRADOV, Pavel Vladimirovich, 43, civilian, flight engineer

Flight Log

The EO-24 cosmonauts arrived at Mir on 7 August to take over from the tired EO-23 crew. This time, there was an abbreviated hand-over period to avoid putting too much strain on the station’s systems or departing EO-23 crew. The day after the TM25 spacecraft left Mir, Solovyov, Vinogradov and Foale relocated the TM26 spacecraft from the aft to the front port of Mir, taking close-up pictures of the damaged Spektr module on the way.

Most of the new resident crew’s work would concentrate on restoring Mir to operational status again, but they also had to cope with two changes of American crew members. In late September, STS-86 docked with Mir, bringing much-needed supplies and astronaut Dave Wolf to take over from Mike Foale. In January 1998, STS-89 arrived with Andy Thomas aboard, the seventh and final NASA astronaut to work aboard the Mir complex with a resident crew. A couple of days after Wolf returned home, the replacement Mir EO-25 resident crew arrived aboard Soyuz TM27 to continue Mir residency with Thomas. Also aboard TM27 was French cosmonaut researcher Leopold Eyharts, who would return to Earth with Solovyov and Vinogradov in TM26 after completing his research programme.

The seven EVAs conducted by the EO-24 crew made up one of the most extensive spacewalk schedules of the whole Mir programme. Solovyov was outside for all seven of the EVAs, with three different colleagues (one Russian and two American). The first EVA (22 Aug, 3 hours 16 minutes) saw the two cosmonauts re-enter the Spektr

Подпись: The Soyuz TM26 crew of Solovyov (left) and Vinogradov faced a long schedule of repairs to Mir during their residency
module (while Foale remained in the Soyuz). Upon entering the dark, cold module, the cosmonauts found white crystals floating around and surfaces covered in a layer of frost. The crew reconnected power cables to a new, modified hatch plate to allow the use of the undamaged solar arrays on the Spektr module. They also retrieved several items for Foale from the module before it was permanently sealed. Partial electrical power was restored, but the system would not allow the solar arrays to track the Sun, preventing maximum power output. On the next EVA (6 Sep, 6 hours 0 minutes), Solovyov and Foale conducted an external inspection of Spektr, videoing the exterior for analysis on the ground. The next three EVAs (20 Oct, 6 hours 38 minutes; 3 Nov, 6 hours 4 minutes; and 6 Nov, 6 hours 17 minutes) were completed by the two Russians and included reconnection of cables in an IVA, and relocation of solar arrays from the Kvant module. On the second of these three EVAs, the outer hatch of Kvant 2 failed to hermetically seal. The “C” clamp used since 1990 had finally deteriorated and required replacement. This was initially planned for this crew, but was subsequently postponed for the following resident crew instead. The sixth EVA (9 Jan 1998, 4 hours 4 minutes) saw the two Russians complete a photo­documentation of the Mir exterior, including the Kvant 2 hatch area, as well as retrieving several exterior experiments. The last EVA of the expedition (14 Jan, 6 hours 38 minutes) was completed by Solovyov and Wolf and included the use of a spectro – reflectometer to examine the physical condition of the station’s exterior surfaces.

Having launched in the warm August temperatures, the EO-24 crew came home to snow. A helicopter remained close by the grounded Soyuz with its rotors spinning

to prevent ice from building up before the crew could be extracted. The three cosmonauts (including Eyharts) were immediately carried away on stretchers and airlifted away from the harsh conditions of the landing zone.

Milestones

200th manned space flight 85th Russian manned space flight 78th manned Soyuz mission 25th manned Soyuz TM mission 24th Mir resident crew

31st Russian and 66th flight with EVA operations

. SOYUZ TMA5

Flight Crew

CHIAO, Leroy, 44, civilian, US ISS-10 commander and science officer,

4th mission

Previous missions: STS-65 (1994); STS-72 (1996); STS-92 (2000) SHARIPOV, Salizhan Shakirovich, 40, Russian Air Force, ISS-10 flight engineer and Soyuz commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-89 (1998)

SHARGIN, Yuri Georgiyevich, 44, Russian Military Space Forces, Soyuz flight engineer

Flight Log

Russian businessman Sergei Polonsky was scheduled to become the third space flight participant on this flight, but he failed the medical and was replaced by cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. Shargin was a representative of the Russian Space Forces, and became the first member of that force to be selected for cosmonaut training in 1996. He had completed a full course of cosmonaut training, including simulations with the Mir complex. This was perhaps his only chance of a space flight, and he carried out his own programme of scientific studies, although it was stressed that none of these were military in nature as such investigations are banned on ISS. Earth observations and a daily biomedical programme were the main focus of his week on the station. Shargin returned to Earth on 24 October, along with the ISS-9 crew.

There had been a delay to the launch of TMA5, reportedly caused on 15 Sep­tember by a small explosion in a separation bolt on the Soyuz docking ring. A leaking pressure membrane in a small tank of liquid hydrogen peroxide had also ruptured, and procuring the replacement from the TMA6 craft that was under construction at Energiya in Moscow delayed the planned 9 October launch to 14 October. Once on

. SOYUZ TMA5

ISS 10 crew: Sharipov (left) and Chiao (centre) with Yuri Shargin (right) review crew equipment during the final check of the Soyuz TMA5 spacecraft on 9 October 2004 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan

orbit, problems with an intermittent forward-firing thruster on TMA5 resulted in Sharipov having to conduct a manual docking with the station.

During the tenth expedition on ISS, the two-man crew would complete two Pirs – based EVAs, receive two Progress re-supply craft and relocate their TMA from the Pirs module (where they docked) to the Zarya module. There were also further problems with the Elektron unit, repairs to US EVA suits and Russian Orlan M suits, upgrades to the computer software, the breakdown of the station’s toilet in the Zvezda living quarters, the replacement of a faulty heat exchanger in the Quest airlock module, and the relocation of the Canadarm2 to deal with. Fitted around all of this was the routine work with the experiments aboard the station and general house­keeping chores.

During the first EVA (26 Jan 2005 for 5 hours 28 minutes), Sharipov photographed the residue around vents on the outside of Zvezda, generated from by-products of the Elektron and carbon dioxide removal systems. The two men also completed the installation of a work platform and deployed a European commercial experiment and a Russian experiment. The second EVA (28 Mar for 4 hours 30 min­utes) included the installation of cables and antennas on Zvezda in support of future

ATV dockings and the deployment by hand of a small satellite to test new control techniques.

In late November, there were concerns that the food supplies onboard the station were less than expected. Three audits of onboard supplies indicated that the rations would run out by mid-January. It was intended that there should be a 45-day buffer of supplies to cope with any delay in the launch of the next re-supply vessel, but it was found that the records of inventory were not being kept as accurately as they should have been, probably due to the increased workload that the smaller crews were having to cover. Re-supply craft Progress M51 resolved the immediate problem by delivering 200 kg of food supplies, which would last until Progress M52 arrived in March.

On the ground, NASA was working toward the resumption of Shuttle flights, with the STS-114 mission planned for May 2005. Though no construction work would be conducted on the first two missions (designated Return-to-Flight missions 114 and 121), there would be an opportunity to deliver supplies, spares and other logistics, as well as removing the significant amount of unwanted gear that had built up since the departure of Endeavour (STS-113) in December 2002. During the early weeks of 2005, the crew began packing and stowing items that were to be returned in bundles on the floor of Zvezda and in a stowage rack in the Destiny lab.

Near the end of their tour of duty, the ISS-10 crew were joined by their replace­ments, the ISS-11 crew, who arrived on Soyuz TMA6 in April 2005. Also on board the new TMA was Italian astronaut Roberto Vittori, who brought some much-enjoyed Italian delicacies with him for the period of joint activities prior to returning to Earth with the ISS-10 crew aboard TMA5.

Milestones

242nd manned space flight

98th Russian manned space flight

91st manned Soyuz mission

5th manned Soyuz TMA mission

38th Russian and 92nd flight with EVA operations

9th ISS Soyuz mission (9S)

7th ISS visiting mission (VC-7)

4th resident caretaker ISS crew (2 person)

LONG-DURATION SPACEFLIGHT

With the loss of the race to the Moon, the Soviets reported that they had actually never intended to go there anyway. Their plan was to develop a long-duration orbital station. It was years before the truth came out and the details of their abandoned lunar programme became known. However, their statement was partially correct, as a military-based space platform called Almaz had been in development for years, supported by other Soyuz-type military variants. Almaz would not be the first station launched, however. To hasten the launch of the first Soviet space station, elements of Soyuz were added to a civilian variant called DOS and amalgamated into the world’s first space station – Salyut. This was launched two years before the Americans launched Skylab, which was itself fabricated from left over Apollo lunar hardware.

Soyuz

Critical to sustaining long-duration space flight is the supply of sufficient logistics and the rotation of the crews. For this, the Soviets called upon their orbital lunar space­craft Soyuz, adapting it to fly as a space station ferry craft (in manned and unmanned versions) and to serve as a crew rescue craft while docked to the station. The Soyuz vehicle was one of the most successful programmes in space history. Although the first manned mission in 1967 was a failure and resulted in the first casualty of space flight, a series of variants – Soyuz, Soyuz T, TM and TMA – have carried many crews to the Salyut and Mir national space stations and continue to do so to the current Inter­national Space Station. The programme will soon be entering its 40th year. After recovering from the loss of Soyuz 1 and the death of its cosmonaut, the Soviets evolved a series of missions to develop the rendezvous and docking technique they had intended to use on the way to the Moon, now amended for the space station programme. In addition, a short series of solo Soyuz flights flew space station equipment, conducting a series of test and supplementary flights to the often troubled Salyut series of stations.

The “original” Soyuz spacecraft was designed as a Vostok successor in about 1962. It weighed 6,450 kg (14,222 lb) and was 8.85m (29 ft) long from the base of its instrument section to the tip of its docking probe. The 2.3 m (7.5 ft) long, 2.3 m (7.5 ft) diameter instrument section, called the Equipment Module (EM), included a UDMH-nitric oxide prime and back-up propulsion system, for orbital manoeuvres and retro-fire. The prime engine had a burn time of 500 seconds and a thrust of 417 kg (919lb). The instrument section included two 3.6m (12ft) by 1.9m (6ft) solar panels.

LONG-DURATION SPACEFLIGHT

The Soyuz, workhorse of the Russian space programme, is photographed on approach to a space station

The flight and Descent Module (DM) was shaped like an inverted cup and measured 2.2 m (7 ft) long and 2.3 m (7.5 ft) in diameter. It included up to three seats and systems such as hydrogen peroxide ACS thrusters, a beacon, sun and infra-red sensors, and rendezvous radar beacons. It was equipped with one drogue and one main parachute (plus a reserve), which opened at about 8,500m (28,000 ft) altitude, and, beneath a jettisonable heat shield, a soft-landing retro-rocket to reduce speed to 0.3m/sec (1 ft/ sec) at 1 m (3 ft) altitude. Attached to the flight module was an Orbital Module (OM), a spherical capsule containing extra housekeeping and science equipment and which acted as an airlock for EVAs. This was 2.65 m (8.69 ft) long and 2.25m (7.3 ft) in diameter. The OM was discarded after retro-fire. It also included a 1.2 m (4 ft) long docking probe at its tip. The Soyuz 12 spacecraft was basically the same as the earlier Soyuz craft, except the crew wore spacesuits (following the loss of the Soyuz 11 crew who hadn’t). The craft was equipped with only batteries for power, and no solar panels, as it was intended as a space station ferry with only a two-day independent flight capability.

Soyuz T – for Transport – was introduced in 1979 and weighed about 6,850 kg (15,104 lb). It was a redesigned Soyuz ferry vehicle, reconfigured to take a crew of three and with two solar panels which allowed independent flight for four rather than two days. Also included were new computers, controls and telemetry systems. The major change to the Soyuz was its fully integrated fuel system, with attitude control thrusters using the same fuel source as the main propulsion unit. The thrust of the main engine was reduced to 315 kg (695 lb) but there were now 26 ACS thrusters aboard. The main reason for this was that some previous docking failures could have been overcome had the cosmonauts been able to transfer fuel from the ACS system to the main spacecraft engine. Soyuz T2 was preceded by three unmanned tests under the Cosmos label (869, 1001 and 1074) and one Soyuz (Tl) in 1979.

Soyuz TM – Transport Modification – was introduced in 1986 and weighed about 7,100 kg (15,653 lb). This was an uprated and heavier Soyuz T spacecraft, incorporat­ing new primary and back-up parachutes, improved power systems and retro-rockets, and the capability to carry 200 kg (441 lb) more payload and return to Earth with 50 kg (110 lb). Soyuz TM was also equipped with a rendezvous and docking system com­patible with the Mir Kurs system. Soyuz TM1 was an unmanned test flight to Mir in 1986.

Soyuz TMA – Transport Modification Anthropometric – was introduced in 2002 and was more of a systems and internal upgrade than a structural one, measuring and weighing about the same as the TM. The requirement for a new version of Soyuz was in part due to larger (American) crew members being assigned to Soyuz missions. New seating support structures and modifications to the descent landing engines meant a slightly greater landing mass was possible, allowing regular three-person crews to be flown. In addition, the controls and displays now featured more computer displays and smaller electronics systems. There were no unmanned TMA precursor flights.

An unmanned variant called Progress was introduced in 1978 and has also been upgraded (Progress M, M1). This has been used to re-supply Soviet space stations with fuel, logistics and orbital re-boost capability and is still an integral element in the ISS programme.