Category Soviet Robots in the Solar System

Luna Ye-6 (OKB-1) series, 1963-1965

The Ye-4 impactor and Ye-5 orbiter designs were made obsolete by the Ye-6. It was a modular spacecraft with a carrier spacecraft on which could be mounted either a soft lander or an orbiter module. The first Ye-6 series were built at OKB-1 for soft landings on the Moon but managed not a single success after eleven straight launch attempts over three years between January 1963 and December 1965.

Luna Ye-6M (Lavochkin) series, 1966-1968

Responsibility for robotic lunar and planetary spacecraft design and construction was transferred from OKB-1 to NPO-Lavochkin in 1965. Lavochkin introduced its own modifications, and was immediately rewarded with Luna 9, which became the first successful lunar lander on February 3, 1966. Lavochkin also produced several orbiter versions, and over the following 14 months achieved a record of six mission successes out of nine Ye-6M launches. Both Ye-6M landers were successful, Luna 9 and Luna 13. After one failed launch the first model of the Ye-6S yielded the first lunar orbiter, Luna 10, which had instruments to measure the particles and fields in the lunar environment. It was then modified to acquire orbital photography. Both of these Yc-6LF missions, Luna 11 and Luna 12, were successful although no useful imagery was acquired in the first case. Finally, after another modification produced the Ye-6LS, two failed launches were followed by the Luna 14 orbiter.

THE YE-8 LUNAR ROVER SERIES: 1969-1973

Campaign objectives:

The Ye-8 series was developed to support the Soviet lunar cosmonaut program. By the time that the Soviets entered the Moon race in mid-1964 Russian engineers at OKB-1 had already developed plans for a lunar rover. This, along with all the other lunar robotic programs, was transferred to NPO-Lavoehkin in 1965. In early 1966 an automated lunar surface rover entered the mission plan for supporting a cosmonaut on the lunar surface. The function of the rover was to precede the cosmonaut to the landing site, to survey and certify the site as safe for landing, to act as a radio beacon to guide the manned lander in, to inspect this lander after touchdown and certify it as safe for ascent, and, if it were not so, to transport the cosmonaut to a backup ascent vehicle that was already in place.

When the robotic lunar exploration program was transferred to NPO-Lavoehkin. Georgi Babakin set to work on a design for a spacecraft to meet these requirements. The availability of the powerful four-stage Proton launch vehicle using the Block D translunar injection stage enabled the resulting Ye-8 to be much heavier and more complex than its Ye-6 predecessor. The multi-purpose, in-line module design of the Ye-6 series was abandoned for a spacecraft design suited principally for soft landing a rover, and eventually other types of payload.

Spacecraft:

The spacecraft comprised three main components; a lander stage on the bottom, the rover that was carried on top, and a pair of side-mounted backpacks’, each of which had avionics and two cylindrical propellant tanks.

Spacecraft launched

First spacecraft:

Ye-8 Ко.201

Mission Type:

Lunar Lander and Rover

Country і Builder:

USSR NPO-Lavochkin

Launch Vehicle:

Proton-K

Launch Date ‘: 7 ime:

February 19, 1969 at 06:48:15 UT (Baikonur)

Outcome:

Shroud failure, vehicle disintegrated.

Second spacecraft:

Luna 17 (Yc-8 No.203)

Mission Type:

Lunar Lander and Rover

Country і Builder:

USSR NPO-Lavochkin

Launch Vehicle:

Proton-K

Launch Date; Time:

November 10, 1970 at 14:44:01 UT (Baikonur)

Lunar Orbit Insertion:

November 15, 1970

Lunar Landing:

November 17. 1970 at 03:46:50 UT

Mission End:

September 14. 1971 at 13:05 UT

Outcome:

Success.

Third spacecraft:

Luna 21 (Ye-8 No.204)

Mission Type:

Lunar Lander and Rover

Country і Builder:

USSR NPO-Lavochkin

Launch Vehicle:

Proton-K

Launch Date ‘: I ime:

January 8, 1973 at 06:55:38 UT (Baikonur)

Lunar Orbit Insertion:

January 12, 1973

Lunar Landing:

January 15, 1973 at 22:35 UT

Mission End:

June 3, 1973

Outcome:

Success.

Cruise and lander stages:

The lander stage was based on a quartet of 88 an diameter spherical propellant tanks arranged in a square 4 meters on a side and connected using cylindrical inter-tank sections. These tanks fed a single engine whose thrust could be varied over the range 7.4 to 18.8 kN and a set of six vernier engines, two of which were mounted next to the main engine and were for use during the final descent to the surface. The other verniers were positioned around the periphery to provide stabilization. The landing system, engine, and radar altimeter were located between the tanks on the underside of the square tank assembly. Hach of the tanks supported a shock absorbing landing leg. Attitude control thrusters were located at various places around the lander. The avionics and attitude control sensors to control the translunar trajectory, lunar orbit insertion, orbital maneuvers, and landing, were housed in the inter-tank cylindrical sections. Water cooling was used for thermal control. Communications at 922 MHz and 768 MHz were by way of a cone-shaped antenna mounted on a boom. Uplink was at 115 MHz.

image116

-Figure 11,3 Luna 17 spacecraft diagram (from Ball et al.) and during test at Lavochkin.

 

image117

Figure 11.4 Luna 17 lander (by James Garry): 1. Lunokhod rover; 2. Folded exit ramp; 3. Shock absorbers; 4. Steering rockets; 5. Service module and avionics; 6. Propulsion tank; 7. Landing foot; 8. Extended exit ramps; 9. Radio altimeter; 10. Attitude control gas tanks; 11. Conical low-gain antenna and steerable directional helical antenna.

 

The two detachable backpacks’ were mounted vertically on opposite sides of the square tank assembly and were for cruise and orbital operations, bach consisted of a pair of 88 cm diameter cylindrical tanks, between which were avionics and battery modules. The tanks contained propellants to feed the main engine. On top of each of these tanks was a smaller spherical tank of nitrogen for the cold gas attitude control system.

The Isayev design bureau built the new throttleable KTDIJ-417 main engine. Its purpose was to conduct midcourse maneuvers during the translunar coast, lunar orbit insertion, orbital maneuvers, and key portions of the descent. Once the operational orbit at about 100 km altitude had been achieved, descent to the surface began with a burn of about 20 m/s to lower the perilune to about 15 km directly over the landing site. The backpacks were jettisoned and. with perilune looming, the main engine was ignited for a 1.700 m s ‘dead stop’ burn lasting 270 seconds designed to completely eliminate its horizontal velocity. After the spacecraft had free fallen to an altitude of about 600 meters and accelerated in the weak lunar gravity to a descent rate of about 250 m/s the main engine was reignited. This was shut down at 20 meters and the landing verniers ignited until a contact switch cut them off at a height of 2 meters. If all had gone to plan, the vehicle would then touch down at a velocity not exceeding 2.5 m/s. Unlike the Ye-6 soft landers, whose targets were constrained by the need to make a vertical descent from the translunar coast, the new spacecraft, by first going into orbit, could land anywhere.

f or a rover mission, two sets of folding ramps were mounted on top of the upper side of the lander fore and aft of the rover, whose wheels were on the middle of the ramps. The ends of the ramps were carried folded up against the rover, and once on the Moon they were unfolded and lowered to provide the rover with two options for driving off the lander down onto the surface.

Lunokhod rover:

The body of the Lunokhod rover was a tub-like pressurized magnesium alloy shell for avionics, instruments and environmental controls covered by a large hinged lid. In daylight on the lunar surface the convex lid would be opened over the rear of the rover to expose solar cells on the inside surface of the lid to generate pow er and also to expose radiators in the top of the ‘tub’ for thermal control. In darkness the lid was closed. It was a very simple and effective design. The solar cells (Si on Lunokhod 1 and GaAs on Lunokhod 2) gave 1 kW of power to recharge the internal batteries. The body was mounted on a carriage of eight wheels, 51 cm in diameter and made of ware mesh with titanium blade treads. This design was in response to the data on lunar soil provided by Luna 9; the thin dust layer and firm soil that this found led to the abandonment of a caterpillar track design. Each wheel had its own suspension system using a special fluoride based lubricant to operate in vacuum, a pressurized independent DC motor and an independent brake.

The rover was controlled entirely from Earth by a five-person team, there was no automated mode, and steering required independently changing the speed settings on the wheels. It could move with only two operational wheels on each side, and any of

image118

Figure 11.5 Lunokhod 1.

the axles could be severed to shed a wheel if it became locked. The smallest turning radius was 80 cm. Internal gyroscopes indicated its orientation. It was designed to drive over obstacles 40 cm high or 60 cm wide, to climb slopes of 20 degrees, and to maneuver on slopes as steep as 45 degrees. There were fail-safe devices to prevent movement over excessive slopes. Lunokhod 1 had only one driving speed, 800 m/hr, traveling either forward or in reverse, but Lunokhod 2 was capable of 800 and 2,000 m/hr in either direction.

The control team operated and navigated the vehicle by viewing through a pair of television cameras mounted on the front of the rover. These returned low resolution images at a rate of 20 seconds/frame for Lunokhod 1 and at the much improved rate of up to 3.2 seconds/frame for Lunokhod 2. The signal time delay to the Moon and back to Earth was 5 seconds, which had an effect on operations. Pour other scanning photometer imagers of the type used on Luna 9 were mounted on the chassis. A pod on each side held a vertically mounted imager to give a 180 degree view at a 15 degree down angle, jointly providing a full panoramic view around the rover. A second imager was set above the first, nearer the top of the ‘tub’, and was mounted horizontally. These would jointly provide a full vertical panorama that included the sky and stars for navigation at the zenith and a vehicle level indicator at the nadir.

The rover was designed to survive three lunar nights, each lasting a fortnight over a period of 3 months. In darkness it was the kept alive by a small radioisotope heater with 11 kg of polonium-210 and by a radiator on top of the closed lid. Thermal control was by circulating internal air and by open-cycle water cooling. The rover was equipped with a conical low gain antenna, a steerable directional helical high gain antenna, television cameras, and extendable devices to impact the surface for soil density and mechanical property tests. Lunokhod 1 was 135 cm high, 170 cm long, 215 cm wide at the top, 160 cm wide at the wheels, had a wheelbase of 2.22 x

1.6 meters, and a mass of 756 kg.

Lunokhod 2 was an improvement based on experience with Lunokhod L It had an additional camera on the front at adult height for easier navigation. Its images could be transmitted at rates of 3.2, 5.7, 10.9 or 21.1 seconds‘frame, with the fastest rate being instrumental in improving driving operations. The 8-wiiecl drive system was improved, and Lunokhod 2 was twice as fast for twice the range. Additional science instruments were carried.

Luna 17 launch mass: 5,660 kg (landed mass 1,900 kg; rover 756 kg)

Luna 21 launch mass: 5,700 kg (landed mass 1,836 kg; rover 836 kg)

image119

Figure 11.6 Lunokhod 2.

Подпись: figure 11.7 Lunokhod 2 diagram: 1. Magnetometer; 2. Low gain antenna; 3. High gain antenna; 4. Antenna pointing mechanism; S. Solar arrays; 6. Deployed lid; 7. Imagers for horizontal and vertical panoramas; 8. Radioisotope heater with reflector and ninth wheel odometer at the rear; 9. Sampler (not deployed); 10. boom antenna; 11. Motorized wheel; 12. Pressurized instrument compartment; 13. Soil X-ray spectrometer (not deployed); 14. Stereo TV cameras with dust-protective covers; 15. Laser reflector; 16'. Human-height TV camera with dust-protective cover.

Payload:

Lunokhod 1:

1. Two television cameras for stereo images in the direction of travel

2. Four panoramic imagers

3. PrOP odometer/speedometer and soil mechanics penetrometer

4. Soil x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

5. Cosmic ray detectors

6. X-ray telescope for solar and extragalactic observations

7. Laser retro-reflector (France)

8.

Подпись: Two television cameras with a resolution of 250 horizontal lines were mounted viewing forward to provide a 50 degree stereo view' of the travel direction. The other

Radiometer

four imagers were facsimile cameras of the type flown on Luna 9, with improved sensitivity and gain control and mounted two to a side. One camera in each pair was mounted for 180 degree horizontal scanning and the other for vertical scanning from surface to sky. bach 180 degree panorama consisted of 500 x 3,000 pixels. Between them, each pair of cameras provided a 360 degree panorama. The horizontal ones provided context for the forward cameras and the vertical ones assisted navigation in the driving process.

A ninth spiked wheel trailed behind the rover with an odometer to measure distance and speed. The surface penetrometer was mounted on a pantograph. The French laser retro-reflector weighed 3.5 kg and consisted of fourteen 10 cm silica glass prisms. It was designed for 25 cm accuracy. Due to Soviet secrecy, the French were given only a drawing for how the device would be mounted and were not told in advance what kind of lunar vehicle would carry it.

Lunokhod 2:

1. Three front television cameras for stereo images in the direction of travel

2. Four panoramic imagers

3. PrOF odometer/speedometer and soil mechanics penetrometer

4. Soil x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Rifma-M)

5. Cosmic ray detectors

6. X-ray telescope for solar and extragalactic observations

7. Laser retro-reflector (France)

8. Radiometer

9. Visible-ultraviolet photometer

10. Boom magnetometer

Based on experience with Lunokhod 1, a third forward viewing television camera was mounted higher on Lunokhod 2 to provide a better driving perspective while the lower pair of television cameras provided stereo images of potential obstacles. The visible-ultraviolet photometer was to detect Larth airglow and galactic ultraviolet sources. The magnetometer was mounted on a 1.5 meter long boom in front of the rover. A Soviet-made photocell was added to the French retro-reflector to register laser strikes and the x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved.

Mission description:

First attempt falls do war aitge

The first attempt to launch a Ye-8 with a rover failed spectacularly on February 19. 1969, when the payload stack on top of the vehicle disintegrated 51 seconds into the flight. The launcher then exploded and scattered wreckage 15 miles downrange. The investigation discovered that at the point of maximum dynamic pressure, when the loads on the vehicle were greatest, the newly designed payload shroud for the Proton failed. The radioisotope heater that was to have kept the rover warm during the lunar night was never recovered from the debris, and rumors persist that the soldiers who actually found it decided to use it to heat their barracks during that year’s very cold winter.

Luna 17

A second attempt to launch a lunar rover was not made until 20 months later. After the loss of the first mission, the Ye-8 program had focused on attempts at automated lunar sample return in an effort to upstage Apollo. After Luna 16 succeeded with a returned sample in October 1970 it was decided, to launch a rover next. The back to back successes of an automated sample return mission and. a rover one month apart were impressive milestone achievements for the Soviet robotic lunar program.

Luna 17 was launched on November 10, 1970. After midcourse corrections on the 12th and 14th, it entered an 85 x 141 km lunar orbit on the 15th inclined at 141 degrees with a period of 115 minutes. It lowered its perilune to 19 km on the 16th and then at 03:46:50 UT on the 17th successfully touched down at a speed of about 2 m/s in the Sea of Rains at 38.25°N 325.00°E.

The Soviets announced their fourth lunar soft landing, and Westerners expected another sample return like Luna 16. However, about 3 hours after landing, at 06:28 UT, the ramps were lowered, the camera covers released, pictures of the ends of the

image121

Figure 11.8 Lunokhod 1 operations crew.

ramps were taken to ensure that there were no obstructions, and Lunokhod 1 rolled down the front ramp and 20 meters across the surface. The next day it remained in place and recharged its batteries, then it traveled 90 and 100 meters on the next two days. On the fifth day, 197 meters from its lander, it closed its lid and shut down for the forthcoming lunar night.

The public reaction across the world was astonishing. Somehow, people resonated strongly with the idea of a robotic rover driving around on another world, even if the experience was only a virtual one. The Luna 17 rover was a triumph heralded by the Soviet and Western press alike, whereas the Luna 16 sample return had only gained fleeting admiration. The appeal of the Lunokhod may have been partly derived from its physical form. Its antics were followed ardently in the press for the first few’ days, and the coverage would probably have continued were it not for the requirement to

image122

Figure 11.9 A set of Lunokhod 1 horizontal panoramas taken during its return to the landing site and vertical panorama from nadir to horizon while still mounted on the lander before deployment.

image123

Figure 11.10 Lunokhod 1 on the surface from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

shut it down for the long lunar night. It would be more than a quarter of a century before the US would recreate the excitement of a robotic rover on another world.

Lunokhod 1 survived its first lunar night and continued its activities. The drivers had some difficulty coming to terms with the frame rate of 20 seconds, and it was realized that the driving cameras had been set too low on the vehicle because their perspective was more like sitting on a chair than standing upright. And their images were so overexposed that the contrast in the scene was poor, especially near lunar noon. Initially excluded from the control room, the scientists had difficulty m having the rover pause at interesting rocks. This was because the engineers’ measure of success was distance covered. However, as the mission wore on it became easier for the scientists to achieve their objectives.

The operators drove the rover over 197 meters on the first lunar day, and as far as 2 km on the fifth lunar day. To test its navigational system, on one early excursion it returned to the lander stage. Over a period of 10 months it traversed rough hills and valleys and crossed many craters. It survived the -150°C cold of the lunar night and 100 C heat of lunar noon. It twice became stuck in craters, but after some effort was able to extract itself. The drivers had difficulty navigating because of the low mount of the cameras which meant they often did not spot a crater until the last moment. At noon the lack of shadows reduced the contrast to /его, making steering impossible. The rover survived a solar flare that might have been fatal for cosmonauts and an eclipse during which it was temporarily plunged into darkness. On the tenth lunar day it was spotted from orbit by the Apollo 15 astronauts.

The last successful communications session with Lunokhod 1 ended at 13:05 UT on September 14. 1971, after the internal pressure suddenly dropped. Officially, the mission concluded on October 4, 1971, the 14th anniversary of Sputnik. Fortunately, during its last communication cycle it had been parked with the laser retro-reflector in a position where it could continue to be used. Lunokhod 1 exceeded its expected lifetime of three lunar days by functioning for eleven lunar days. It traveled a total of 10,540 meters and transmitted more than 20.000 individual pietures, 206 panoramas. 25 x-ray elemental soil analyses, and more than 500 soil penetrometer tests. It was a spectacular success.

Luna 21

The next rover was modified to take account of the lessons from Lunokhod 1. and on January 8, 1973. Luna 21 was launched carrying Lunokhod 2. It performed a midcourse maneuver the next day, and on January 12 entered a 90 x 110 km lunar orbit inclined at 62 degrees with a period of 118 minutes. It lowered its perilune to 16 km the following day and then on January 15 fired its main engine at perilune to de­orbit itself. At an altitude of 750 meters the main engine ignited again to slow7 the rate of descent. At 22 meters this engine was shut down. The verniers took over to a height of 1.5 meters and were cut off. After falling the remaining distance the 7 m/s shock was absorbed by the legs. Luna 21 landed at 23:35 IJT at 26.92 N 30.45 E in Le Monnier bay. an eroded and lava flooded crater cut into the Taurus Mountains on the eastern shore of the Sea of Serenity.

The Lunokhod 2 rover immediately took TV images of the surrounding area from its perch atop the lander. After rolling down onto the surface at 01:14 UT on January 16 it took pictures of the lander and the landing site. It remained in place for 2 days until its batteries were charged, then took some more pictures and began its traverse. During its first full lunar day it covered a greater distance than its predecessor had in eleven lunar days. In one day. it traveled as much as 1.148 meters. It climbed a hill 400 meters high and photographed the peaks of the Taurus mountains poking over the horizon with Earth in the sky above. In late January 1973 an American scientist attending an international conference on planetary exploration in Moscow^ gave a set of Apollo 17 photos of the area w’here Luna 21 landed to Russian scientists at the meeting. These highly detailed photographs were used to navigate Lunokhod 2 to a rille some distance east of its landing site.

image124

Figure 11.11 Lunokhod 2 site in the Sea of Serenity.

image125

Figure 11.12 Picture of lander from Lunokhod 2.

Rover operations were conducted during the lunar day, stopping occasionally to recharge the battery using its solar panels. It would hibernate during the lunar night, using the radioisotope heater to maintain thermal control.

Lunokhod 2 operated lor about 4 months, drove 37 km over terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, more than four times the area of its predecessor, and returned over 80,000 individual images and 86 panoramas. It made hundreds of elemental analyses and mechanical tests of the soil, as well as being used for laser

image126

Figure 11.13 Lunokhod 2 panorama around the landing area with Taurus Mountains in the distance.

image127

Figure 11.14 Luna 21 lander on the surface from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbitcr showing rover tracks.

ranging and other experiments. On May 9, 1973, it accidentally rolled into a small 5 meter crater whose depth had been concealed by a shadow. As the rover was backing itself out, it scraped its lid on the crater wall, causing a spray of dust to cover the solar panel. When the lid was closed for the lunar night, this soil was dumped onto the radiators. On opening the lid for the next lunar day, the resulting thermal and power problems led to the vehicle’s demise, which was announced on June 3.

Results:

Significant scientific results derived from analyzing the pictures of rocks and soil, wheel tracks, craters and other geological features observed by the twjo Lunokhods in more than 20,000 single frame images and 200 panoramas. There were many soil mechanics measurements by the penetrometer and chemical analysis results from the x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The Sea of Rains and floor of Le Monnier proved to be a typical mare basalt, but the uplands around Le Monnier (the surviving part of the rim of the eroded crater) turned out to have higher concentrations of iron, silicon, aluminum and potassium.

Lasers fired by the French from the Pic du Midi observatory and by the Russians from the Semeis observatory in the Crimea used the retro-reflectors to determine the distance to the Moon to within 3 meters for Lunokhod 1, and 40 cm for Lunokhod 2. In the long term, such observations established the periodic and secular dynamics of the Moon. The cosmic ray instruments recorded the radiation on the Moon, and the x – ray telescope observed the Sun and the galaxy. The magnetometer on Lunokhod 2 measured a very weak magnetic field with variations due to currents induced by the interplanetary magnetic field. The photometer made some surprising observations of the brightness of the lunar sky. In particular, it determined that the day-time lunar sky was contaminated with some dust, and in Earthlight the night-time lunar sky was 15 times brighter than the sky on Earth at full Moon; findings which did not bode well for one day establishing astronomical observatories on the lunar surface.

APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’

Russian spacecraft were given “tail numbers” during construction. Luna spacecraft were given the designation Ye followed by a number indicating the design senes and a second number indicating the serial number of the particular spacecraft under construction, 1 e. Ye-3 No.2 was the second spacecraft built in the third design series of lunar spacecraft. Sometimes a letter was attached to indicate a modification to the original design, such Ye-2A No. l. After successful translunar injection, the spacecraft were renamed “Luna”.

The designation scheme for planetary spacecraft was somewhat different. The early 1960-1961 spacecraft were simply designated 1M or IV for the first design series of Mars or Venus spacecraft. The next generation were a common design for both Mars and Venus and were designated as follows:

Example: 3MV-1 No.3

First number: Serial number of design (3rd major design series)

Second set of letters: Spacecraft targets (MV = Mars, Venus common design)

Third number: Mission modification number:

1 — Venus Entry Mission

2 – Venus Flyby Mission

3 – Mars Entry Mission

4 – Mars Flyby Mission

Fourth number: Serial number of vehicle (No.3, or third to be built)

The spacecraft were renamed after successful departure from earth orbit as “Venera” (for Venus) or “Mars” spacecraft.

A few 3MV planetary spacecraft were built for engineering test flights and were given “ІА” designations including a failed Mars test flight 3MV-1A No.2 on Nov 11, 1963, and a failed Venus test flight 3MV-1A No.4A on Feb 19, 1У64. Oddly, the Zond 3 Mars spacecraft, 3MV-4 No.3, wras not given a “1A” designation, but carried out a successful flyby test at the Moon before failing to reach Mars distance.

Three 3MV Mars spacecraft, one entry probe (3MV-3 No. l) and two flyby spacecraft (3MV-4 No.4 and No.6) that missed their launch window in 1964 were modified as Venus spacecraft and launched in 1965. Their original construction as Mars missions accounts for their anomalous tail numbers.

There is confusion in the literature over the tail numbers assigned by OKB-1 to the early Luna, Venera and Mars spacecraft before Lavochkin assumed responsibility. The most authoritative original source for Mars and Venus spacecraft is Chertok. The most authoritative secondary source for all spacecraft is Siddiqi’s Deep Space Chronicle. There remain some inconsistencies between these and other sources in the literature. We have attempted to reconcile all these sources to the extent possible through communications with both Asif Siddiqi and Timothy Vatfolomeyev, and on this basis have chosen to use the tail number designations given in Chertok.

W. T. Huntress and M. Y. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer Praxis Hooks 1, DOl 10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1,

.© Springer Scienee+Bustness Media, LLC 2011

Подпись: 416 Appendices

Launch date

T,/v

Mass (kg)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Luna

Soviet Lunar Missions

Ye-1 series (OKB-l)

Sep 23, 1958

Tama

-360

OKB-l

Ye-1 No. l

Tamar Tmpaclor

fb

Oct 11, 1958

Luna

~ 560

OKB-l

Ye-1 No.2

Lunar Impact or

fb

Dec 4, 1958

Luna

-360

OKB-l

Yc-1 N o. 3

Lunar Impact or

fb

Jan 2, 1959

Luna

361.3

OKB-l

Ye-1 no. 4

Luna 1

Lunar Impact or

ft

Jim 18. 1959

Luna

— 390

OKB-l

Ye-1 A No.5

Lunar Impact or

fb

Sep 12, 1959

Tama

390.2

OKB-l

Ye-1 A No.7

T. una 2

Tamar Tmpaclor

s

Ye-2,3 series (OKB-l)

Oct 4. 1959

Luna

278.5

OKB-l

Ye-2A No. l

Luna 3

Oircumlunar Flyby

s

Apr 15, 1960

Tama

9

OKB-l

Ye-3 No. l

Oirc uni lunar Flyby

flL

Apr 19, 1960

Tama

9

OKB-l

Ye-3 No.2

Oircumlunar Flyby

fb

Yc-6 Scries (OKB-l)

Jan 4, 1963

Molniya

1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.2

[Sputnik 25J

Lunar Lander

fi

Feb 3, 1963

Molniya

1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.3

Tamar Lander

fb

Apr 2, 1963

Molniya

1,422

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.4

Luna 4

Lunar Lander

fe

Mar 21, 1964

Molniya-M

-1,420

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.6

Lunar Lander

fu

Apr 20, 1964

Molniya-M

— 1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.5

Lunar Lander

fu

Mar 12, 1965

Molniya

– 1.470

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.9

Cosmos 60

Lunar Lander

fi

Apr 10, 1965

Molniya

~ 1,470

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.8

Lunar Lander

fu

May 9. 1965

Molniya-M

1.476

OKB-l

Ye-6 No. 10

Tama 5

Tamar Lander

ft

Jun 8, 1965

Molniya-M

1,442

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.7

Luna 6

Lunar Lander

le­

Ocl 4, 1965

Molniya

1,506

OKB-l

Yc-6 No. 11

Luna 7

Lunar Lander

ft

Dec 3, 1965

Molniya

1,552

OKB-l

Yc-6 No. 12

Luna 8

Lunar Lander

ft

 

Jan 31. 1966

Molniya-M

1,538

NPO-L

Ye-6M No.202/13

Luna 9

Lunar Lander

s

Mar 1, 1966

Molniya-M

~ 1.580

NPO-L

Ye-6S No.204

Cosmos 111

Lunar Or biter

fi

Mar 31. 1966

Molniya-M

1.582

NPO-L

Ye-6S No.206

Luna 10

Lunar Orbiler

•S

Aug 24, 1966

Molniya-M

1,640

NPO-L

Yc-6LF No.101

Luna 11

Lunar Orbiler

s

Ocl 22, 1966

Molniya-M

1,620

NPO-L

Yc-6LF No. 102

Luna 12

Lunar Orbiler

s

Dec 21. 1966

Molniya-M

1,620

NPO-L

Ye-6M No.205/14

Luna 13

Lunar Lander

s

May 16, 1967

Molniya-M

-1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6LS No. Ill

Cosmos 159

Lunar Or biter Test Flight

til

Feb 7, 1968

Molniya-M

-1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6LS No. 112

Lunar Or biter

til

Apr 7, 1968

Molniya-M

1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6T. S No. 113

Luna 14

Lunar Orbiler

•S

Yc-8 scries (NPO-L)

Feb 19. 1969

Proton-D

-5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.201

Lunar Lander/Rover

fll

Jun 14, 1969

Prolon-D

-5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No. 402

Lunar Sample Return

fu

Jul 13, 1969

Prolon-D

5.667

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No. 401

Luna 15

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Sop 23, 1969

Prolon-D

– 5,700

NPO-L

Yc-8-5 No.403

Cosmos 300

Lunar Sample Return

til

Ocl 22, 1969

Prolon-D

– 5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.404

Cosmos 305

Lunar Sample Return

ill

Feb 6, 1970

Proton-D

-5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.405

Lunar Sample Return

fll

Sep 12. 1970

Proton-D

5.727

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.406

Luna 16

Lunar Sample Return

s

Nov 10. 1970

Prolon-D

5.660

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.203

Luna 17

Lunar Lander/Rover

•S

Sep 2. 1971

Prolon-D

5.750

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No, 407

Luna 18

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Sep 28, 1971

Prolon-D

5,700

NPO-L

Yc-8LS No.202

Luna 19

Lunar Orbiler

s

Fob 14, 1972

Prolon-D

5,750

NPO-L

Yc-8-5 No.408

Luna 20

Lunar Sample Return

s

Jan 8, 1973

Proton-D

5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.204

Luna 21

I. u nar I. ander/ R over

s

May 29, 1974

Proton-D

5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8LS No.206

Luna 22

Lunar Or biter

s

Ocl 28, 1974

Prolon-D

5.795

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.410

Luna 23

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Ocl 16, 1975

Prolon-D

-5.800

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.412

Lunar Sample Return

fu

Aug 9. 1976

Prolon-D 1

5.795

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.413

Luna 24

Lunar Sample Return

s

Zond

Soviet lunar test missions

Sep 27, 1967

Prolon-D

-5.375

TsKBF. M

7K-T.1 No.4T.

Oirc uni 1 unar/R el urn

fb

Nov 22. 1967

Prolon-D

-5.375

TsKBF. M

7K-T.1 No.5L

Circimilu nar/Ret urn

fll

Mar 2, 1968

Prolon-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.6L

Zond 4

Lunar Distance;Return

ft

 

Подпись: Appendix B. USSR lunar and planetary spacecraft families 417

Подпись: 418 Appendices

Launch date

L/V

Mass (kg)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Apr 22, 1968

Proton-D

-5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.7L

Ci r cu m 1 u n ar / R ct u г n

fu

Sep 14, 1968

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.9L

Zond 5

( A rcu ml u па r / Rot u rn

s

Nov 10, 1968

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No,12L

Zond 6

Circum 1 unar / Return

It

Jan 20, 1969

Prolon-D

-5,375

TsKBEM

7K-T.1 No. l3T,

Circum 1 un ar/R et urn

fu

Feb 2L 1969

N-l

6,900

TsKBEM

7K-L1S No.3S

Or biter./Return

ib

Jul 3, 1969

N-l

6,900

TsKBEM

7K-L1S No.5L

Or biter./Return

ib

Aug 7. 1969

Prolon-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No. ll

Zond 7

Circu mlunar/Re turn

s

Oct 20, 1970

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.14

Zond 8

Ci reu tn 1 u nar/ Rctu rn

s

Nov 23, 1972

N-l

9,500

TsKBEM

7K-LOK No. fiA

Orbiler/Return

lb

Mars

Soviet Mars missions

1M series (OKB-l)

Oct 10, 1960

Molniya

650

OKB-l

1M No. l

Mars Flyby

Ги

Oct 14, 1960

Molniya

650

OKB-l

1M No.2

Mars Flyby

iu

2MV combination Mars-Venus series (OKB-l)

Oct 24. 1962

Molniya

-900

OKB-l

2MV-4 No.3

Mars Flyby

fi

Nov L 1962

Molniya

893.5

OKB-l

2MV-4 No.4

Mars 1

Mars Fly by-

fc

Nov 4, 1962

Molniya

1,097

OKB-l

2MV-3 No. l

Mar s Atm/SuiT Probe

il

3MV combination Mars-Venus series (OKB-l)

Nov 11,1963

Molniya

-800

OKB-l

3MV-1A No.2

Cosmos 21

Test Flight

П

Nov 30, 1964

Molniya

950

OKB-l

3MV-4 No.2

Zond 2

Mars Flyby

i’e

Jul 18, 1965

Molniya

960

OKB-l

3MV-4 No.3

Zond 3

Test Flight with Lunar Flyby

p

NPO-L Proton series

Mar 27. 1969

Proton-D

4.850

NPO-L

M-69 No.521

Mars Or biter

iu

Apr 2, 1969

Prolon-D

4.850

NPO-L

M-69 No.522

Mars Or biter

ib

May 10. 1971

Proton-D

4,549

NPO-L

M-71 No. 170

Cosmos 419

Mars Orbitcr

fi

May 19. 1971

Proton-D

4,650

NPO-L

M-71 No.171

Mars 2

Mars Or biter/Lander

P

 

APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’
Подпись: Appendix B. USSR lunar and planetary spacecraft families 419

Подпись: 420 Appendices

Launch date

L/V

Mass (ks)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Jan 10, 1969

Molniya-M

1,138

NPO-L

2V No.331

Venera 6

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Aug 17, 1970

Molniya-M

1,180

NPO-L

3V No.630

Venera 7

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Aug 22, 1970

Molniya-M

– 1,180

NPO-L

3V No.631

Cosmos 359

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

П

Mar 27, 1972

Molniya-M

1,184

NPO-L

3V No.670

Venera 8

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Mar 31, 1972

Molniya-M

-1,180

NPO-L

3V No.671

Cosmos 482

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

fl

NPO-L Proton series

Tun 8, 1975

Proton-D

4,93 6

NPO-L

4V-1 No.660

Venera 9

Venus Orbiter/ Lander

s

Jun R 1975

Proton-D

5,033

NPO-L

4V-1 No.661

Venera 10

Venus Orbiter/ Lander

s

Sep 9, 1978

Proton-D 1

4,450

NPO-L

4V-1 No.360

Venera 11

Venus Flyby/Lander

s

Sep 14, 1978

Proton-D 1

4,461

NPO-L

4V-1 No.361

Venera 12

Venn s FI у by /1 /and ei*

s

Oct 30, 1981

Proton-D 1

4,363

NPO-L

4V-1M No.760

Venera 13

Venn s FI у by /1 /and er

s

Nov 4, 1981

Proton-D 1

4,363

NPO-L

4V-1M No,761

Venera 14

Ven us FI у by/Izander

s

Tun 2, 1983

Proton-D 1

5,250

NPO-L

4V-2 No.860

Venera 15

Venus Orbiter

s

Jun 1, 1983

Proton-D 1

5,300

NPO-L

4V-2 No.861

Venera 16

Venus Orbiter

s

Dec 15, 1984

Proton-D 1

4,924

NPO-L

5VK. No.901

Vega 1

Venus Balloon & Lander Halley Flyby

s

s

Dec 21, 1984

Proton-D 1

4,926

NPO-L

5VK No.902

Vega 2

Venus Balloon & Lander TTalley Flyby

s

s

 

1. Mass column lists mass at launch

2. Result Codes:

fh

fu

fi

ic

ft

P

booster failure upper stage failure

interplanetary trajectory injection failure failure in transit during cruise failure at the target partial success

success

APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’
Подпись: Appendix CL USSR lunar mission record

4^

to

 

Automated tests of lunar Soyuz spacecraft

Successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Zoncl 5 C і г си ml u nar; Return

1968

Zond 4 Lunar Distan ce/Return

1%8

7K-L1 No.4L Zond Circumlunar

1967

Zond 7 Circiunlunar/Rcturn

1969

Zond 6 Circumlunar/Return

1968

7K-L1 No.5L Zond Circumlunar

1967

Zoud 8 Circumlunar/Return

1970

7K-L1 No.7L Zond Circumlunar

1968

7K-L1 No. l3L Zond Circumlunar

1969

7K-L1S No.3S Zond Or hi ter/Return

1969

7K-L1S No.5L Zond Orhiter/Return

1969

7K-LOK No.6A Soyuz Orhiter/Return

1972

Dates are for launch

 

Подпись: Appendices

Successes

Post-launch failures

1,aundi failures

Pioneer 4 Flyby [parlialj

1959

Ranger 3 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 0 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 7 impact or

1964

Ranger 4 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 1 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 8 Impact or

1905

Ranger 5 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 2 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 9 Impact or

1905

Ranger 0 Impact or

1964

Pioneer 3 Flyby

1958

Surveyor 1 Lander

1966

Surveyor 2 Lander

1966

Atlas-Able 4 Orbiter

1959

Tamar Orbiter 1

1966

Surveyor 4 Lantler

1967

Atlas-Able P-З Orbiter

1959

Lunar Orbiter 2

1966

Atlas-Able P-30 Orbiter

1960

Lunar Orbiter 3

1967

Atlas-Able P-31 Orbiter

1960

Lunar Orbiter 4

1907

Ranger 1 Deep Space Test*

1961

Lunar Orbiter 5

1907

Ranger 2 Deep Space Test*

1961

Surveyor 3 Lander

1967

Surveyor 5 Lander

1967

Surveyor 6 Lander

1967

Surveyor 7 Lander

1968

Clementine Orbiter

1994

Lunar Prospector Orbiter

1998

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

2009

Подпись: Appendix C2. USA robotic lunar mission record 423Dales are lor launch * test launch

Подпись: 424 Appendices

Partial successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Mars 2 Orbilcr [lander failed]

1971

Mars 1 Flyby

1962

1M No. l Flyby

1960

Mars 3 Orbilcr [lander failed]

1971

Zond 2 Flyby

1964

1M No.2 Flyby

1960

Mars 5 Orbitcr [short lived]

1973

Zond З* [success at the Мост]

1965

2MV-4 No.3 Flyby (Sputnik 22)

1962

Mars 6 Flyby/Lander [descent data only]

1973

Mars 4 Or biter

1973

2MV-3 No. l Probe (Sputnik 24)

1962

Phobos 2 Orbiter/Landers [failed at Phobos]

1988

Mars 7 Fly by/lander

1973

3MV-1A No.2 Probe* (Cosmos 21)

1963

Phobos 1 Or biter/T binders

1988

M69-1 Orbiter

1969

M69-2 Orbilcr

1969

M71-S Orbitcr

1971

Mars 96 Orbitcr/Landers

1996

 

Successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Mariner 4 Flyby

1964

Mars Observer Orbiter

1992

Mariner 3 Flyby

1964

Mariner 6 Flyby

1969

Mars Climate Orbiter

1998

Mariner 8 Orbiter

1971

Mariner 7 Flyby

1969

Mars Polar Lander/Penetrators

1999

Mariner 9 Orbiler

1971

Viking 1 Orbi ter/T zander

1975

Viking 2 Orb iter/Lander

1975

Mars Global Surveyor Orbiler

1996

Mars Path tinder Lander

1996

Mars Odyssey Orbiter

2001

Spirit Rover

2003

Opportunity Rover

2003

Phoenix Lander

2005

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

2007

Dates are lor launch

 

Подпись: Appendix D2* USA Mars mission record 425

Подпись: 426 Appendices

Successes

Pnsl-launclt failures

Launch failures

Venera 4 Atm/Surf Probe [lost in atm]

1967

Venera 1 Impact or

1961

1VA No. l Impact or (Sputnik 7)

1961

Venera 5 Atm/Surf Probe [imploded]

1969

Zond 1 Atm/Surf Probe

1964

2MV-1 No.3 Atm/Surf Probe (Sputnik 19)

1962

Venera 6 Atm/Surf Probe [imploded]

1969

Venera 2 Flyby

1965

2MV-1 No.4 Atm/Surf Probe (Sputnik 20)

1962

Venera 7 Aim/Surf Probe

1970

Venera 3 Alm/Surf Probe

1965

2MV-2 No. l Flyby (Sputnik 21)

1962

Venera 8 Aim/Surf Probe

1972

3MV-1A No.4A Alm/Surf Probe*

1964

Venera 9 Orbilcr/Landcr

1975

3MV-1 No.5 Alm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 27)

1964

Venera 10 Orbiter/Landcr

1975

3MV-4 No.6 Flyby (Cosmos 96)

1965

Venera 11 Flvby/Lander [imager failed]

1978

IV N0.311 Atm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 167)

1967

Venera 12 Flyby/Lander [imager failed]

1978

3V No.631 Atm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 359)

1970

Venera 13 Flyby/Lander

1981

3V No.671 Alm/Surf Probe Cosmos 482)

1972

Venera 14 Flyby/Lander

1981

Venera 15 Orbiter

1983

Venera 16 Orbiter

1983

Vega 1 Flyby/Lander/Balloon

1984

Vega 2 Flyby/Lander/Balloon

1984

 

Successes

Post-launch failures Launch failures

Mariner 2 Flyby Mariner 5 Flyby Mariner 10 Flybv Pioneer 12 Or biter Pioneer 13 Biis/Probes(3) Magellan Orbiter Galileo Flyby Cassini Flyby

1962 (None) Mariner 1 Flyby 1962

1967

1973

1978

1978

1989

1989

1997

Dales arc for launch

[1] To measure the temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction on the surface, and to measure the chemical composition of the atmosphere around the planet

[2] To achieve soft landings at chosen sites and take pictures of the surface to study the terrain and vegetation

[3] To measure the composition, bearing strength and properties of the soil

[4] To measure the radiation levels and magnetic field at the surface

[5] To detect any traces of micro-organisms in the soil

[6] To study the upper atmosphere

[7] To compile a detailed thermal radiation map from orbit

[8] To fly past Phobos and Deimos while in Mars orbit and take pictures to define their shape, size and albedo

[9] To photograph Mars from orbit in order to understand the nature of the seas’ and canals’ and to acquire information on seasonal changes.

These were extraordinarily demanding objectives for a program that had endured six failed missions since 1960 and had yet to achieve anything at all at Mars. In one bold leap, compelled by competition with the US and enabled by the Proton-K launcher, the Soviets would attempt the first Mars orbiters and landers at a launch

Soviet Robots in the Solar System

The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Cold War produced one of the greatest adventures of exploration in the history of humankind. As a by-product of military competition between the two countries in weapon delivery systems and laying claim to the propaganda ‘high ground’, both countries applied themselves to the conquest of space by attaching civil payloads to their rockets in order to conduct both human missions in Earth orbit (and to the Moon in the case of the US Apollo program) and robotic missions beyond Earth orbit to the Moon and planets.

This book describes the 20th Century history of the Soviet adventure in robotic exploration of the Moon and planets. Our chronicle includes just those missions launched by the Soviets into deep space whose objective was to explore the Moon or planets. It does not include missions sent into deep space to study the Sun or Earth – Moon space environment. Test missions launched beyond low Earth orbit with operating lunar or planetary spacecraft, such as the Zond series, are included. Launch tests carrying non-operating model spacecraft are not included. We have endeavored to provide a comprehensive and accurate account of all relevant missions conducted between the year 1958, the date of the first Soviet spacecraft launch attempt to the Moon, and 1996. the date of the last Russian deep space mission to be launched in the 20th Century. All missions that were assembled on the launch pad with intent to fly are included. Some launch attempts suffered explosions on the pad, or shortly after booster ignition, or at some point during the flight of the launch vehicle. The Russians were particularly beset by launch vehicle failures, most often involving the upper stages.

There are inconsistencies in the data reported both in Western and Russian sources on Soviet lunar and planetary missions. We have attempted to provide the best possible information based on the published data and on interviews conducted with Russian participants in the former Soviet space program. In some cases w’e have made judgments to select what appears be the most accurate.

Wesley T. Huntress. Jr.

Mikhail Marov January 31, 2011

Acknowledgments

Wesley Huntress sincerely thanks the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for his emeritus position, and also the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Director Charles Elachi and Chief Scientist Moustafa Chahinc, for their support. Much of this book was written during the time spent at JPL as a Distinguished Visiting Scientist. I would also like to thank several friends who provided assistance, including Viktor Kcrzhanovich. Sasha Zakharov and particularly my co-author Mikhail Marov. Most importantly. I acknow ledge the patience and understanding of my wife Roseann while I w orked on this manuscript.

Mikhail Marov expresses his thanks to the M. V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics where he has worked for nearly 50 years as an Institute staff member involved essentially in all major endeavors of the Soviet robotic and human space program, and where he served as Scientific Secretary of the distinguished Space Research Council of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (MNTS Kl) that w as hosted by the Keldysh Institute while Mstislav Keldysh, its Director, and President of the Academy of Sciences, was Chairman of the Council. 1 would like to thank all my colleagues in the organizations of industry and Academy of Sciences, in particular in the S. P. Korolev Rocket-Space Corporation Energiya and Scientific-Industrial (NPO) Lavochkin Enterprise with whom 1 worked on space activities resolving numerous problems. I also thank my Russian friends who helped to find out and/or clarify historical data for this book, including Victor Legostaev, Vladimir Efanov. Igor Shevalev. Yury Logachev. Arnold Selivanov and Sasha Zakharov. Special thanks to Olga Devina who assisted me in data compilation and cross-examination. Finally, 1 appreciate Wesley Huntress’s kind invitation to participate in this project and co-author the book, as well as friendly cooperation and mutual understanding while working on the manuscript.

The illustrations in this book are mainly from governmental sources in the US. including NASA, and in Russia including Energiya. NPO-Lavochkin, the Institute for Space Science and the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry. We found the books ‘S. P. Korolev Rocket-Space Corporation Energiya. 1946-1996’ Volume 1, published by Menonsovpoligraph (1996), S. P. Korolev Rocket-Space

Corporation Energiya at the Boundary of Two Centuries. 1996-200Г Volume 2 (ed. Yu. P. Semenov). OOO Regent Print (2001), and ‘Automatic Space Vehicles for Fundamental and Applied Studies’ published by NPO-Lavochkin, MAI PRINT Moscow (2010) particularly useful. We appreciate the kind permission of V. P. Legostaev, the First Deputy of the President and General Designer of Energiya. and also of V. V. Khartov, the General Designer of NPO-Lavochkin, to reproduce photographs, diagrams and drawings from their organizations either published in their publications or placed on internet sites.

For non-governmental sources every effort has be made to trace the original copyright holders and seek formal permission for all figures that have appeared in previously published works. Л number of these images are from older and out-of­print books, and due to mergers and acquisitions in the publishing industry it has not been possible to track down all potential original copyright holders. We offer our apologies to any that we may have inadvertently overlooked. In all such cases we have cited the publication, author, or artist if known. We have used several unattributed drawings from the 1981 "Space Travel Encyclopedia (in Hungarian) by I. Almas and A. Horvath, others from the 1972 "Robot Explorers’ by Kenneth Gatland with art by John Wood and others, several by Ralph F. Gibbons from the "Soviet Year in Space’ series published by the American Astronautical Society, some drawings by Peter Gorin in Asif Siddiqi s ‘Challenge to Apollo and by an unattributed artist in the NASA "Pioneering Venus’ publication. Many thanks to Asif Siddiqi and Don Mitchell for permission to use material from their print and web publications. Special thanks to James Gary for pennission to use his art work and to Ted Stryk for images from the Soviet program that he has reprocessed with modern methods. Unfortunately, many of the older diagrams and images from the Soviet program are not the best quality for modern publication, but are illustrative of the times. Finally, thanks to David M. Harland for his diligent job of editing and his many improvements to the manuscript.

Pa

Breaking free of Earth

TIMELINE: AUG 1958-SEP 196ft

The space age began on October 4, 1957, with the launch of Sputnik during a test flight of Korolev’s new R-7 launcher. The ignition of the rocket’s engines on the pad in Baikonur on that day was the explosion that opened the floodgates of space exploration. A little over ten months later, on August 17, 1958, the first attempt was made to send a spacecraft to the Moon, a tiny orbiter, and this time launched by the US, but the rocket exploded. On September 23, the USSR attempted to send a lunar impactor to the Moon using a new variant of the R-7 augmented with a small third stage to reach escape velocity. The booster failed and was destroyed. The race to the Moon and planets was on.

In the three years 1958-1960, the US attempted nine times to send a small Pioneer class spacecraft to the Moon. All failed in one way or another. In the two years 1958-1959, the USSR also attempted nine times to send a spacecraft to the Moon. Of these, six were lost to launch vehicle failures, the Luna 1 impactor missed the Moon by 6,000 km, Luna 2 succeeded in impacting the Moon, and Luna 3 traveled beyond the Moon and sent back grainy pictures of its hitherto mysterious far side.

THE YE-1 LUNAR IMPACTOR SERIES: 1958-1959

Campaign objectives:

After the launch of Sputnik, Korolev took advantage of the world’s reaction to push the Soviet government into approving plans for non-military applications of his R-7 rocket, including lunar exploration. An earlier attempt in 1955 had been of no avail, but now’ the time was ripe. He established three new design groups at OK. B-1, one for

W. T. Huntress and M. Y. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer Praxis Hooks 1, DOl 10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1 6,

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Подпись: Launch date 1958 17 Aug Pioneer lunar orbiter 23 Sep Luna impactor 11 Oct Pioneer 1 lunar orbiter 11 Oct Luna impactor 8 Nov Pioneer 2 lunar orbiter 4 Dec Luna impactor 6 Dec Pioneer 3 lunar flyby 1959 2 Jan Luna 1 impactor 3 Mai- Pioneer 4 lunar flyby 18 .Tun Luna impactor 12 Sep Luna 2 impactor 24 Sep Pioneer lunar orbiter 4 Oct Luna 3 circumlunar flyby 26 Nov Pioneer lunar orbiter I960 15 Apr Luna circumlunar flyby 19 Apr Luna circumlunar flyby 25 Sep Pioneer lunar orbiter
Подпись: Booster exploded First stage destroyed Reached 115,000 km altitude First stage destroyed Third stage failure Second stage premature shutdown Reached 107,500 km altitude Missed Moon by 5,965 km Missed Moon by 60,030 km Second stage guidance failure Successful lunar impact on Sep 14 Pad explosion during test Success, returned lunar far side images Shroud collapsed during launch Third stage malfunction First stage disintegrated Second stage malfunction

communications satellites, one for manned space flight, and the third for robotic lunar spacecraft. Mikhail Tikhonravov and Gleb Maksimov were in charge of the latter. Mstislav Keldysh provided specific scientific goals. After a few months work, Korolev and Tikhonravov sent a letter to Moscow on January 28, 1958, proposing a lunar impactor and a lunar flyby mission to photograph the far side. Korolev and Keldysh jointly convinced the government, and on March 20 approval was granted. In fact, lunar spacecraft designs were underway and in February Korolev had begun to develop the third stage required for his R-7 launcher. He was very aware of well – publicized plans in the US for a lunar orbiter to be launched in the summer of 1958, and he wanted to be first.

While preparing for the launch of the first spacecraft to the Moon in the summer, Korolev and Tikhonravov expanded the scope of their plan for the conquest of space by the Soviet Union. This plan was finished in early July 1958, but was held secret outside of a few people in the closed Soviet space circle. It called for upgrading the R-7 to three stages to launch robotic lunar landers and photographic flyby missions, then upgrading the R-7 again to four stages to launch spacecraft to Mars and Venus, and developing orbital rendezvous and other techniques and technologies to enable men to fly around and land on the Moon, as a precursor to creating a colony on the Moon and visiting Mars and Venus.

Maksimov and Tikhonravov also prepared detailed designs for five types of lunar spacecraft in the spring of 1958:

Ye-1 Lunar impact spacecraft, 170 kg

Ye-2 Lunar Гаг-sidc photographic flyby, 280 kg

Ye-3 Same as Ye-2 with improved photographic equipment

Ye-4 Lunar impact spacecraft with explosives, possibly nuclear, 400 kg

Ye-5 Lunar or biter

The Soviets were concerned about proving that their spacecraft had hit the Moon, not recognizing at first that they could be tracked by any other country with the right equipment. Telemetry cessation was not definitive and so the notion was considered of exploding a device on the Moon for all to see, hence the Ye-4 with sufficient payload capacity to carry a nuclear or a large conventional explosive. Korolev was reluctant to use a nuclear explosive, and after consultation with recognized nuclear physicist Yakov Zeldovich and several other physicists this idea was dropped. The Ye-4 itself was eventually abandoned as the technical and political problems became clear, and tracking was recognized as the solution. Even so, the Ye-1 third stage was outfitted with a device to release a sodium cloud for optical tracking and for general observation around the world. The Ye-5 lunar orbiter project was canceled when the new7 8K73 rocket which w7as to launch it suffered engine development problems and was itself canceled.

As the summer of 1958 arrived, Korolev rushed to launch his first lunar impactor before the date set by the Americans for their tiny orbiter. Although he was having technical problems with his first three-stage vehicle, he decided to take the risk and readied his R-7 on the same day as the Americans, but stood down w’hen he learned that the IJS rocket had exploded. But the extra time w as of no avail, and one month later his launch vehicle also exploded after a short flight. Ко matter, the space race was on and its public characteristics were now’ well defined.

In the Soviet program, planning and launch information were held secret and only successful launches reported. Spacecraft that were launched successfully but failed in their objectives had their missions redefined in the Soviet press to make all appear successful. By contrast American plans were announced well in advance, and open to press and public scrutiny. It made for a dramatic contest on each side; one well aware of the other’s plans and proceeding to blind-side its competitor, and the other mostly unaware of the other’s plans and groping almost blindly to seize and retain a leading position.

Six Ye-1/1A spacecraft were launched in the 12-month period between September 1958 and 1959. Only two. Luna 1 and 2. escaped launch vehicle mishaps. Luna 1 and its flight past the Moon wras a sensation to match that of Sputnik almost a year earlier. The Soviet press referred to the w’hole system, launcher and all. as the "First Cosmic Rocket’, and when it passed the Moon the spacecraft was renamed ‘Mechta’ (Dream). Years later, it was retroactively named Luna 1. It w as intended to hit the Moon but on January 4, 1959, it missed its target by about 6,000 km. Nonetheless, it was the first spacecraft to attain Earth escape velocity. On September 14, 1959. the second spacecraft to be launched successfully, Luna 2, became the first spacecraft to impact the Moon, thereby fulfilling Korolev’s program goals for this series.

Ye-1 No 1 Lunar Impact or USSR OKB-1 Luna

Подпись:September 23. 1958 at 09:03:23 UT (Baikonur) Booster failure.

Ye-1 Ко.2 Lunar Impaetor USSR OKB-1 Luna

October 11. 1958 at 23:41:58 UT (Baikonur) Booster failure.

Ye-1 No.3 Lunar Impaetor USSR OKB-1 Luna

December 4, 1958 at 18:18:44 UT (Baikonur) Second stage failure.

Luna 1 (Ye-1 No.4)

Lunar Impaetor USSR OKB-1 Luna

January 2. 1959 at 16:41:21 UT (Baikonur) January 4. 1959

Missed the Moon, entered solar orbit.

Ye-1 A No.5 Lunar Impaetor USSR OKB-1 Luna

June 18, 1959 at 08:08:00 UT (Baikonur) Second stage failure.

Luna 2 (Ye-1 A No.7)

Lunar Impaetor USSR OKB-1 Luna

September 12. 1959 at 06:39:42 UT (Baikonur) September 14, 1959 at 23:02:23 UT Success, impacted Moon.

The scientific goals of these first interplanetary spacecraft were to study cosmic radiation, ioni/cd plasma, magnetic fields and the micromcteoroid flux in the region between the Earth and Moon known as cislunar space. In addition to assisting with
optical tracking, the sodium release experiment would also allow for visualization of the magnetosphere and diffusion in the upper atmosphere of the Earth in transit.

ПІЕ YE-8 LUNAR ORBITER SERIES: 1971-1974

Campaign objectives:

In addition to the lunar surface rover and sample return missions, the Ye-8 modular spacecraft also flew orbital missions to support the engineering requirements of the planned manned missions. The principal requirements were to photograph the lunar surface at high resolution and conduct remote surface composition measurements to assist in selecting landing sites. Л secondary objective was to acquire data on the radiation and plasma in lunar orbit in order to understand the risks to humans. Two Ye-8LS orbiters were launched successfully as Luna 19 and 22. Their tracking data continued the accurate mapping of the lunar gravity field that Luna 14 initiated.

Spacecraft launched

First spacecraft:

Luna 19 (Ye-8LS No.202)

Mission Type:

Lunar Orbiter

Country і Builder:

USSR, NPO-Lavochkin

Launch Vehicle:

Proton-K

launch Date ‘: 7 Ъпе:

September 28. 1971 at 10:00:22UT (Baikonur)

Encounter Date; Tinie :

October 3, 1971

Mission End:

October 3, 1972

Outcome:

Success.

Second spacecraft:

Luna 22 (Ye-8LS No.206)

Mission Type:

Lunar Orbiter

Country! Builder:

USSR, NPO-Lavochkin

Launch Vehicle:

Proton-K

Launch Date ‘: 1 Ъпе:

May 29, 1974 at 08:56:51 UT (Baikonur)

Encounter Date:Tinie:

June 2, 1974

Mission End:

November 1975

Outcome:

Success.

Spacecraft:

The spacecraft was essentially the same as the lander stage for the lunar rover, but with a payload consisting of a pressurized module for the orbital instruments. This was a squat cylinder and, just like the Lunokhod, had a hinged lid that exposed solar panels on the underside.

image166

Figure 12.20 Luna 19 spacecraft.

Luna 19 launch mass: 5,700 kg

Luna 22 launch mass: 5,700 kg

Payload:

1. Imaging system

2. Gravitational field, experiment

3. Gamma-ray spectrometer for surface composition

4. Radiation sensors

5. Magnetometer

6. Micrometeoroid detector

7. Altimeter

8. Radio occultation experiment

For these arbiters, new linear-scan cameras were developed based on the Luna 9 and 13 panoramic imagers. Basically the motion of the spacecraft provided the long axis of the image and the photometer scanned only perpendicular to the direction of orbital motion. The field of view was 180 degrees centered on the nadir and gave a ‘cylindrical fish-eye’ image. At 4 lines per second from an altitude of 100 km it had a resolution of 100 meters in the direction of travel and 400 meters perpendicular to it. Luna 22 carried an additional camera and engineering tests of solid lubricants for operation in vacuum and wafer tests of surface reflection properties.

The Ye-8 lunar orbiter series: 1971-1974 265

Mission description:

Luna 19 was launched on September 28, 1971, and on October 3 it entered a 2 hour circular lunar orbit at 140 km inclined by 41 degrees. Three days later the orbit was changed to an elliptical one of 127 x 385 km. Several months later the perilune was lowered to 77 km to undertake closer photography. After more than 4,000 orbits the spacecraft ceased operations on October 3, 1972.

Luna 22 was launched on May 29, 1974, and entered a 219 x 221 km lunar orbit at an inclination of 19.6 degrees on June 2. It made many orbit adjustments over its 18 month lifetime to optimize experiment operation, at times lowering its perilune to 25 km to improve photography. Sporadic contact was maintained after the supply of attitude control gas ran out on September 2, and the mission was concluded in early November 1974.

image167

Figure 12,21 Section of a panoramic image from Luna 19 of Sinus Aestuum with the crater Eratosthenes at the right.

image168

Figure 12.22 Luna 22 panorama fragment illustrating the ‘cylindrical fish-eye’ effect of the linear scanning photometer imager.

Results:

Luna 19 and 22 both returned images of the lunar surface from orbit, with Luna 19 apparently returning about 5 panoramas and Luna 22 ten panoramas. Both spacecraft extended the systematic study to locate mass concentrations (mascons) begun by the earlier Luna orbiters. They also remotely sensed the composition of the surface and directly measured the properties of the orbital environment including the radiation, plasma, magnetic fields and micrometeoroid flux. Altimetry measure­ments of lunar topography were made, and the electromagnetic properties of the regolith examined. The results must have been substantial but few results were published, particularly from Luna 22.

LAUNCH COMPLEX

The USSR’s first missile test range was established after WW-II at Kapustin Yar near Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad. Throughout the 1950s this was used to test the early short and intermediate range Soviet rockets, and later for launching the smaller Cosmos satellites. As Korolev worked on his first ICBM design, the R-7, it became clear that a new launch site would be required to accommodate radio guidance and tracking stations along a much longer range within Soviet territory, and to move the work beyond range of US tracking stations in Turkey. Tyuratam in Kazakhstan was selected for the R-7 launch complex. The site was called Baikonur, after a railhead some 270 km to the northeast, in an attempt to deceive the Americans in targeting their missiles. Construction started in 1955, and over the years the site has become an immense facility some 85 km by 125 km in extent including dozens of assembly and launch complexes, numerous control centers and tracking stations, work areas for tens of thousands of workers, the town of Lcninsk to house them, and a 1,500 km test range.

The first launch complex to be built was the one for the R-7, and it is still in use today. It is part of the ‘Center’ or ‘Korolev’ area that includes the N-l assembly and launch complex that was later converted for Energiya and Buran. The ‘Left Flank’ or ‘Chelomey Arm’ to the northwest has assembly and launch complexes for the Proton, Tsiklon and Rokot. The ‘Right Flank’ or ‘Yangel Arm’ to the northeast has a backup R-7 pad and facilities for Zenit and Cosmos.

A NEW SPACECRAFT AND ANOTHER TRY FOR MARS: 1963-1965

Campaign objectives:

Korolev’s team had failed in their first two campaigns at both Mars and Venus. In 1960-61 only one mission of four. Venera 1, succeeded in reaching interplanetary space but it failed soon thereafter. In 1962 they had a new7 multipurpose spacecraft ready, the 2MV series, and launched three each to Mars and Venus. This time, only one of six. Mars 1, was successfully dispatched and it fell silent before reaching its target. Meanwhile, the Americans had frustrations of their own, suffering fourteen failed lunar missions through 1962. Their only success. Mariner 2 at Venus in 1962. served to further frustrate the Soviets who had worked hard to beat the Americans to our neighboring planets.

By now it was evident that there w ere serious problems w ith the reliability of the 8K78 launcher, in particular its fourth stage, and with the spacecraft. The troubled but lengthy flight of Mars 1 revealed problems serious enough to merit a redesign of the 2MV, and Korolev directed that these lessons be applied to building a new 3MV series for the Venus and Mars windows in 1964. and that test flights be conducted in between planetary opportunities. And, of course, he continued to instrument the fourth stage to diagnose its problems. The test flights were intended to validate the whole system from launcher to spacecraft.

Spacecraft launched

First spacecraft:

Cosmos 21 (3MV-1A No.2)

Mission Type:

Mars Spacecraft Test Flight

Country! Builder:

USSR ОКБ-1

Launch Vehicle:

Molniya

Launch Date ‘: 7 ime:

November 11, 1963 at 06:23:35 UT (Baikonur)

Outcome:

Stranded in Earth orbit, fourth stage failure.

Second spacecraft:

Zond 2 (3MV-4 No.2)

Mission Type:

Mars Flyby

Conn try і Builder:

USSR ОКБ-1

Launch Vehicle:

Molniya

Launch Date; Time:

November 30, 1964 at 13:12 UT (Baikonur)

Mission End:

May 5, 1965

Encoun ter Date/ 7 ime:

August 6, 1965

Outcome:

Lost in transit, communications failure.

Third spacecraft:

Zond 3 (3MV-4 No.3)

Mission Type:

Mars Spacecraft Test

Conn try: Builder:

USSR ОКБ-1

Launch Vehicle:

Molniya

Launch Date: Time:

July 18, 1965 at 14:38:00 UT (Baikonur)

Encoun ter Date/ 7 7me:

July 20, 1965 (Moon)

Mission End:

March 3, 1966

Outcome:

Succeeded at Moon, failed to reach Mars distance.

The 3MV spacecraft was similar to the 2MV but with improved avionics. Special versions, designated 3MV-1A and 3MV-4A, were built for test missions simulating flights to Venus and Mars. These were lighter test models and did not carry a full set of science instruments. The first 3MV was launched in November 1963. The intent was to test planetary Hyby operations and the camera system at the Moon, and then perform operations to Mars distance before the Mars launch window opened a year later. The launch failed. It was followed in February 1964 with a launch of a test flight to Venus distance just prior to the opening of the Venus window in late March. This launch also failed. Despite these two losses, the Soviets had little option but to proceed with the 1964 program. Two of 3M V spacecraft were launched in the Venus window in March and April, the first succumbing to its launch vehicle and the second. Zond 1. failing in transit.

Undaunted, the Soviets continued with preparations for Mars. Although two flyby spacecraft and at least one entry probe were built, there were technical problems and only one spacecraft made it to the launch pad. The 3MV-4 No.2 flyby spacecraft was successfully dispatched on November 30, 1964. When it became clear that the spacecraft would not be able to meet its objectives, it was named Zond 2. The other Mars spacecraft prepared for this launch window were scrubbed and stored w hile the problems with the ЗМV were investigated. They w’ould subsequently be used for the Zond 3 mission and for the Venus campaign in 1965.

Following the string of five 3MV mission failures in 1963 1964, it was decided to conduct another test. The 3M V-4 No.3 Mars flyby spacecraft that missed its window in 1964 was launched 8 months later. Its task was the same as the spacecraft lost in November 1963, to test the spacecraft and science instruments in a lunar flyby and then test the deep space capabilities of the spacecraft by flying to Mars distance even though the planet would not be present upon arrival. After a successful launch, the spacecraft was designated Zond 3. (The Zond designation had initially been assigned to spacecraft that were clearly not going to be able to meet their objectives, as in the cases of Zond 1 and 2, and would henceforth be used for spacecraft launched either for deliberate testing purposes or to conduct science.) The lunar flyby was timed to photograph the far side of the Moon using the Mars camera, and Zond 3 successfully achieved its test objectives at the Moon. It failed to reach Mars distance but was able to maintain communications for almost 8 months, finally falling silent at a range of over 150 million km.

The Zond 3 spacecraft was the last of the 3MV Mars series to be launched before the robotic lunar and planetary programs were transferred to NPO-Lavochkin, where it w’as decided to abandon the troublesome 3MV design for Mars and instead design a new, heavier and much more capable spacecraft for launch by the Proton. None of the tw o 1M, three 2MV and three 3MV spacecraft launched to Mars, a total of eight including the two 3MV tests, had reached their targets, although Zond 3 did succeed at the Moon.

Spacecraft:

The ЗМ V spacecraft was similar in appearance and general function to the 2MV. It w? as slightly longer at 3.6 meters and had the same inline modular design consisting of a pressurized avionics or "orbital’ module, a propulsion system, and a pressurized flyby instrument module or entry probe. Minor changes were made to the shape in order to modify the moment of inertia and to account for solar wind torques, but the other dimensions were the same as the 2MV. A black shield was added in order to prevent scattered light from interfering with the optical sensors.

A thermal protection cowl was added to the Isayev KDU-414 propulsion system. This system was used for the 1M, 1VA, and all 2MV and ЗМ V spacecraft through to Venera 8. with variously sized tanks for its unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and nitric acid propellants. It w as capable of multiple firings, and on the 2MV and 3MV was gimbaled for thrust vectoring under gyroscopic control. The propulsion system assembly, including its tanks, was about 1 meter in length. For 3MV Venus missions the eompressed nitrogen gas bottles used to pressurize the engine propellants and for cold gas attitude control jets were mounted on the engine cowling. For 3MV Mars missions these bottles were on the collar bctw’een the avionics module and the flyby or entry module. Major improvements were made to the avionics, and redundancy w as added to the attitude control system jets. The high gain antenna w as increased to a diameter of 2.3 meters. Low gain omnidirectional antennas were installed on the

image77,image79,image80

hemispherical radiators that circulated liquid. In addition to the attitude, navigation, thermal and operational control systems, the avionics module held 32 cm and meter band transmitters, 39 cm and meter band receivers, and two tape recorders. The solar panels charged a 112 amp-hour NiCd battery array that supplied the spacecraft with DC power at 14 volts.

In addition to the science instruments and the 5 cm impulse image transmitter, the flyby module contained an 8 cm continuous wave transmitter for backup image or spacecraft data transmission, and backup fonns of the command receiver and other avionics capable of operating the spacecraft in the event of a failure in the avionics module.

Each of these spacecraft, both Mars and Venus versions, had experimental plasma pulse engines on the engine cowl for attitude control in addition to the standard cold gas jets. They were tested successfully on Zond 2. and were later perfected and used regularly on Soviet spacecraft.

Launch mass: 800 kg (Cosmos 21)

950 kg (Zond 2)

960 kg (Zond 3)

Payload:

3MV-1A ISo.2:

1. Facsimile imaging system

2. Radiation detector

3. Charged particle detector

4. Magnetometer

5. Micrometeoroid detector

6. Lyman-alpha atomic hydrogen detector

7. Radio telescope

8. Ultraviolet and x-ray solar radiation experiment Zond 2 and 3:

1. Facsimile imaging system

2. Ultraviolet 285 to 355 nm spectrograph in the camera system

3. Ultraviolet 190 to 275 nm spectrograph for ozone

4. Infrared 3 to 4 micron spectrometer to search for organic compounds

5. Gas discharge and scintillation counters to detect Martian radiation belts

6. Charged particle detector

7. Magnetometer

8. Micrometeoroid detector

After the 1962 campaign, a major improvement was made to the facsimile film imaging system for the flyby missions. The imager mass w7as reduced from 32 to 6.5 kg while using 25.4 mm film capable of storing 40 images. Zond 2 carried two of these cameras equipped with 35 and 750 mm lenses. Zond 3 carried one camera with a 106.4 mm lens. Alternative exposures at 1 100th and 1/300th of a second were used, and an image could be taken and developed every 2.25 minutes. The 25 mm film could be repeatedly rewound for scanning at 550 or 1Л00 lines per frame. Imaging data were stored on the tape recorder that was included in the infrared spectrometer electronics. The 5 cm impulse transmitter and modulation scheme were improved for a factor of four decrease in image transmission times. In the high quality mode, camera images were transmitted at 550 pixels/second. which was 2 seconds per scan line, requiring a total of 34 minutes to send a 1,100 x 1,100 image. If necessary, the images could be sent at much slower rate by the 8 cm continuous wave transmitter. An ultraviolet spectrometer operating in the 285 to 355 nm range was built into the camera and reeorded its data on three frames of the film. These instruments were carried inside the flyby module and observed through three portholes – one for each lens and the spectrometer. Л second ultraviolet spectrometer operating in the 190 to 275 nm range was carried externally and produced digital data. The optical system for the infrared spectrometer was also mounted externally, and w as equipped with a small visible wavelength photometer to provide a reference signal. All of the optical instruments were bore-sighted.

Mission description:

The 3MV-1A No.2 mission ended in failure when the spacecraft was stranded in low Earth orbit. The third and fourth stages apparently separated abnormally. The fourth stage diverged in attitude during coast, and was incorrectly aligned when the engine ignited. Telemetry w’as lost at 1,330 seconds into the flight and the fourth stage with its payload remained in Earth orbit. With this mission, the Soviets initiated a policy of designating lunar and planetary missions stranded in parking orbit as ‘Kosmos a designation that was previously used for scientific satellites, in an effort to obscure their intended purpose. Today. Cosmos is used to designate military missions. 4 he failed 3MV-1A became Cosmos 21 and it re-entered 3 days later.

One year later, after another failed test launch of a 3MV Venus spacecraft and two launches to Venus, including Zond 1. the 3MV-4 No.2 spacecraft was launched on November 30. 1964, for what was intended to be a flyby of Mars at a distance of 1.500 km. However, one of the solar panels did not open due to a broken pull cord. The second panel was finally deployed on December 15 after several engine firings shook it loose, but by then it was too late to perform the first trajectory correction. It suffered other problems, including a timer that failed to activate the thermal control system properly. Unlike Zond 1 earlier in the year, the Soviets revealed Mars as an objective but. knowing that the flyby would not occur in the planned manner, they named the spacecraft Zond 2 and said its objectives were to carry out experiments ‘"in the vicinity of Mars”.

During the last authenticated communications session on December 18, 1964, the plasma engines were successfully tested. After that, communications became erratic. Jodrell Bank monitored transmissions from Zond 2 in Ianuarу and on February 3. 10 and 17. but it is unclear if any further operations were conducted. The Soviets finally announced on May 5 that contact had been lost. The USSR lost the opportunity to be the first to fly past Mars. This honor went to Mariner 4 on July 15. 1965, which the US had launched 2 days before Zond 2. On August 6 the silent Zond 2 flew by Mars at a range of 650.000 km.

Zond 3 was launched successfully on July 18, 1965. Approximately 33 hours later the imaging sequence began at a range of 11,570 km from the lunar near side, and continued through the lunar far side passage over a period of 68 minutes as the range closed to 9.960 km. The closest point of approach had been 9,219 km on the far side. A total of 28 linages were developed on board and transmitted on July 29, by which time the spacecraft was 1.25 million km from Earth. The spacecraft continued on its deep space test flight. A midcourse correction of 50 m/s was made on September 16 at a range of 12.5 million km. The images were rebroadcast from 2.2 million km and again at 31.5 million km to test the capabilities of the communications system. The last communication was on March 3, 1966, at a range of 153.5 million km, well on the way to the orbital distance of Mars.

Results:

There were no results for Mars. Zond 2 made a successful technology demonstration that was important for later deep space missions by operating its six plasma engines prior to the loss of communications, but they were found insufficient to control the attitude of the spacecraft. Zond 3 photographed 19 million square kilometers of the lunar surface including the.30% of the lunar far side that had been in darkness for Tuna 3. The twenty-five visible-band images and three ultraviolet-band images were of much better quality than the Luna 3 pictures. The Soviets achieved an engineering success with their first course correction to be performed using both solar and stellar references.

image81

Figure 9.7 Lunar far side image from Zond 3.

The International Comet Halley campaign

TIMELINE: 1984-1985

During the 1970s there was mounting interest in the coming apparition in 1986 of the famous Comet Halley. The US was developing various plans for intercepting the comet at close range. The fledgling European Space Agency was considering doing the same. And the very small and academically oriented Japanese Institute for Space and AstronauLical Science had decided to send two small spacecraft equipped with plasma instrumentation.

At the start of the 1980s the USSR began to develop a large balloon mission for Venus with the French. But with the development of the mission advancing well the Soviets became interested in Comet Halley when they realized it would be possible for a spacecraft to use a Venus flyby to redirect itself towards the comet. The two missions were partially combined, and in an unprecedented move the Soviets issued an international call for instruments to fly on their spacecraft to Halley. As a result, their planetary exploration program suddenly became international outside the Iron Curtain. Not even the US had opened its more public space exploration program to such extensive international cooperation.

The spacecraft for this Venus-Halley (Vega) mission was very similar to a flyby Venera, but with an instrument scan platform added to track Halley. But instead of a large balloon consuming essentially the entire mass limit for the entry system, it was decided to carry a lander and augment this with a smaller balloon package. The balloon package would be released from the Lop portion of the entry sphere and the lander from the bottom portion. The balloon was to be inflated after release and then float at an altitude of about 50 km with a battery life of about 50 hours. The lander would be of the standard configuration.

Launched in December 1984, both of the Vega spacecraft performed well. Their landers and balloons were successful, the balloons drifting thousands of kilometers from the night-side to the day-side after more than 40 hours of flight. The spacecraft proceeded to encounter Halley, imaging the nucleus, taking data on the surrounding

W. T. Huntress and M. Y. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer Praxis Hooks 1, DOl 10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1 18,

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Launch date

1984

15 Dec

Vega 1 Venus/Halley

Success at Venus and Halley

21 Dec

Vega 2 Venus/Halley

Success at Venus and Halley

1985

7 Jan

Sakigakc Halley flyby

Japanese mission success

2 Jul

Giotto Halley flyby

ESA mission success

18 Aug

Suisei Halley flyby

Japanese mission success

environment, and supporting the rest of the Halley ‘armada5 that comprised the two Soviet spacecraft, two Japanese spacecraft at far encounter, and the European Giotto spacecraft which, with navigational assistance from the Vega missions, was able to refine its trajectory to achieve a very close approach to the nucleus of the comet. The US was notably absent from the armada having failed, in a major embarrassment, to fund a mission to the comet.

Luna Ye-8 series, 1969-1976

The Ye-8 series were much heavier and more complex, and were launched on the powerful new Proton rocket. The design centered on four large spherical propellant

image36

Figure 5.2 Luna 17 Yc-8 lander with Lunokhod I aboard.

image37

Figure 5.3 Luna 19 Ye-8LS orbiler in flight configuration including external drop tanks (courtesy NrO-Lavochkin).

image38tanks connected in a square using cylindrical inter-tank sections. The landing system and engine were mounted on the underside of this assembly and the lander payload on the upper side.

The principal goals of these spacecraft were first to deploy a lunar rover on the surface (the Ye-8 model) and second to return samples of the lunar surface to Earth (the Ye-8-5 model). Three Ye-8 lunar lander rover spacecraft were launched, two of which, Luna 17 and Luna 21. were successful. Of a total of eleven Ye-8-5 sample return spacecraft launched, only three were successful, Luna 16, 20 and 24. In fact, Luna 20 and 24 were advanced Yc-8-5M models. Two additional Ye-8 models were modified as Yc-8LS lunar orbiters and both flown successfully as Luna 19 and 22. The overall record for the Yc-8 was therefore seven successes of sixteen attempts.