Category Praxis Manned Spaceflight Log 1961-2006

Future Flight Manifest 2006-2011 (as at 1 October 2006)

Date

Mission

Flight

Country Crew

Objective

2009

Jan STS-128 ? (128) 17A USA Establish six person crew capability on ISS

No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three crew quarters, galley, second treadmill (TYIS2); Crew Flealth Care System 2 (CHeCS 2)

Mar

Soyuz TMA13

ISS-19

Russia

Krikalev (TMA/ISS Cdr)?; Surayev (FE) plus ?

Additional EO crew members?

Apr

STS-129? (129)

ULF-3

USA

No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC 1); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC 2)

Jul

STS-130? (130)

19A

USA

No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)

Sep

Soyuz TMA14?

ISS-20

Russia

No crew assigned

Sep?

Shenzhou 8 & Shenzhou 9

China

China

No crew assigned No crew assigned

Shenzhou 8 & 9 to perform first Chinese manned docking and creation of small short-stay space station

Oct

STS-131? (131)

ULF-4

USA

No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC 3); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC 4); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency

2010

Jan

STS-132? (132)

20A

USA

No crew assigned

Node 3 with Cupola

Mar

Soyuz TMA15?

ISS-21

Russia

No crew assigned

816 Appendix С

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC 5); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 6 (ELC 6); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency

ISS Assembly complete – Shuttle fleet retired Sep Soyuz TMA16 ? ISS-22 Russia No crew assigned

2011

Mar Soyuz TMA17 ? ISS-23 Russia No crew assigned

Apr

The following information was compiled with the help of Collect Space 7 Oct 2006, Robert Pearlman

Soyuz TMA-crewing 2007-2008

TMA10 ISS-15: April 2007-September 2007

Commander

FE1

FE2a

FE2b

FE2c

Oleg Kotov Fyodor Yurchikhin

Suni Williams (up on STS-116) until June 2007 Clay Anderson (up on STS-118) until September 2007 Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007

TMA11 ISS-16:

Commander

FE1

FE2a

FE2b

FE2c

FE2d

September 2007-March 2008 Yuri Malenchenko Peggy Whitson

Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007 Leopold Eyharts (up on STS-122) until December 2007 Bob Thirsk (up on STS-123) until March 2008 Koichi Wakata (up on STS-124) until April 2008

TMA12 ISS-17:

Commander

FE-1

FE-2

FE-2b

FE-2c

March 2008-September 2008 Sergei Volkov

Peggy Whitson (stays on ISS for 9 months returns on STS-119) Shalizhan Sharipov (launched on TMA-12)

Sandy Magnus (up on STS-119) until September 2008 Greg Chamitoff (up on STS-126) until November 2008.

A Selected Timeline

1961

Apr Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person fly into space and completes one orbit May Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space on a sub-orbital flight Aug Gherman Titov is launched on the first 24-hour mission, of 17 orbits

1962

Feb John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth, with 3 orbits Jul First X-15 flight to exceed 50 miles (Robert White)

Aug Andrian Nikolayev sets new endurance record (3 days 22 hours)

1963

Jun Valeri Bykovsky sets new endurance record (4 days 23 hours)

Valentina Tereshkova becomes first woman in space (2 days 22 hours)

Aug Highest X-15 flight (66.75 miles) – Pilot Joseph Walker

1964

Oct First multi-person space crew (3) – Voskhod 1; First civilians in space

1965

Mar Alexei Leonov becomes first person to walk in space

Mar First US multi-person crew (2) on Gemini 3

Jun Ed White becomes first American to walk in space

Aug Gemini 5 sets new endurance record (7 days 22 hours)

Cooper becomes first person to orbit Earth a second time Dec Gemini 7 set new endurance record (13 days 18 hours)

First space rendezvous – Gemini 6 with Gemini 7

1966

Mar First space docking – Gemini 8 with Agena target

Sep Gemini 11 attains highest altitude of Earth orbital manned flight (850 miles)

1967

Jan 27 Three Apollo 1 astronauts killed in pad fire

Apr Soyuz 1 pilot Vladimir Komarov killed during landing phase

Oct X-15 fastest flight (4520 mph – Mach 6.7) (Pete Knight)

Nov X-15 pilot Michael Adams is killed in crash of #3 aircraft after attaining

50.4 miles

1968

Aug Thirteenth and final X-15 “astro-flight”

Oct First three-man Apollo flight (Apollo 7)

Schirra becomes first person to make three orbital spaceflights Dec Apollo 8 becomes first lunar orbital mission

1969

Jan Soyuz 5/4 first manned docking and crew transfer (by EVA)

Mar Manned test of LM in Earth orbit (Apollo 9)

May Manned test of LM in lunar orbit (Apollo 10)

Jul First manned lunar landing – Apollo 11

Oct First triple manned spacecraft mission (Soyuz 6, 7, 8)

Nov Second manned lunar landing Apollo 12

1970

Apr Apollo 13 aborted lunar landing mission

Lovell becomes first to fly in space four times Jun Soyuz 9 cosmonauts set new endurance record (17 days 16 hrs)

1971

Feb Third manned lunar landing (Apollo 14)

Apr Launch of world’s first Space Station – Salyut (de-orbits Oct 1971)

Jun First space station (Salyut) crew. Killed during entry phase (Soyuz 11) Jul Fourth manned lunar landing (Apollo 15)

1972

Apr Fifth manned lunar landing (Apollo 16)

Dec Sixth and final (Apollo) manned lunar landing (Apollo 17)

1973

Apr Salyut 2 (Almaz) fails in orbit (de-orbits in 26 days)

May Launch of unmanned Skylab (re-enters Jul 1979)

First Skylab crew sets new endurance record of 28 days Jul Second Skylab crew increases endurance record to 59 day 11 hrs

Nov 3rd and final Skylab crew increases endurance record to 84 days 1 hr

1974

Jun Launch of Salyut (Almaz) 3 (de-orbits Jan 1975)

Jul First successful Soviet space station mission (Soyuz 14)

Dec Launch of Salyut 4 (de-orbits Feb 1977)

1975

Apr Soyuz 18 crew survive launch abort

Jul Soyuz 19 and Apollo dock in space – first international mission

1977

Sep Salyut 6 launched (de-orbits Jul 1982)

Dec First Salyut 6 resident crew set new endurance record of 96 days 10 hrs

1978

Jan First Soyuz exchange mission (Soyuz 27 for Soyuz 26)

Mar First Soviet Interkosmos mission (Czechoslovakian)

First non-Soviet, non-American person in space (Remek)

Jun Second Salyut 6 crew sets new endurance record of 139 days 14 hrs

1979

Feb Third Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 175 days

1980

Apr Fourth Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 184 days 20 hrs Jun First manned flight of Soyuz T variant

1981

Apr First Shuttle launch (Columbia STS-1) on 20th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight

John Young becomes first to make five space flights
Nov First return to space by manned spacecraft (Columbia STS-2)

1982

Apr Salyut 7 launched (de-orbits Feb 1991)

May First Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 211 days 9 hrs

Nov First “operational” Shuttle mission, STS-5, is also the first four-person

launch

1983

Apr First flight of Challenger

Jun Sally Ride becomes first US woman in space during STS-7, the first five – person launch

Sep Soyuz T10-1 launch pad abort

Nov First Spacelab mission – STS-9; first six-person launch John Young flies record sixth mission

1984

Feb First use of MMU (STS 41-B) on untethered spacewalks Feb Third Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 236 days 22 hrs

Jul Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to walk in space (Soyuz T12/

Salyut 7)

Aug First flight of Discovery on STS 41-D Oct First seven-person launch (STS 41-G)

Kathy Sullivan becomes first American woman to walk in space

1985

Jan First classified DoD Shuttle mission (STS 51-C)

Jul First Shuttle Abort-to-Orbit profile (STS 51-F)

Oct First flight of Atlantis (STS 51-J)

Oct First eight-person launch (STS 61-A)

1986

Jan Challenger and its crew of seven lost 73 seconds after launch (STS 51-L) Feb Mir core module launched unmanned

Mar First resident crew to Mir (Soyuz T15)

1987

Feb Second Mir resident crew sets new endurance record of 326 days 11 hrs First manned Soyuz TM variant

Dec First flight of over a year as third Mir resident crew sets endurance record of 365 days 22 hrs

1988

Sep Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission (STS-26)

1990

Apr Hubble Space Telescope deployment (STS-31)

1992

May First flight of Endeavour (STS-49)

1993

Dec First Hubble Service Mission (STS-61)

1994

Jan Valery Polyakov sets new endurance record (437 days 17 hrs) for one mission (lands Mar 1995)

Feb First Russian cosmonaut to fly on Shuttle (Krikalev STS-60)

1995

Feb First Shuttle-Mir rendezvous STS-63/Mir

Eileen Collins becomes first female Shuttle pilot Mar First American launched on Soyuz (Thagard – TM21)

Jul First Shuttle docking with Mir (STS-71 – Thagard down)

Nov Second Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-74)

1996

Mar Third Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-76 – Lucid up)

Sep Fourth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-79 – Lucid down, Blaha up)

Nov Longest Shuttle mission (17 days 15 hrs – STS-80)

Musgrave becomes only astronaut to fly all five orbiters

1997

Jan Fifth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-81 – Blaha down, Linenger up)

Feb Second Hubble service mission (STS-82)

May Sixth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-84 – Linenger down, Foale up)

Jun Collision between unmanned Progress vessel and Mir space station damages Spektr module

Sep Seventh Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-86 – Foale down, Wolf up)

1998

Jan Eighth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-89 – Wolf down, Thomas up)

Jun Ninth and final Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-91 – Thomas down)

Oct John Glenn returns to space aged 77, 36 years after his first space flight Nov First ISS element launched – Zarya FGB Dec First ISS Shuttle mission (STS-88)

1999

Jul Eileen Collins becomes first female US mission commander (STS-93)

Aug Mir vacated for first time in ten years Dec Third Hubble service mission (STS-103)

2000

Apr Last (28th) Mir resident crew (72 days)

Oct First ISS resident crew launched

2001

Mar Mir space station de-orbits after 15 years service

Apr Dennis Tito becomes first space flight participant, or “tourist”

2002

Mar Fourth Hubble service mission (STS-109)

Apr Jerry Ross becomes first person to fly seven missions in space Oct First manned flight of Soyuz TMA

2003

Feb Columbia and crew of seven lost during entry phase of mission STS-107

Apr ISS assumes two-person caretaker crews

Oct First Chinese manned spaceflight (Shenzhou 5)

Yang Liwei becomes first Chinese national in space

2004

Sep Spaceship One flies to 337,500 ft (102.87 km)

Oct Spaceship One flies to 367,442 ft (111.99 km) claiming $10 million X-Prize

2005

Jul Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission 1 – STS-114 Oct First Chinese two-man space flight – Shenzhou 6

2006

Jul Second Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission – STS-121 Aug ISS returns to three-person capability

Resumption of ISS construction – STS-115

Bibliography

The authors have referred to their own extensive archives in the compilation of this book. In addition, the following publications and resources were of great help in assembling the data:

The Press Kits, News releases and mission information from NASA, ESA, CSA, RKK-Energiya, JAXA (NASDA), CNES, and Novosti have been invaluable resources for many years

Magazines:

Flight International 1961-2006

Aviation Week and Space Technology 1961-2006

BIS Spaceflight 1961-2006

Soviet Weekly/Soviet News 1961-1990

Orbiter, Astro Info Service 1984-1992

Zenit, Astro Info Service, 1985-1991

ESA Bulletin 1975-2006

British Interplanetary Society Books:

History of Mir 1986-2000; Mir: The Final Year Supplement, Editor Rex Hall 2000/ 2001

The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 1 Ed Rex Hall 2002 The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 2, Ed Rex Hall 2005

NASA Reports:

NASA Astronautics and Aeronautics, various volumes, 1961-1995

Mir Hardware Heritage, David S. F. Portree NASA RP-1357, March 1995. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Trevino, NASA Monograph in Aerospace history, #7 October 1997

NASA Histories:

1966 This New Ocean, a History of Project Mercury, SP-4201

1977 On the Shoulders of Titans: A history of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203

1978 The Partnership: A history of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209

1979 Chariots for Apollo: A history of manned lunar spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 1983 Living and working in space: A history of Skylab NASA SP 4208

1977 Where No Man Has Gone Before: a history of Apollo lunar exploration missions, NASA SP-4214

2000 Challenge to Apollo: the Soviet Union and the Space Race 1945-1974, Asif Siddiqi, NASA SP-2000-4408

Other Books:

1980 Handbook of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Nicholas L. Johnson, AAS Vol 48, Science and Technology Series

1981 The History of Manned Spaceflight, David Baker

1987 Heroes in Space: From Gagarin to Challenger, Peter Bond

1988 Space Shuttle Log: The First 25 Flights, Gene Gurney and Jeff Forte

1988 The Soviet Manned Space Programme, Phillip Clark

1989 The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Space Technology, Chief Author Ken Gatland

1990 Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Dennis Newkirk

1992 At the Edge of Space: The X-15 Flight Program, Milton O. Thompson 1999 Who’s Who in space: The ISS Edition, Michael Cassutt 2001 Space Shuttle, History and Development of the National STS Program, Dennis Jenkins

Springer-Praxis Space Science Series (which include extensive references and bibliographies for further reading)

1999 Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions, David M. Harland

2000 Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight, David J. Shayler

2000 The Challenges of Human Space Exploration, Marsha Freeman

2001 Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier, Brian Harvey

2001 The Rocket Men, Vostok & Voskhod, the First Soviet Manned Spaceflights, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler 2001 Skylab:; America’s Space Station, David J. Shayler 2001 Gemini: Steps to the Moon, David J. Shayler

2001 Project Mercury: NASA’s First Manned Space Programme, John Catchpole

2002 The Continuing Story of the International Space Station, Peter Bond

Creating the International Space Station, David M. Harland and John E. Catchpole

Apollo: Lost and Forgotten Missions, David J. Shayler

Soyuz, a Universal Spacecraft, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler

China’s Space Programme: From Concept to Manned Spaceflight, Brian

Harvey

Walking in Space, David J. Shayler

The Story of the Space Shuttle, David M Harland

The Story of Space Station Mir, David M. Harland

Women in Space: Following Valentina, David J Shayler and Ian Moule

Space Shuttle Columbia: Her Missions and Crews, Ben Evans.

Russia’s Cosmonauts: Inside the Yuri Gagarin Training Center, Rex Hall, David J. Shayler and Bert Vis

Apollo: The Definitive Source Book, Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland

2002

2002

2003

2004

2004

2004

2005

2005

2005

2005

2006

2006

NASA Scientist Astronauts, Colin Burgess and David J. Shayler

X-15 – A ROCKETPLANE TO SPACE

During the 1940s and 1950s, proposals for rocket-propelled aircraft designed to exceed the speed of sound were instigated in several countries. The most successful were the American X-series of aircraft, which included the X-1 that broke the sound barrier (Mach 1) in October 1947 and the X-15 hypersonic research aircraft. The X-20 was a USAF proposal for a one-man orbital space plane which would have been rocket-launched, but would have landed on a runway utilising the technique of dynamic soaring, hence its nickname – the DynaSoar. The concept never flew. Similar designs were developed in the Soviet Union and both countries eventually used the technology to develop a manned reusable space shuttle, though the Soviet craft (Buran) only flew one short unmanned mission in 1988.

X-15 – A winged marvel

The X-15 programme began in 1954 and three aircraft were constructed. The pro­gramme was designed to provide data on aerodynamics, structural and control prob­lems, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. Once these primary objectives had been met and exceeded, the programme began to gather data from various experiments and materials carried by the X-15 to the fringes of Earth’s atmosphere, many of which helped in the development of techniques and material for future programmes such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle. To assist in meeting this new objective the second aircraft was modified (after a serious accident in 1962), improving its performance to attain speeds of Mach 8 and support the development of supersonic combustion ramjet engines (scramjets).

Measuring 50 feet (15.24 metres) long and with a short stubby wingspan of 22 feet (6.70 metres), the X-15 featured a wedge-shaped vertical tail. The vehicle weighed about 14,000 lbs (6,350.4 kg) unfuelled and 34,000 lbs (15,422.40 kg) with a full fuel load. The high speeds that the X-15 would attain posed a problem for protecting the structural skin of the aircraft. This was solved with a heat-resistant skin made from Inconel-X nickel-steel alloy over a titanium and stainless steel structure. Control during atmospheric flight was by conventional aerodynamic control surfaces, but “in space’’, eight hydrogen-peroxide thrusters on the nose controlled the pitch and yaw, with a further four on the wings used for roll control. Difficulties with the X-15’s primary propulsion system (Thiokol XLR99) resulted in the decision to use two Reaction Motors XLR11 rocket engines for the initial powered test flights. Each XLR11 engine produced 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of thrust. The manually-controlled XLR99 rocket engine had a thrust of about 60,000 lbs (27,216 kg).

Air-launched from under the wing of a B-52 at about 45,000 ft (13,700 metres) at an air speed of 500 mph (804.5 kph), the rocket motor was ignited by the pilot after dropping from the B-52 wing and burned for about 80 seconds. There were two flight profiles. The one for high altitude included a steep rate of climb while the other was used for level attitude high-speed objectives. Each free-flight lasted for about 10-11 minutes, mostly unpowered, and at the peak altitude of the astro-flights, only two or three minutes of “weightlessness” was experienced. However, the pilots did get a clear view of the curvature of the Earth’s surface and the blackness of space above the thin layer of the atmosphere. The X-15’s landing gear consisted of rear skids and a nose wheel, and landings were usually at about 200 mph (321.8 kph).

Skylab

America’s follow-on programme to Apollo was launched in 1973 and housed three crews of three astronauts on long-duration missions of 28, 59 and 84 days. This would

Skylab

The Skylab crews. Top: Skylab 2; left: Skylab 3; and right: Skylab 4

be the first step towards gaining long-duration space flight experience for the Amer­icans, one that would not be followed up until Shuttle-Mir operations over 20 years later. Skylab 1 was fully fitted laboratory and crew quarters in an S-IVB stage that was launched on a two-stage Saturn V. The cylindrical workshop included two large solar arrays, an airlock for EVAs, a multiple docking adapter with two Apollo CSM docking ports (one for a two-man CSM rescue craft to bring home a stranded three-person Skylab crew if required) and the Apollo (Solar) Telescope Mount, which was a converted Apollo Lunar Module descent stage with four extendable solar arrays. Inside the workshop, the former hydrogen tank was divided into crew quarters and a large experiment area. The working volume of the station was 367.9 m3. The Skylab Apollo Command and Service Module weighed 13,782 kg (30,389 lb). It was similar to the Apollo CSMs, but was outfitted for extended-duration missions. Modifications included an additional 680 kg (1,499 lb) propellant tank for the RCS system, and three 500-ampere batteries.

Skylab suffered damage during launch and was almost lost before a crew could be launched to it. However, sterling efforts by ground crews and the astronauts restored the station to operational use and it became one of the success stories of the space

programme, though it is often forgotten in the shadow of Apollo. Skylab was designed to research the potential for a wide range of experimentation in medicine and industrial applications, such as the manufacture of electronic components and pharmaceuticals, as well as astronomy and solar physics observations and Earth remote sensing. Other missions were planned, including a rendezvous with an early Shuttle mission, but the station could not remain in orbit and re-entered in July 1979. Plans for Skylab В and Skylab C were supported but never fully funded.

SOYUZ 1

Int. Designation

1967-037A

Launched

23 April 1967

Launch Site

Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan

Landed

24 April 1967

Landing Site

65 km east of Orsk (fatal crash landing)

Launch Vehicle

R7 (11A511); spacecraft serial number (7K-OK) #4

Duration

1 day 2 hrs 47 min 52 sec

Callsign

Rubin (Ruby)

Objective

Manned test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK variant; intended active craft for docking with passive “Soyuz 2’’ (cancelled)

Flight Crew

KOMAROV, Vladimir Mikhailovich, 40, Soviet Air Force, pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Voskhod 1 (1964)

Flight Log

Three months after the shocking Apollo 1 fire, what ostensibly began as a Soviet triumph, the flight of Soyuz 1, also ended in tragedy. The cause of the first fatal space mission was, like Apollo 1, over-confidence and bad workmanship. In fact, it could be called sheer foolhardiness. Four unmanned Soyuz test flights under the guise of the all-embracing Cosmos programme had failed. When he arrived at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov must have been aware that he was laying his life on the line. But for what? It appears that Soyuz 1 was to attempt a propaganda coup to overshadow the US space programme still in mourning over Apollo 1. It was to fly into orbit and await the arrival of Soyuz 2, which would not only dock with it but would transfer two crewmen externally by EVA.

The space spectacular began with the launch of Soyuz 1, at 05:35 hrs local time. Komarov entered a 201-244 km (125-152 miles) orbit, with a unique manned inclina­tion of 51°, and hit trouble. One solar panel did not deploy, and without necessary power many systems were degraded. Soyuz was the first manned spacecraft to carry solar panels. On another launch pad about 32 km (20 miles) away, another Soyuz booster was ready to launch Soyuz 2, carrying Valeriy Bykovsky, Yevgeniy Khrunov and Aleksey Yeliseyev. The latter two would be the EVA transfer crewmen. The launch was at first scrapped, then dramatically, plans were set in motion for an extraordinary rescue mission, during which the two Soyuz 2 EVA crewmen would pull out Soyuz 1’s stuck solar panel.

The Soyuz 2 trio went to bed to rest before the following day’s rescue bid. Meanwhile, attempts were made to terminate the Soyuz 1 mission. Komarov appar­ently tried to fire the retro-rocket on the sixteenth and seventeenth orbits, but

SOYUZ 1

Komarov in training for Soyuz 1

probably had difficulty orienting the spacecraft. He succeeded on the eighteenth orbit and during the southbound re-entry towards an emergency landing zone, the space­craft may have been out of full control, so much so that when the main landing parachute was deployed, it tangled.

Soyuz plummeted to the ground as Komarov awaited his fate. The capsule smashed into the ground, at T + 1 day 2 hours 47 minutes 52 seconds, at 08:22hrs on 24 April, causing a large crater and catching fire. Komarov had no ejection seat and had made the ultimate sacrifice. When the Soyuz 2 crew awoke, they were told the news. At the time, all the world knew was that Soyuz 1 was on a solo mission and its parachute had tangled. The full facts have never emerged and the planned Soyuz 2 mission was never officially confirmed by the Soviets until 1989, despite heaps of evidence that included photos of the two crews together.

Milestones

25th manned space flight 9th Soviet manned space flight 1st Soyuz manned flight 1st fatal space mission

During the recovery period in manned space flight following the twin tragedies of Apollo 1 and Soyuz 1, the final astro-flights of the X-15 programme took place – and suffered a tragedy of their own. On 17 October 1967, William “Pete” Knight, 38, of the USAF, flew X-15 aircraft number 3 on the eleventh astro-flight to an altitude of almost 86 km. The following month, on 15 November 1967, USAF pilot Michael Adams, 37, was killed in the crash of X-15 aircraft number 3 after attaining 81 km during the twelfth astro-flight. The final such flight occurred on 21 August 1968, with NASA civilian test pilot William Dana, 37, at the controls. The thirteenth astro-flight of the programme saw X-15 aircraft number 1 reach a peak altitude of 81 km.

Подпись:

Подпись: APOLLO 7
Подпись: 1968-089A 11 October 1968 Pad 34, Cape Kennedy, Florida 22 October 1968 Western Atlantic Ocean southeast of Bermuda Saturn 1B/AS-205; spacecraft CSM-101 10 days 20 hrs 9 min 3 sec Apollo Seven Earth orbital demonstration of Block II CSM performance including multiple Service Propulsion System (SPS) burns; crew, spacecraft and mission support facility performance; CSM rendezvous capability

Flight Crew

SCHIRRA, Walter Marty Jr., 45, USN, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: Mercury-Atlas 8 (1962); Gemini 6 (1965) EISELE, Donn Fulton, 38, USAF, command module pilot CUNNINGHAM, Walter, 36, civilian, lunar module pilot

Flight Log

Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, 623 days after the Apollo 1/204 spacecraft disaster, Apollo 7/205 lifted off from Pad 34 at Cape Kennedy, three minutes late, at 11: 03hrs on 11 October 1968, on a Saturn 1B. Redesigned, tested and re-tested, Apollo 7 was to conduct a thorough shakedown flight of the revised system before the USA could be confident again about going forward to the Moon. The 10 days 20 hours 9 minutes 3 seconds-long mission (which ended with the Command Module upside down but righted by buoyancy balloons, close to the recovery ship USS Essex), was brilliant, termed 101 per cent successful by NASA chiefs. Indeed so successful was it that the media, having nothing much to write about, zeroed in on the mood of the crew, thus misrepresenting the true nature of the flight.

True, the zealous commander Wally Schirra, the first to make three space flights, and his senior pilot Donn Eisele caught colds – probably during a hunting trip a few days before blast-off, thus introducing strict quarantine conditions for future crews. Schirra was distinctly very irritable at times during the mission, refusing to turn on in-flight television, making burns and re-entering with his crew not wearing their helmets. Schirra, Eisele and the healthy pilot Walt Cunningham, who did not catch a cold, had entered a 31.64° inclination orbit and separated from the S-IVB second stage, turned around and simulated the extraction of a Lunar Module (which was not flown) that would take place on Saturn V-boosted Moon flights, in what was called the

SOYUZ 1

Eisele, Schirra and Cunningham receive a phone call from President Johnson

transposition and docking manoeuvre. An added bonus of this 20-minute long station-keeping manoeuvre was superb photography showing the S-IVB flying right over the Cape and the nearby Kennedy Space Center.

The extremely busy flight plan – which to the chagrin of Schirra, several controllers tried to make flexible at rather short notice, leading the commander to announce that he would become the onboard flight director for the rest of the mission – included eight ignitions of the service propulsion system engine, so vital to lunar orbital insertion and trans-Earth injection burns. The longest of these burns lasted 66 seconds and enabled Apollo 7 briefly to reach an altitude of 430 km (267 miles). In­flight television shows were very well received on the ground and featured much light­hearted banter between the mission control team and the crew on orbit.

Milestones

26th manned space flight

17th US manned space flight

1st Apollo CSM manned flight

1st US three-crew space flight

1st space flight by a crewman on third mission

Int. Designation

1983-026A

Launched

18 June 1983

Launch Site

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

24 June 1983

Landing Site

Runway 15, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-099 Challenger/ET-7/SRB A51; A52/SSME #1 2017; #2 2015; #3 2012

Duration

6 days 2 hrs 23 min 59 sec

Callsign

Challenger

Objective

Commercial satellite deployment mission; space adaptation medical investigations

Flight Crew

CRIPPEN, Robert Laurel, 45, USN, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-1 (1981)

HAUCK, Frederick “Rick” Hamilton, 42, USN, pilot FABIAN, John McCreary, 44, USAF, mission specialist 1 RIDE, Sally Kristen, 32, civilian, mission specialist 2 THAGARD, Norman Earl, 39, civilian, mission specialist 3

Flight Log

By contrast to the Soviet reaction to the flight of Svetlana Savitskaya in 1982, the US launch of Sally Ride was played down as much as possible by NASA and by the lady herself, not with total success. The on-time lift-off occurred at 07: 33 hrs local time and after MECO, two OMS burns were required to carry Challenger to its operational 28.45° orbit with a maximum altitude of 272 km (169 miles). Crippen, the first person to fly the Shuttle for a second time, described the launch as a bit smoother than he remembered on STS-1.

The first commercial satellite payload was delivered into orbit at T + 9 hours 29 minutes, with an accuracy estimated at within 457 m (1,500 ft) of the target point and within 0.085° of the required pointing vector. Canada’s Anik 2C later made its way into geostationary orbit. The following day, satellite number two, India’s Palapa, was safely deployed. With the commercial trucking mission over, the crew got down to the third satellite deployment, that of the West German SPAS free flier, using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm operated by John Fabian. Almost immedi­ately, Fabian grabbed the satellite, demonstrating the first satellite retrieval. SPAS was released again and Crippen moved Challenger 300 m (984 ft) away and performed a series of station-keeping manoeuvres. Cameras on SPAS, meanwhile, took spec-

STS-7

Clockwise from top left: Crippen, Hauck, Fabian, Thagard and Ride, the crew of STS-7

tacular photos of Challenger in space, with the RMS arm conveniently cocked in the shape of a number 7.

Six science experiments were on board and these operated for nine-and-a-quarter hours autonomously before the free flier was retrieved, this time by Sally Ride. The third mission specialist, the flight doctor Norman Thagard, who had been added to the crew to study space adaptation syndrome, even had a go at using the RMS. A complement of onboard experiments was operated by the crew, including the first demonstration of the Shuttle’s Ku-band rendezvous radar system and a reduction in cabin pressure from 760 mm (3in) to 527 mm (2 in) for 30 hours to investigate the possibility of eliminating the required three-and-a-half hours pre-breathing period for EVA astronauts.

The high point of the mission was to be Challenger’s return to the Kennedy Space Center, the first such return to launch site in history. Bad weather thwarted the attempt and Crippen was diverted to Edwards Air Force Base to land on runway 15. His request for a two day orbital extension was turned down because of concerns over one of the APUs on Challenger. Mission time was T + 6 days 2 hours 23 minutes 59 seconds.

Milestones

91st manned space flight 38th US manned space flight 7th Shuttle flight 2nd flight of Challenger 1st flight with five crew 1st US female in space

Подпись:

Подпись: SOYUZ T9
Подпись: 1983-062A 27 June 1983 Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 23 November 1983 160 km east of Dzhezkazgan R7 (11A511U); spacecraft serial number (7K-ST) #14L 149 days 10hrs 46 min 1 sec Proton (Proton) Second Salyut 7 resident crew programme (revised)

Flight Crew

LYAKHOV, Vladimir Afanasevich, 42, Soviet Air Force, commander, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz 32 (1979)

ALEKSANDROV, Aleksandr Pavlovich, 40, civilian, flight engineer

Flight Log

Following the docking failure of Soyuz T8, the next crew were assigned to complete most of the tasks planned for the previous one. However, Titov and Strekalov had conducted extensive EVA training which the T9 crew had not, so the plan was to launch Soyuz T10 with Titov and Strekalov aboard to take over from the T9 crew and conduct the extensive EVAs they had trained for.

Soyuz T9, with a crew of two rather than the expected three (due to additional propellant load), took off from Baikonur at 15: 12hrs local time, and just over a day later docked at the rear of Salyut 7 to start a mission that would, according to mission controller Valery Ryumin, be shorter than Soyuz T5’s 211 days. They almost did not make it as, for the first time since Soyuz 1, one of the twin solar panels on Soyuz failed to deploy (although this did not prevent the docking with the Salyut), a fact not revealed for 20 years. The crew, Vladimir Lyakhov and rookie flight engineer Aleksandr Aleksandrov, were the first to operate using a Heavy Cosmos module, No.1443, attached to the front of Salyut 7. This two-part spacecraft contained a 1.5 m3 (50 ft3) habitable module, an Instrument Module, and a descent capsule capable of returning 500 kg (1,103 lb) to Earth. The module was equipped with 38 m2 (40 ft2) of solar panels, providing 3 kW of electricity.

Lyakhov and Aleksandrov got down to work producing virus cells and conduct­ing Earth resources surveys, saving Soviet citizens from disaster by warning of the formation of a lake from a melting glacier which threatened to flood several towns beneath. While the crew were inside Soyuz T9 conducting a mock evacuation exercise,

STS-7

With a traditional traveller’s gift of bread and salt (as well as flowers), the T9 crew relax after their recovery from the mission. Lyakhov is on the left, Alexandrov on the right

one of Salyut’s 14mm (1 in) thick windows was pitted to a depth of 4mm (0.16 in) by the impact of an unidentified object.

Cosmos 1443 separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August and, while flying autono­mously, returned its descent capsule containing film and some equipment. It landed 100 km (62 miles) southeast of Arkalyk on 23 August. The major part of Cosmos was destroyed during re-entry on 19 September. Soyuz T9 had been flown from the back of Salyut to the front to prepare for the arrival of Progress 17 on 19 August. Progress left on 17 September, leaving the port free for the Soyuz T10 crew, who were to have been launched on 27 September to help with repairs, including an EVA to correct solar panel problems and add additional panels to increase the electrical supply on board the station.

By this time, Salyut 7 was in pretty bad shape, propellant leaks leaving the station with little manoeuvrability. Salyut’s back-up main engine was also crippled and a solar panel failure had reduced solar power. A major incident occurred on 9 Sep­tember during the refuelling operations by Progress 17. A Salyut fuelling line used to feed oxidiser from the Progress to the Salyut ruptured. With only half of the 32 thrusters working, it seemed likely Salyut would have to be abandoned, but a decision was made to work around the problem and let the current mission continue while options for repair were evaluated. After the Soyuz T10 crew failed to reach orbit following the first on-the-pad launch abort in history, rumours spread in the west that Lyakhov and Aleksandrov were stranded in space, particularly as the Soyuz T9 ferry was exceeding its 115-day lifetime, according to the rumours, which created sensa­tional press stories.

The flight continued, and a Progress ferry craft was launched to Salyut, on 21 October, carrying new solar panels, fuel and equipment. It also provided a means of propulsion for the crippled station. The crew even made two spacewalks on 1 and 3 November, lasting 2 hours 50 minutes and 2 hours 55 minutes respectively, to erect new solar panels, while cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov carried out a simulated EVA at the same time in the neutral buoyancy tank at Star City. The two cosmonauts on Salyut had not trained to perform such complicated EVAs and struggled to complete the tasks, as reflected in the durations of each spacewalk. The tasks had originally been planned to be completed during one EVA, but were spread over two EVAs due to the cosmonauts’ inexperience. First-time space explorer Alexandrov was amazed by the whole experience of EVA and at one point casually discarded a small unwanted item into space to see what happened. This earned him a rebuke from Mission Control, who feared confusing the station’s stellar orientation system into “thinking” that the light refection from the object might be a star. Progress separated on 13 November and the so-called doomed cosmonauts made an unheralded landing on 23 November, at T + 149 days 10 hours 46 minutes. Maximum altitude reached in the 51.6° orbit was 354 km (220 miles). The unexpected extension to the mission had gave rise to concerns over the reliability of Soyuz T in supporting a crew after such a long time in space. Soyuz T9 proved such fears were unfounded, however, and the recovery occurred without incident, giving great con­fidence for longer Soyuz T-supported station residences.

Milestones

92nd manned space flight

54th Soviet manned space flight

47th manned Soyuz space flight

8th manned Soyuz T space flight

7th Soviet and 23rd flight with EVA operations

Lyakhov celebrates his 42nd birthday in space (20 July)

Int. Designation

1985-104A

Launched

30 October 1985

Launch Site

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

6 November 1985

Landing Site

Runway 17, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-099 Challenger/ET-24/SRB BI-022/SSME #1 2023;

#2 2020; #3 2021

Duration

7 days 0 hrs 44 min 53 sec

Callsign

Challenger

Objective

Spacelab D1 research programme

Flight Crew

HARTSFIELD, Henry Warren “Hank”, 51, USAF, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-4 (1982); STS 41-D (1984)

NAGEL, Steven Ray, 39, USAF, pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 51-D (1985)

DUNBAR, Bonnie Jean, 36, civilian, mission specialist 1

BUCHLI, James Frederick, 40, USMC, mission specialist 2, 2nd mission

Previous mission: STS 51-C (1985)

BLUFORD, Guion Stewart, 41, USAF, mission specialist 3, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-8 (1983)

MESSERSCHMID, Ernst Willi, civilian, payload specialist 1 FURRER, Reinhard, 44, civilian, payload specialist 2 OCKELS, Wubbo, 39, civilian, payload specialist 3

Flight Log

The STS 61-A mission carrying a Spacelab Long Module was chartered by West Germany for $175 million, contributing most of the 76 scientific experiments and two payload specialists – who preferred to be called payload scientists – to the seven-day expedition. The first flight by eight crew members included five NASA astronauts, two Germans and the first space-flying Dutchman, Wubbo Ockels. Pilot Steve Nagel, former mission specialist of 51-G, was flying again after only 128 days since his previous mission, a record turnaround. The Spacelab experiment operations were controlled by the West German DFVLR centre, near Munich, via the TDRS 1 and Intelsat satellites. Lift-off came at 12:00 hrs from Pad 39A and Challenger rolled on to its launch azimuth in dramatic fashion, heading towards its 57° inclination orbit, which would have a highest point of 288 km (179 miles).

A few technical problems, including communications, RCS thruster and fuel cell anomalies, delayed the entry into Spacelab by over three hours, but soon a 24-hour

STS 61-A

Payload Specialist Reinhard Furrer participates in medical experiments during Spacelab D1

round-the-clock regime of experimental work began, with the crew split into two shifts. They were aided when required by commander Hank Hartsfield and payload specialist Ockels, who overworked early in the mission and was ordered to rest. A unique experiment was the Space Sled, which was designed to investigate the reactions and adaptation of the human balance and orientation functions. It was moved backwards and forwards along a 7 m (23 ft) long track in the module. The Spacelab D1 programme included experiments in basic and applied microgravity research in materials science, life sciences and technology, communications and navigation.

Another first was achieved at the end of the 7 day 0 hour 44 minute 51 second mission, on runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base, when Hartsfield conducted a computer-controlled nosewheel steering test, deliberately steering up to 10 m (33 ft) off the centre line, to gain data on ways of eliminating excessive brake and tyre wear, such as that suffered by Discovery at the end of the 51-D Kennedy landing the previous April. The Spacelab D1 mission was considered a great success, so much so that West Germany booked a repeat mission for five years time (which actually flew eight years later).

Milestones

112th manned space flight

53rd US manned space flight

22nd Shuttle flight

9th flight of Challenger

3rd Spacelab Long Module mission

1st flight with eight crew members

1st flight by a Dutchman

1st commercially leased manned space flight

1st flight by two West Germans

1st US flight to be controlled outside the USA

Int. Designation

1992-071A

Launched

22 October 1992

Launch Site

Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

1 November 1992

Landing Site

Runway 33, Shuttle Landing Facility, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Launch Vehicle

OV-102 Columbia/ET-55/SRB BI-054/SSME #1 2030; #2 2015; #3 2034

Duration

9 days 20hrs 56 min 13 sec

Call sign

Columbia

Objective

Deployment of Laser Geodynamic Satellite II (LAGEOS II) and operation of US Microgravity Payload 1 (USMP-1)

Flight Crew

WETHERBEE, James D., 39, USN, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-32 (1990)

BAKER, Michael A., 38, USN, pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-43 (1991)

VEACH, Lacy, 49, civilian, mission specialist 1, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-39 (1991)

SHEPHERD, William Michael, 43, USN, mission specialist 2, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-27 (1988); STS-41 (1990)

JERNIGAN, Tamara E., 32, civilian, mission specialist 3, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-40 (1991)

MACLEAN, Steven Glenwood, 37, civilian, Canadian payload specialist 1

Flight Log

The original mid-October launch date for STS-52 slipped when it was decided to exchange No. 3 SSME over concerns about possible cracks in the LH coolant manifold on the engine nozzle. The revised launch on 22 October was delayed by two hours due to crosswinds at the Shuttle Landing Facility, violating the Return-To – Launch-Site criteria. There were also heavy clouds at the Banjul trans-oceanic abort landing site. Despite concerns about the weather, the decision was made to proceed with the launch, in spite of higher than permitted wind speeds at launch. This caused some controversy at the time, but NASA stated that they felt the launch was safe and was performed within the intent of the rule.

Once in orbit, the crew activated the USMP-1 payload, which contained three experiments mounted on two MPESS structures in the payload bay. The Lambda Point Experiment studied the properties of liquid helium in microgravity, while the

STS-52

The Space Vision System (SVS) experiment is seen in the grasp of the RMS above the payload bay. Target spots placed on the Canadian Target Assembly (CTA) satellite were photographed and monitored as the arm moved around the payload bay holding the satellite. Computers measured the changing position of the dot pattern and provided real-time TV display of location and orientation of the CTA. This was an evaluation to aide future RMS operations in guiding the RMS more precisely during berthing and deployment activities

French Space Agency (CNES) and French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)- sponsored Material pour L’Etude des Phenomenes Interessant la Solidification sur Terre et en Orbite (MEPHISTO) included crystal growth experiments. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) had flown on previous Shuttle missions to measure and record accelerations which could affect onboard experiments. Located in the payload bay of the orbiter and operated by ground-based science teams indepen­dently of the flight crew, these experiments were a “dress rehearsal” for telescience operations on space station and other free-flying satellites.

The LAGEOS II satellite was successfully deployed at the end of FD 1 by spin stabilisation. Two subsequent firings of the solid rocket stages placed the geodynamics satellite in its 5,900 km orbit inclined at 52° to the equator. The previous satellite, LAGEOS I, which had been launched on a Delta expendable launch vehicle in 1976, was located at 110° inclination. The 426 laser reflectors on LAGEOS II provided accurate mapping of the Earth’s surface by using ground-based laser ranging systems and ground-based tracking stations worldwide. The possible applications for data collected by LAGEOS included calculations of the shifting of crustal plates, as well as rotation rates, tides and polar motion of the Earth. This data was also beneficial for global monitoring of regional fault movements in earthquake-prone areas of the Earth. By having two satellites in orbit, the data could be cross-referenced for confirmation and greater accuracy. The satellite was a joint project between NASA and the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), the Italian Space Agency. The upper stage used for deployment of the satellite was the Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS), also built by ASI and being evaluated on this flight for the first time for potential use on future Shuttle missions as an operational upper stage.

Canadian PS MacLean was responsible for the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2) programme of seven experiments, located both in the cargo bay and on the mid-deck of Columbia. His programme continued and expanded upon the work begun by Canadian astronauts aboard STS 41-G (Garneau) and STS-42 (Bondar), as part of Canadian involvement in Shuttle and Space Station operations. The primary experiment in the CANEX-2 package was the Space Vision System (SVS), in which a computerised “eye’’ would assist an astronaut in operating the RMS in situations where light or field of vision was restricted. The remaining CANEX-2 experiments included research into materials exposure (sample plates attached to the Canadian-built RMS), liquid-metal diffusion, phase partitioning in liquids, measure­ments of the Sun, photo-spectrometer in the atmosphere, the orbiter glow phenomena and space adaptation tests and observations.

The crew also worked with a number of mid-deck and payload bay secondary experiments, including the ESA-supplied ASP, a three-independent-sensor package that was designed to determine spacecraft orientation. There was also an experiment to control pressure in cryogenic fuel tanks in low gravity (which would have applica­tion to Space Station and long-duration space systems operations), protein crystal growth experiments, fluid mixing in microgravity, heat pipe performance in space, an experiment to study the proprietary protein molecule on twelve rodents, and an investigation into Shuttle RCS plume burn contamination.

One of the more challenging aspects of this mission regarding the payload was whether the capability of the Shuttle was being fully utilised on this flight. Commander Wetherbee commented from space that the experiment package his crew were dealing with was imposing time and power constraints on the mission, and that the crew were having a tough time staying out of each other’s way while performing the mid-deck experiments. That the mission was so successful was made possible by very good pre-flight planning of both crew and experiment time.

Milestones

155th manned space flight

81st US manned space flight

51st Shuttle mission

13th flight of Columbia

1st flight of USMP payload

1st flight of Italian IRIS upper stage on Shuttle

Baker celebrates his 39th birthday in space (27 Oct)