Category Praxis Manned Spaceflight Log 1961-2006

Future Flight Manifest 2006-2011 (as at 1 October 2006)




Country Crew



Jan STS-128 ? (128) 17A USA Establish six person crew capability on ISS

No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three crew quarters, galley, second treadmill (TYIS2); Crew Flealth Care System 2 (CHeCS 2)


Soyuz TMA13



Krikalev (TMA/ISS Cdr)?; Surayev (FE) plus ?

Additional EO crew members?


STS-129? (129)



No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC 1); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC 2)


STS-130? (130)



No crew assigned

MPLM; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)


Soyuz TMA14?



No crew assigned


Shenzhou 8 & Shenzhou 9



No crew assigned No crew assigned

Shenzhou 8 & 9 to perform first Chinese manned docking and creation of small short-stay space station


STS-131? (131)



No crew assigned

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC 3); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC 4); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency



STS-132? (132)



No crew assigned

Node 3 with Cupola


Soyuz TMA15?



No crew assigned

816 Appendix С

EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC 5); EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 6 (ELC 6); two Shuttle-equivalent flights for contingency

ISS Assembly complete – Shuttle fleet retired Sep Soyuz TMA16 ? ISS-22 Russia No crew assigned


Mar Soyuz TMA17 ? ISS-23 Russia No crew assigned


The following information was compiled with the help of Collect Space 7 Oct 2006, Robert Pearlman

Soyuz TMA-crewing 2007-2008

TMA10 ISS-15: April 2007-September 2007






Oleg Kotov Fyodor Yurchikhin

Suni Williams (up on STS-116) until June 2007 Clay Anderson (up on STS-118) until September 2007 Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007

TMA11 ISS-16:







September 2007-March 2008 Yuri Malenchenko Peggy Whitson

Dan Tani (up on STS-120) until October 2007 Leopold Eyharts (up on STS-122) until December 2007 Bob Thirsk (up on STS-123) until March 2008 Koichi Wakata (up on STS-124) until April 2008

TMA12 ISS-17:






March 2008-September 2008 Sergei Volkov

Peggy Whitson (stays on ISS for 9 months returns on STS-119) Shalizhan Sharipov (launched on TMA-12)

Sandy Magnus (up on STS-119) until September 2008 Greg Chamitoff (up on STS-126) until November 2008.

A Selected Timeline


Apr Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person fly into space and completes one orbit May Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space on a sub-orbital flight Aug Gherman Titov is launched on the first 24-hour mission, of 17 orbits


Feb John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth, with 3 orbits Jul First X-15 flight to exceed 50 miles (Robert White)

Aug Andrian Nikolayev sets new endurance record (3 days 22 hours)


Jun Valeri Bykovsky sets new endurance record (4 days 23 hours)

Valentina Tereshkova becomes first woman in space (2 days 22 hours)

Aug Highest X-15 flight (66.75 miles) – Pilot Joseph Walker


Oct First multi-person space crew (3) – Voskhod 1; First civilians in space


Mar Alexei Leonov becomes first person to walk in space

Mar First US multi-person crew (2) on Gemini 3

Jun Ed White becomes first American to walk in space

Aug Gemini 5 sets new endurance record (7 days 22 hours)

Cooper becomes first person to orbit Earth a second time Dec Gemini 7 set new endurance record (13 days 18 hours)

First space rendezvous – Gemini 6 with Gemini 7


Mar First space docking – Gemini 8 with Agena target

Sep Gemini 11 attains highest altitude of Earth orbital manned flight (850 miles)


Jan 27 Three Apollo 1 astronauts killed in pad fire

Apr Soyuz 1 pilot Vladimir Komarov killed during landing phase

Oct X-15 fastest flight (4520 mph – Mach 6.7) (Pete Knight)

Nov X-15 pilot Michael Adams is killed in crash of #3 aircraft after attaining

50.4 miles


Aug Thirteenth and final X-15 “astro-flight”

Oct First three-man Apollo flight (Apollo 7)

Schirra becomes first person to make three orbital spaceflights Dec Apollo 8 becomes first lunar orbital mission


Jan Soyuz 5/4 first manned docking and crew transfer (by EVA)

Mar Manned test of LM in Earth orbit (Apollo 9)

May Manned test of LM in lunar orbit (Apollo 10)

Jul First manned lunar landing – Apollo 11

Oct First triple manned spacecraft mission (Soyuz 6, 7, 8)

Nov Second manned lunar landing Apollo 12


Apr Apollo 13 aborted lunar landing mission

Lovell becomes first to fly in space four times Jun Soyuz 9 cosmonauts set new endurance record (17 days 16 hrs)


Feb Third manned lunar landing (Apollo 14)

Apr Launch of world’s first Space Station – Salyut (de-orbits Oct 1971)

Jun First space station (Salyut) crew. Killed during entry phase (Soyuz 11) Jul Fourth manned lunar landing (Apollo 15)


Apr Fifth manned lunar landing (Apollo 16)

Dec Sixth and final (Apollo) manned lunar landing (Apollo 17)


Apr Salyut 2 (Almaz) fails in orbit (de-orbits in 26 days)

May Launch of unmanned Skylab (re-enters Jul 1979)

First Skylab crew sets new endurance record of 28 days Jul Second Skylab crew increases endurance record to 59 day 11 hrs

Nov 3rd and final Skylab crew increases endurance record to 84 days 1 hr


Jun Launch of Salyut (Almaz) 3 (de-orbits Jan 1975)

Jul First successful Soviet space station mission (Soyuz 14)

Dec Launch of Salyut 4 (de-orbits Feb 1977)


Apr Soyuz 18 crew survive launch abort

Jul Soyuz 19 and Apollo dock in space – first international mission


Sep Salyut 6 launched (de-orbits Jul 1982)

Dec First Salyut 6 resident crew set new endurance record of 96 days 10 hrs


Jan First Soyuz exchange mission (Soyuz 27 for Soyuz 26)

Mar First Soviet Interkosmos mission (Czechoslovakian)

First non-Soviet, non-American person in space (Remek)

Jun Second Salyut 6 crew sets new endurance record of 139 days 14 hrs


Feb Third Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 175 days


Apr Fourth Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record to 184 days 20 hrs Jun First manned flight of Soyuz T variant


Apr First Shuttle launch (Columbia STS-1) on 20th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight

John Young becomes first to make five space flights
Nov First return to space by manned spacecraft (Columbia STS-2)


Apr Salyut 7 launched (de-orbits Feb 1991)

May First Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 211 days 9 hrs

Nov First “operational” Shuttle mission, STS-5, is also the first four-person



Apr First flight of Challenger

Jun Sally Ride becomes first US woman in space during STS-7, the first five – person launch

Sep Soyuz T10-1 launch pad abort

Nov First Spacelab mission – STS-9; first six-person launch John Young flies record sixth mission


Feb First use of MMU (STS 41-B) on untethered spacewalks Feb Third Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record of 236 days 22 hrs

Jul Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to walk in space (Soyuz T12/

Salyut 7)

Aug First flight of Discovery on STS 41-D Oct First seven-person launch (STS 41-G)

Kathy Sullivan becomes first American woman to walk in space


Jan First classified DoD Shuttle mission (STS 51-C)

Jul First Shuttle Abort-to-Orbit profile (STS 51-F)

Oct First flight of Atlantis (STS 51-J)

Oct First eight-person launch (STS 61-A)


Jan Challenger and its crew of seven lost 73 seconds after launch (STS 51-L) Feb Mir core module launched unmanned

Mar First resident crew to Mir (Soyuz T15)


Feb Second Mir resident crew sets new endurance record of 326 days 11 hrs First manned Soyuz TM variant

Dec First flight of over a year as third Mir resident crew sets endurance record of 365 days 22 hrs


Sep Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission (STS-26)


Apr Hubble Space Telescope deployment (STS-31)


May First flight of Endeavour (STS-49)


Dec First Hubble Service Mission (STS-61)


Jan Valery Polyakov sets new endurance record (437 days 17 hrs) for one mission (lands Mar 1995)

Feb First Russian cosmonaut to fly on Shuttle (Krikalev STS-60)


Feb First Shuttle-Mir rendezvous STS-63/Mir

Eileen Collins becomes first female Shuttle pilot Mar First American launched on Soyuz (Thagard – TM21)

Jul First Shuttle docking with Mir (STS-71 – Thagard down)

Nov Second Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-74)


Mar Third Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-76 – Lucid up)

Sep Fourth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-79 – Lucid down, Blaha up)

Nov Longest Shuttle mission (17 days 15 hrs – STS-80)

Musgrave becomes only astronaut to fly all five orbiters


Jan Fifth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-81 – Blaha down, Linenger up)

Feb Second Hubble service mission (STS-82)

May Sixth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-84 – Linenger down, Foale up)

Jun Collision between unmanned Progress vessel and Mir space station damages Spektr module

Sep Seventh Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-86 – Foale down, Wolf up)


Jan Eighth Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-89 – Wolf down, Thomas up)

Jun Ninth and final Shuttle-Mir docking (STS-91 – Thomas down)

Oct John Glenn returns to space aged 77, 36 years after his first space flight Nov First ISS element launched – Zarya FGB Dec First ISS Shuttle mission (STS-88)


Jul Eileen Collins becomes first female US mission commander (STS-93)

Aug Mir vacated for first time in ten years Dec Third Hubble service mission (STS-103)


Apr Last (28th) Mir resident crew (72 days)

Oct First ISS resident crew launched


Mar Mir space station de-orbits after 15 years service

Apr Dennis Tito becomes first space flight participant, or “tourist”


Mar Fourth Hubble service mission (STS-109)

Apr Jerry Ross becomes first person to fly seven missions in space Oct First manned flight of Soyuz TMA


Feb Columbia and crew of seven lost during entry phase of mission STS-107

Apr ISS assumes two-person caretaker crews

Oct First Chinese manned spaceflight (Shenzhou 5)

Yang Liwei becomes first Chinese national in space


Sep Spaceship One flies to 337,500 ft (102.87 km)

Oct Spaceship One flies to 367,442 ft (111.99 km) claiming $10 million X-Prize


Jul Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission 1 – STS-114 Oct First Chinese two-man space flight – Shenzhou 6


Jul Second Shuttle Return-to-Flight mission – STS-121 Aug ISS returns to three-person capability

Resumption of ISS construction – STS-115


The authors have referred to their own extensive archives in the compilation of this book. In addition, the following publications and resources were of great help in assembling the data:

The Press Kits, News releases and mission information from NASA, ESA, CSA, RKK-Energiya, JAXA (NASDA), CNES, and Novosti have been invaluable resources for many years


Flight International 1961-2006

Aviation Week and Space Technology 1961-2006

BIS Spaceflight 1961-2006

Soviet Weekly/Soviet News 1961-1990

Orbiter, Astro Info Service 1984-1992

Zenit, Astro Info Service, 1985-1991

ESA Bulletin 1975-2006

British Interplanetary Society Books:

History of Mir 1986-2000; Mir: The Final Year Supplement, Editor Rex Hall 2000/ 2001

The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 1 Ed Rex Hall 2002 The ISS Imagination to Reality Volume 2, Ed Rex Hall 2005

NASA Reports:

NASA Astronautics and Aeronautics, various volumes, 1961-1995

Mir Hardware Heritage, David S. F. Portree NASA RP-1357, March 1995. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Trevino, NASA Monograph in Aerospace history, #7 October 1997

NASA Histories:

1966 This New Ocean, a History of Project Mercury, SP-4201

1977 On the Shoulders of Titans: A history of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203

1978 The Partnership: A history of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209

1979 Chariots for Apollo: A history of manned lunar spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 1983 Living and working in space: A history of Skylab NASA SP 4208

1977 Where No Man Has Gone Before: a history of Apollo lunar exploration missions, NASA SP-4214

2000 Challenge to Apollo: the Soviet Union and the Space Race 1945-1974, Asif Siddiqi, NASA SP-2000-4408

Other Books:

1980 Handbook of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Nicholas L. Johnson, AAS Vol 48, Science and Technology Series

1981 The History of Manned Spaceflight, David Baker

1987 Heroes in Space: From Gagarin to Challenger, Peter Bond

1988 Space Shuttle Log: The First 25 Flights, Gene Gurney and Jeff Forte

1988 The Soviet Manned Space Programme, Phillip Clark

1989 The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Space Technology, Chief Author Ken Gatland

1990 Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight, Dennis Newkirk

1992 At the Edge of Space: The X-15 Flight Program, Milton O. Thompson 1999 Who’s Who in space: The ISS Edition, Michael Cassutt 2001 Space Shuttle, History and Development of the National STS Program, Dennis Jenkins

Springer-Praxis Space Science Series (which include extensive references and bibliographies for further reading)

1999 Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions, David M. Harland

2000 Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight, David J. Shayler

2000 The Challenges of Human Space Exploration, Marsha Freeman

2001 Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier, Brian Harvey

2001 The Rocket Men, Vostok & Voskhod, the First Soviet Manned Spaceflights, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler 2001 Skylab:; America’s Space Station, David J. Shayler 2001 Gemini: Steps to the Moon, David J. Shayler

2001 Project Mercury: NASA’s First Manned Space Programme, John Catchpole

2002 The Continuing Story of the International Space Station, Peter Bond

Creating the International Space Station, David M. Harland and John E. Catchpole

Apollo: Lost and Forgotten Missions, David J. Shayler

Soyuz, a Universal Spacecraft, Rex Hall and David J. Shayler

China’s Space Programme: From Concept to Manned Spaceflight, Brian


Walking in Space, David J. Shayler

The Story of the Space Shuttle, David M Harland

The Story of Space Station Mir, David M. Harland

Women in Space: Following Valentina, David J Shayler and Ian Moule

Space Shuttle Columbia: Her Missions and Crews, Ben Evans.

Russia’s Cosmonauts: Inside the Yuri Gagarin Training Center, Rex Hall, David J. Shayler and Bert Vis

Apollo: The Definitive Source Book, Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland













NASA Scientist Astronauts, Colin Burgess and David J. Shayler

Manned variants

8K72K (Vostok 1961-3). This version featured an upper stage (Blok E) with a single RO-7 engine, burning LOX/kerosene with a thrust of 5.6 tons and a 430-second burn time. Used to launch the six manned Vostok missions, its design was not revealed to the west until it appeared at the 1967 Paris Air Show.

11A57 (Voskhod 1964-5). This was an improved variant of the Vostok launcher, with an upper stage powered by the RD-108 engine with a vacuum thrust of 30.4 tons and 240-second burn time. This was used to launch the two manned Voskhod spacecraft.

11A511 (Soyuz 1967-76). This version was developed from 1963 to specifically launch the Soyuz spacecraft. The upper stage (Blok I) had an RD-110 engine with a 30.4 ton thrust and 246-second burn time. These vehicles launched the early Soyuz missions, starting with Soyuz 1 in 1967. Its final use was for the Soyuz 23 spacecraft in 1976. With the Soyuz payload and launch shroud, this vehicle measured about 49.3 m (162 ft) in height.

11A511U (Soyuz-U). An upgraded variant of the standard Soyuz booster, this was first used for the launch ofSoyuz 16in 1974 and was in service for over 27 years. Itwas used for launching the Soyuz, Soyuz T and Soyuz TM variants, as well as the Progress and Progress M re-supply vessels. It was also used to deliver the Pirs facility to ISS in September 2001. This vehicle used improved engines, ground and support facilities, increasing the payload mass and orbital delivery altitude.

11AIIU2 (Soyuz U2). Further improvements to payload delivery mass led to this variant of launcher being used for the first time on a Soyuz launch with Soyuz T12 in July 1984. It was last used on Soyuz TM22, after which the production of Sintin (synthetic kerosene) for improved first-stage launch performance ceased in 1996.

Soyuz FG. Upgrades to the engines resulted in the RD-108A central core engine, which developed a vacuum thrust of 101,931 kg and had a 286-second burn time. The RD-107A engines provided a thrust of 104.1 tons and a 120-second burn time. Both engines burned LOX/kerosene. This variant was first used for manned launches on Soyuz TMA1 in October 2002 and is the variant currently in use.

Soviet lunar plans

The Soviet Union had an even more ambitious plan for a manned landing on the Moon. An N1 mega-booster would launch two cosmonauts to the Moon aboard a combined Soyuz orbiter-lander vehicle. After entering orbit, one cosmonaut would spacewalk from the orbiter to the attached lunar lander inside the upper stage and enter the lander. He would then separate the lander and descend to the surface, spending a few minutes on the ground planting a flag and collecting some rocks before heading back for a rendezvous with the mother ship, where he would spacewalk

back to the cabin. The orbiter would then fly home for a Soyuz-type landing. The N1 programme was a disaster, with catastrophic launch failures, and the Moon landing plan was simply over-ambitious. A series of unmanned Zond missions tested various elements of the circumlunar manned programme with varying success between 1968 and 1970, but the whole thing was left without a purpose after the Americans reached the Moon in 1969.


Int. Designation



27 June 1982

Launch Site

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida


4 July 1982

Landing Site

Runway 22, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-1O2 Columbia/ET-5/SRB A13; A14/SSME #1 2OO7; #2 2OO6; #3 2OO5


7 days 1 hr 9 min 31 sec




Fourth and final orbital flight test (OFT-4); first DoD classified payload

Flight Crew

MATTINGLY, Thomas Kenneth II, 46, USN, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: Apollo 16 (1972)

HARTSFIELD, Henry Warren “Hank” Jr., 48, USAF, pilot

Flight Log

The first military payload to fly aboard a US manned spacecraft was designated DoD – 82-1. Not much detail was released and because of this secrecy, the STS-4 mission marked a change in media relations. The openness of NASA was restricted by the Department of Defense. Conversations with the crew would be classified for most of the mission and photographs taken during it would be limited to those that did not show any classified hardware. STS-4, which was the first US mission to be flown by astronauts without a back-up crew, was not entirely classified because apart from the range of science and declassified payloads, the DoD-82-1 was known to be the Cirris cryogenic infrared radiance instrument to obtain spectral data on the exhausts of vehicles powered by rocket and air breathing engines, and an ultraviolet horizon scanner. Cirris would not perform well, because its lens cap didn’t come off!

The first on-time Shuttle launch, at 11: OOhrs local time, was handled extremely matter-of-factly by young Mark Hess, the NASA press officer, making his first launch commentary. Commander Ken Mattingly and his sidekick Hank Hartsfield sailed into 28.5° inclination orbit, the lowest for a manned space flight but one that would become fairly usual for a Shuttle mission, with a maximum altitude during the mission of 275 km (127 miles). This was still 7 km (4 miles) shorter than planned after the heavier than planned launch weight, caused by water under the heat shield tiles which had collected after a thunderstorm days before launch, and which resulted in an increased SSME burn time of 3 seconds and several OMS burns. In addition, the


The STS-4 crew is greeted by President and Mrs Reagan after completing their mission on America’s 206th birthday

two SRBs were lost in the Atlantic rather than recovered as planned, as a result of parachute failures.

The first US commercial payload in space, more than nine experiments from Utah University crammed inside Getaway Special (GAS) canisters in the payload bay, began operating together with over 20 others packed aboard the busy Columbia orbiter. The mission seemed to have been a spectacular success, despite the Cirris lens cap saga, which Mattingly tried to knock off with the RMS and even suggested that he make a spacewalk to rectify. He did try out the EVA suit in the airlock as planned, however. President Reagan was waiting at Edwards Air Force Base to greet the returning crew, which landed on the concrete runway 22 at a speed of 374 kph (232 mph), at main gear touchdown time of 7 days 1 hour 9 minutes 40 seconds. The Independence Day celebrations seemed complete amid the patriotic fervour but were left a little damp by the President’s lacklustre support for a space station. The Shuttle was rather too enthusiastically declared “operational” as from its next flight.


86th manned space flight

35th US manned space flight

4th Shuttle flight

4th flight of Columbia

1st US manned military space flight

1st US manned space flight without a back-up crew

1st manned space flight to carry an official commercial payload


Подпись: SOYUZ T7
Подпись: 1982-080A 19 August 1982 Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 27 August 1982 (in Soyuz T5) 112 km northeast of Arkalyk R7 (11A511U); spacecraft serial number (7K-ST) #12L 7 days 21hrs 52 min 24 sec Dnieper (Dnieper) All-Soviet visiting mission to Salyut 7; Soyuz exchange mission

Flight Crew

POPOV, Leonid Ivanovich, 36, Soviet Air Force, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: Soyuz 35 (1980); Soyuz 40 (1981)

SEREBROV, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, 38, civilian, flight engineer SAVITSKAYA, Svetlana Yevgenyevna, 34, civilian, research engineer

Flight Log

A Soyuz with a difference lit up the Baikonur skies at 23: 12hrs local time on 19 August, when a crew of three lifted off for a visiting mission to Salyut 7. This crew included the first female in space for 19 years, since the first, Valentina Tereshkova, was launched. While Tereshkova’s mission was mere propaganda, the inclusion of Svetlana Savitskaya, bona fide test pilot and a world aerobatic champion, seemed logical and acceptable – except that she just happened to beat the first American female, Sally Ride, into space.

Amid much ballyhoo and publicity, as well as live TV coverage, Savitskaya and her two seemingly anonymous male colleagues docked with Salyut about 25 hours after launch. The Salyut 7 resident, Valentin Lebedev, gave her an apron and told her to start work. Savitskaya’s main task was not to do the washing up, but to operate a series of life sciences experiments to study the cardiovascular system, motion sickness and eye movement. She also operated an electrophoresis experiment to separate cells. Popov, Serebrov and Savitskaya landed in Soyuz T5 at T + 7 days 21 hours 52 minutes 24 seconds, 112 km (70 miles) northeast of Arkalyk. Maximum altitude reached during the 51.6° mission was 315 km (196 miles).


87th manned space flight 52nd Soviet manned space flight

45th Soyuz manned space flight 6th Soyuz T manned space flight

Подпись: Berezovoy and Savitskaya in Salyut 7

1st manned space flight by mixed female and male crew

Int. Designation



29 July 1985

Launch Site

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida


6 August 1985

Landing Site

Runway 23, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-099 Challenger/ET-19/SRB BI-017/SSME #1 2023; #2 2020; #3 2021


7 days 22 hrs 45 min 26 sec




Spacelab 2 research programme; verification of Spacelab Igloo/pallet configuration

Flight Crew

FULLERTON, Charles Gordon, 48, USAF, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-3 (1982)

BRIDGES, Roy Dunbard Jr., 42, USAF, pilot HENIZE, Karl Gordon, 58, civilian, mission specialist 1 MUSGRAVE, Franklin Story, 49, civilian, mission specialist 2 ENGLAND, Anthony Wayne, 43, civilian, mission specialist 3 ACTON, Loren Wilbur, 49, civilian, payload specialist 1 BARTOE, John-David, 40, civilian, payload specialist 2

Flight Log

The highly esoteric astronomical observation Spacelab 2 science payload had been proposed a decade before and the mission itself had been in preparation for over five years and, at last, 51-F was ready. On 12 July, on Pad 39A all three main engines were up and running with three seconds to go before lift-off, when the hydrogen chamber coolant valve on engine 2 failed to close. A computer ordered a redundant command to be made but mission rules dictated a launch pad abort, called an RCLS abort. As an abort had already occurred on STS 41-D, the event was not greeted with so much drama, although to the crew, which included Karl Henize (who was waiting to be the new oldest man in space after an 18-year wait for a flight), it was a bitter disappointment.

It was also a disappointment to the scientists, because a later launch in less than perfect lighting conditions, as there would be more moon shine, would degrade three of the thirteen primary experiments, mounted on pallets in the payload bay. Challenger tried again on 29 July, and until T + 4 minutes 55 seconds, the launch went well, after a 1 hour 37 minute hold due to incorrect telemetry. The crew had a close eye on the centre engine which was apparently overheating early after lift-off and watched

Подпись: Humorous crew photo by the STS 51-F crew. Clockwise from top: Acton, England, Fullerton, Bartoe, Musgrave, Bridges and Henize

helplessly as an indicator showed it had shut down, just 33 seconds after Challenger would have had to have performed a transatlantic abort, possibly ditching into the sea and sinking. As it was, an abort-to-orbit was ordered, and at the flick of a switch commander Fullerton initiated a new flight programme. Later, another engine appeared to be overheating and if the crew had not been told to inhibit what was suspected to have been an over-zealous sensor, a worse abort would have resulted.

Challenger struggled into a 49.5° orbit and its OMS engines placed it at a peak altitude of 276 km (171 miles), much lower than had been planned for the Spacelab mission. The use of the OMS engines also restricted flight experiments using the free – flying Plasma Diagnostic Package payload. Nonetheless, the Shuttle had at least reached orbit, in which the busy crew worked in two 12-hour shifts on the vast array of science experiments. These included the Instrument Pointing System (IPS), which did not quite achieve its advertised 1 arc-second of pointing accuracy.

Despite the abort-to-orbit situation, the significant mission re-planning allowed the flight to be deemed a success. As well as verification of the IPS, the flight also featured part of the modular Spacelab system called the Igloo, which was placed at the front of the three-pallet “train” in the payload bay and designed to provide in-flight support to the instruments that were installed on each of the pallets. The main objective of STS 51-F was to verify the Igloo, pallet and IPS system and its interface with the orbiter, in addition to monitoring the immediate environment around the orbiter, which may or may not interfere in the gathering of scientific data. The experiment programme for the flight encompassed life sciences, plasma physics,
astronomy, high-energy astrophysics, solar physics, atmospheric physics, and tech­nology research. This latter category included an evaluation of new beverage contain­ers by the crew. Coke and Pepsi cans, with specially adapted mouth dispensers to both retain the carbonated drinks’ condition and prevent it leaking into the cabin, were evaluated. The system worked but the taste did not, and according to the astronauts who tried the drinks, having extra gas in the digestive system when in space is not the most enjoyable feeling or experience.

Challenger’s performance was so good that an extra day was offered to the crew, which turned it down and came home to runway 23 at Edwards Air Force Base, at T + 7 days 22 hours 45 minutes 26 seconds.


108th manned space flight

50th US manned space flight

19th Shuttle flight

8th flight of Challenger

1st Spacelab pallet only science mission

Henize becomes oldest person to fly in space (58)


Flight Crew

MANAKOV, Gennady Mikhailovich, 40, Soviet Air Force, commander STREKALOV, Gennady Mikhailovich, 49, civilian, flight engineer, 4th mission Previous missions: Soyuz T3 (1980), Soyuz T8 (1983), Soyuz T10-1 (1983); Soyuz T11 (1984)

Flight Log

The two Gennadys comprised the seventh Mir resident crew and were launched with four live Japanese quails for the Inkubator 2 experiment on board Mir. They would be used in “adaptation to weightlessness” experiments. During the two-day flight to Mir, one of the older quails “laid” an egg and this was returned to Earth with the TM9 crew. The TM10 spacecraft docked with the rear port of Kvant 1 on 3 August. Following the period of handover from the TM9 crew, which included a rather extensive review of where everything was stored, the new crew had a relatively quiet residency aboard the station. Their mission had been delayed ten days to allow the Mir-6 crew to complete their commissioning of systems aboard the Kristall module.

During their residency aboard Mir, Manakov and Strekalov had the primary engineering task of rewiring the base block’s power supply, as well as attempting to repair the Kvant 2 EVA hatch that had been damaged during the previous mission. They would also continue the wide programme of scientific work aboard the complex. After a long and frustrating wait, Strekalov finally achieved his goal of a long – duration mission, having previously flown to Salyut 6 and 7 on short visiting missions. He was also a hardened veteran space explorer, having been a crew member of the 1983 Soyuz T8 docking abort and the T10-1 launch pad abort. In boarding Mir, he became one of the first cosmonauts to visit three separate space stations. The only EVA of the mission had been planned for 19 October, but Strekalov developed a head cold, delaying it until 30 October. When the two cosmonauts inspected the damaged


The crew of Soyuz TM10: Manakov (left) and Strekalov

hinge plate they were scheduled to replace, it was found to be deformed beyond repair. Instead, they installed a special latch to ensure that the hatch could be closed and used until fully repaired. With the repair task not deemed to be urgent, it was deferred to the next resident crew, who would fit a replacement unit. The EVA lasted 3 hours 45 minutes.

During this mission, the station was supplied by two Progress cargo craft. Progress M4 docked on 17 August, delivering power cables and TV equipment for the upcoming Japanese commercial mission. Before it was undocked, the crew attached a small experiment to the docking assembly, which was activated on 17 September when the ferry undocked. During station keeping, about 100 metres from Mir, artificial plasma was created around the Progress and this was filmed by the cosmonauts. Progress M5, which arrived on 29 September, carried more TV equipment for the Japanese mission. It also featured the first Raduga recoverable capsule system that could return about 150 kg of experiment material, the trade-off being a reduction in the cargo capacity of the vehicle. The Raduga capsule featured a truncated cone that would eject from the descending Orbital Module at about 120 km, just prior to the module’s fiery destruction in the atmosphere. At 15,000 metres, air pressure sensors successfully triggered the parachute deployment and Raduga was successfully retrieved. It returned 115 kg of payload.

The 7th expedition completed their mission on 10 December, returning to Earth in the TM10 capsule along with the first Japanese cosmonaut, TV journalist Toyohiro Akiyama, who had arrived with the 8th expedition crew in Soyuz TM11 on 4 December.


134th manned space flight

69th Soviet/Russian manned space flight

62nd Soyuz manned space flight

9th Soyuz TM manned space flight

17th Soviet and 40th flight with EVA operations

7th Mir resident crew

1st use of the Raduga return capsule

Strekalov celebrates his 50th birthday in orbit (28 October)


Flight Crew

SOLOVYOV, Anatoly Yakovlevich, 44, Russian Air Force, commander,

3rd mission

Previous missions: Soyuz TM5 (1988); Soyuz TM9 (1990)

AVDEYEV, Sergei Vasilyevich, 36, civilian, flight engineer

TOGNINI, Michel Ange Charles, 42, French Air Force, cosmonaut researcher

Flight Log

The Kurs system failed once again during the automated docking approach of Soyuz TM15 to Mir, forcing commander Solovyov to conduct a manual docking. During Tognini’s twelve days on Mir, a programme of ten experiments were com­pleted, encompassing medical and technological experiments under the French Antares programme. This was the third French flight to a space station, but the first commercial one. The earlier flights had proven so productive that CNES had arranged a series of missions every two years, building up a valuable database of orbital operations experience that could be applied to future programmes, such as the Freedom Space Station or dedicated French Shuttle/Spacelab missions that were under consideration (but which did not materialise). Tognini would return with the EO-11 crew in TM14.

The two Russian cosmonauts continued the rotation of resident crew teams on Mir, operating the onboard instruments during their work shifts, and ensuring that some would continue to operate autonomously while they were busy doing other things or were sleeping. Progress M14 docked on 18 August and its cargo included a 700 kg Vynosnaya Dvigatyelnaya Ustanovka (Outer Engine Unit), which was located in place of the tanker unit on the supply vessel. After it was automatically unloaded by commands from the ground on 2 September, the cosmonauts’ task would be to install


The international Soyuz TM15 crew of Tognini (left), Solovyov (centre) and Avdeyev

it on top of the Sofora girder that was mounted on Kvant. This new unit would improve the attitude control capabilities of the complex. The cosmonauts’ first excursion (3 September, 3 hours 56 minutes) saw them relocate the VDU unit from Progress to the worksite and prepare the girder for accepting the device. Four days later, the crew were back at the worksite (7 September, 5 hours 8 minutes) and bent the Sofora girder at a hinge point, one-third of the way down its length, to make the area where the unit would be placed more accessible. They fitted a communications cable along the girder and also took the opportunity to remove the USSR flag (or what was left of it after orbital debris and UV deterioration had taken their toll) that had been deployed the previous year. Four days later, the crew went outside for their third EVA (11 September, 5 hours 44 minutes) to attach the VDU atop the Sofora girder, which they then straightened to its full length. The final EVA of this residency (15 September, 3 hours 33 minutes) saw the cosmonauts relocate the Kurs antenna to the Kristall module. This would enable the next crew to arrive (aboard Soyuz TM16) to dock there, as the Progress M15 spacecraft would still be attached at the aft port when the new crew arrived. Solovyov and Avdeyev also took the opportunity to remove solar cells and material samples from the exterior of the station for return to Earth.

Towards the end of their residency, the crew used the base block airlock to eject a 16.5 kg satellite, called MAK-2, which would study the characteristics of the iono­sphere. On 8 November, there was a “near miss” when the 55 kg Cosmos 1508 satellite (launched in 1983) passed within 300 metres of Mir. The end of the Progress M14 mission also saw the return of the fifth Raduga (Rainbow) payload recovery system, carrying approximately 150 kg of samples from Mir back to Earth.


152nd manned space flight

74th Russian manned space flight

22nd Russian and 47th flight with EVA operations

15th Soyuz flight to Mir

12th main Mir crew

10th visiting crew (Tognini)

67th Soyuz manned mission 14th Soyuz TM manned mission Avdeyev celebrates his 37th birthday in space (1 Jan) Solovyov celebrates his 45th birthday in space (16 Jan)