Category And Colors

. Standard AAF Color Shades. Development and Usage

lb. The listing of products in this bulletin does not waive the inspection requirements of the specification. The furnishing of paint which proves to be unequal to the test samples submitted, may be sufficient cause for removing the product and the manufacturer’s name from the list.

2. The failure of a product furnished by the parent company or any authorized plant or affiliate will result in the removal of the product from the approved list and thus prohibit the furnishing of the material by either the parent company and its plants or affiliates until such time as satisfactory requalification has been completed by the parent company.

Color photographs reproduced with varying degrees of accuracy in various books and magazines during the last fifty years have been offered as evidence of variations in USAAF standard colors, not to mention such fanciful creations as bright blue P-5 Is in the Eighth Air Force in England.

These variations are mainly due to indifferent color separations and/or variation of inks used in the color printing process. The author has not found any evidence of such color variations in viewing original USAAF color material. Variations from regulation paint schemes and colors did exist in the field, particularly in the early days of the Pacific war theater, but this was under dire combat conditions and most decidedly not the norm for the USAAF.

Original War Department Spec. No. 3-1 still in use, July 1941

The War Department’s original standard for paint and related materials, for use by the Army and all of its branches, was specification No. 3-1, dated November 28, 1919, but it was not made mandatory for use by the Air Service until July 19, 1922. The relevant portion of the “General Conditions” stated:

This general specification relates to and is a part of each and every War Department specification for paints and related materials except as may be otherwise specifically stated in such individual specification.

Also:

Color designations in War Department specifications and publications refer to the color chart attached. Flat or gloss finish when specified shall take precedent over the finish which the color card may present. Requirements for color include those for shade and tone.

Enclosed with the specification was a color card, entitled, “Color Card Referred to in general specification for Paint and Related Materials,” and titled “Supplement to No. 3-1 and Revisions thereof.” This color card had a long life, for it was not superseded by a later one until April 1943.

Although the color card showed twenty-four different glossy color chips, it did not include either black or white. Of the twenty-four colors, only Flat Bronze Green, Color Chip 9 was still being used by the AAF (as an anti-glare coating) in 1941. Alt other colors (these being solely gloss colors) had been superseded by those in the joint Army-Navy Porcelain Color Plates, issued in September 1938

Army-Navy Porcelain Plates, September 1938

Sets of the new joint Army-Navy porcelain enamel (gloss) aircraft color standards were issued to the major paint manufacturers at the end of June 1938.The letter to the manufacturers stated:

These plates are standard for both services and arc to be used for the color control of all paint materials furnished the Air Corps or Air Corps’ contractors on and after September 1, 1938, unless the shade represented by the former Army Porcelain Enamel Color Plates is specified for the purpose of completing an existing order.

With the exception of the Light Blue shade now represented by the True Blue plate, the colors are in quite close agreement with the former Standards and will require only slight pigment modifications to effect the change.

Paints produced in colors represented by the Lemon Yellow, Willow Green and Aircraft Gray are not used by the Air Corps. International Orange has been used only in ready mixed paints for obstacle markings and Cream for dope in accordance with Spec. 3-159.

These porcelain plates probably represent the most accurate method in physical form of matching colors and surviving sets were still in use in the mid-1960s for supplying paint to the services, despite the many changes made to the later color standards issued since 1938. Each set of the porcelain enamel standards contained fifteen plates of the following shades:

International Orange

Instrument Black

Insignia Red

Lemon Yellow

Insignia White

True Blue (replaced Light Blue No. 23)

Insignia Blue

Gloss Black

Engine Gray

Orange Yellow (replaced Yellow No. 4)

Maroon

Olive Drab

Aircraft Cream

Blue Green

Aircraft Gray

Подпись: One color not provided in these porcelain plate standards, was Flat Bronze Green, color No. 9 on the Color Card Supplement to 3-1, The Flat Bronze Green was then being used as an anti-glare coating for natural metal finished aircraft, per Spec. 98-24113-A, The author was fortunate enough to see one of the sets issued to a major paint manufacturer, together with a copy of the letter issuing it to them. These porcelain plates were approximately postcard size, of concave shape, with the color baked in, presenting a beautiful clean, pure color. The method of use was to put a drop or small quantity of the color being checked into the hollow of the porcelain plate and allow it to dry. When it was dry it would be immediately apparent if it matched the sample or not. After the sample had been checked, it could be removed by wiping over with the requisite solvent. Подпись: These new gloss colors remained exactly the same for the new ANA Bulletin No. 166, issued in December 1943 (the actual colors remained in use until the issue of ANA Bulletin No.l66d in March 1959, so they had a very long life). There were significant changes to three of the earlier Air Corps gloss colors with the issuance of these plates. 1’he red became con-siderably brighter and more yellow than previously, while the yel-low became an almost straight medium yellow shade, losing the orange it previously used. The greatest change was in the light blue shade No. 23, as it was replaced by the Navy true blue color, which was a much darker blue without any green in it. This meant that all of the AAF trainer aircraft painted almost three years later, in the blue and yellow paint scheme, used the Navy True Blue color and the new Orange Yellow.

Development of the AAF Camouflage Colors

The AAF camouflage color standards were the same as those developed for the Air Corps’ combat aircraft. These had resulted in the issue of Bulletin No. 41, Color Card for Camouflage Finishes, on September 16, 1940. However, development of the necessary flat camou­flage colors had begun as early as 1926 with the use of commercial water color paints mixed to suit local conditions.

As a result, a new specification, No. 14057, “Paint, Water, Dry,” was issued on April 3, 1931 to cover the use of such temporary camouflage finishes. No colors were originally specified, the specification merely stating that the colors should be mixed to match those specified in the color card supplement to 3-1, the only color being used at that time being olive drab,

As tests continued on the temporary camouflage finishes several suitable colors were evolved, culminating in the issue of Spec. 14057- C, on December 27,1939. This listed the same colors as previously and added a new shade No. 34, Rust Brown, intended to provide an additional color for use in autumn camouflage. The shades, together with the associated Munsell Color Notation, were as follows:

Shade No.

Shade

Munsell Notation

25

White

N9

26

Sand

5YR 7/4

27

Light Blue

5B 7.6/4

Sea Green

ig im

Dark Blue

4B 2.8/3

30

Dark Green

4G 2.4/1.8

31

Dark Olive Drab

8Y 3.6/3

1T~

Neutral Gray

N5

1T~

Black

N2

34

Rust Brown

5YR 3/4

(Note: the Munsell Notations were changed completely from the 1929 ones to the current (post 1942) one, so it is only possible to check these color shades against a 1929 edition of the colors; the author had access to a 1929 edition to check the actual color shades. It is worth noting that this was the first use of Munsell Color Notations in an official Air Corps specification).

Spec. 14057-C continued to be used by the USAAF and was not finally canceled until 1954, although it had long since ceased to be used prior to that date.

Bulletin No. 41 Color Card issued, September 1940

One of the chief items studied in the development of permanent camouflage finishes for the Air Corps, under Study No. 42, was suitable matt shades of color for the camouflage. Tests were run on various shades, using water paint and other types of lacquer and enamel finishes then being developed simultaneously. The results of Study No. 42 culminated in the issue of the Air Corps Bulletin No. 41, dated September 16,1940 (one day after the decisive combat between the Royal Air Force and the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain). Entitled “Color Card for Camouflage Finishes,” it contained eight card color chips, each one inch by three inches (2.54 x 7.62 cm) in size. The new colors were:

Dark Olive Drab No. 41

Insignia Red No. 45

Medium Green No. 42

Insignia White No. 46

Neutral Gray No. 43

Insignia Blue No. 47

Black No. 44

Identification Yellow No. 48

Original War Department Spec. No. 3-1 still in use, July 1941

. Combat Aircraft Distinctive Markings,. Invasion Stripes, and Unit Insignia

image456,image457,image458,image459,image460
Nice line up of B-17s of the 95th BG, 13th CBW, 3rd Air Div, Eighth Air Force, at Poltava, Russia after their shuttle bomb mission over Germany on June 21, 1944. Nearest aircraft is B-17G-55-BO, 42-102678, aircraft BG-R of the 334th BS. Next is B-17G, serial incomplete, aircraft BG-M, with a replacement camouflaged rudder. Next is B-17G-20-VE, 42-97599, aircraft OE-T of the 335th BS; note it does not have the black group rectangle on the tail yet. The sixth aircraft is still fully camouflaged, and has the "B” in black on white tail marking. All of these markings are to ВСІ 55-14, dated December 25,1943. (USAF)

image461,image462,image463,image465,image466,image467

Boeing B-17E-BO, 41-9100, aircraft FR-U, was the lead ship for the 379th BG, but was attached to the 525th BS. It was painted in dark olive drab and white stripes alt over; the stripes below the wing ran from front to rear, and those under the horizontal tail were spanwise. The group marking, black tetter “K” on a white triangle, with a dark olive drab outline. Code letters were in white, with the aircraft serial number and letter “U” on the fin in yellow. It was seen on July 24, 1944. (USAF)

. Combat Aircraft Distinctive Markings,. Invasion Stripes, and Unit Insignia

image469

Camouflage

 

image468

ISt. BOMBARDMENT DIVISION Wing Tip Marking

 

image470

Natural Metal

 

image471

2ND BOMBARDMENT DIVISION Natural Metal

Wing Tip Marking

 

image472

© Victor Archer

 

image473

Three B-17s of the 323rd BS, 91st BG, 1st CBW, 1st Air Div, Eighth Air Force, show the latest changes to the CADMs, in ВСІ 55-21, dated October 16,1944. All of the aircraft, natural metal and camouflaged, are carrying the new red vertical tail areas, together with red wing tips and horizontal stabilizers (not elevators). Nearest aircraft is B-17G-45-BO, 42-97304, aircraft OR-C; on its right is B-17G-30-BO, 42-31908, aircraft OR-R, in camouflage, and behind is B-I7G-49-BO, 42-97271, aircraft OR-B. Squadron code letters are in yellow on camouflage and black on natural metal. November, 1944. (CSAF)

image474

Boeing B-17G-35-DL, 42-107033, aircraft DF-D of the 324th BS, 91st BG, 1st CBW, 1st Air Div, Eighth Air Force, in very shiny natural metal finish carries the latest CAMDs to ВСІ 55-21, dated June 23, 1944. For the 1st Air Div, there was little change except that the natural metal finish changed the Air Div triangle from white to black, reversing the color of the group letter in the process from black to white, and changing the squadron code letters from yellow to black. More colorful changes were to come later in 1944, as the strength of the Eighth Air Force built up rapidly. (USAF)

image475

Boeing B-17G-45-BO, 42-97330, aircraft MS-S of the 535th BS, 381st BG, 1st CBW, 1st Air Div, Eighth Air Force, is seen carrying the new red vertical tail, wing tip and horizontal stabilizer (not elevators) markings, added by ВСІ 55-21, dated October 16,1944. These CADMs remained unchanged for the 1st Air Div until the end of the war. (USAF)

image476

Boeing B-17G-95-BO 43-38810, aircraft SC-V of the 612th BS, 401st BG, 94th CBW, 1st Air Div, plus 43-38733, 43-30541, and 43-37780, plus others, lined upon March 19, 1945.They are carrying the new yellow, trimmed with black, sloping band on the vertical tail, added by ВСІ 55­21, dated October 16, 1944. Note that there are some variations in the positioning and size of the triangle markings. Seen at Deenthorpe, England on March 19,1945. (USAF)

image477

Boeing B-17G-75-BO, 43-37921, aircraft UX-N of the 327th BS, 92nd BG, 40th CBW, 1st Air Div, seen in 1945 at one of the forward strips in Belgium. Barely visible is the red band across the vertical tail, with its tower edge in line with the base of the triangle. The unit code letters appear to be in insignia blue rather than black; compare with the star insignia and the black triangle. (William L. Swisher)

image478

мММ i ■

■■■

Consolidated B-24 D-20-Со, 41-24215, aircraft “Z” of the 445th BG, 2nd Bomb Div, Eighth Air Force, at Tihenham, England, in 1944. Note that the aircraft radio call number presentation is incorrect in that it shows both of the year (1941) digits at the beginning of the number; the number “4” should have been omitted. This formation lead aircraft was painted with wide orange bands all over the fuselage and vertical tails. Note that the large letter “F" on the fuselage has lights in all of its horizontal and vertical strokes. (USAF)

image479

Consolidated B-24H or J, serial unknown, aircraft J4-M “Final Approach”, of the 753rd BS, 458th BG, 96th CBW, 2nd Air Div, waiting for take-off at Horsham St. Faith, England, on the Group’s 200th mission. Dark olive drab and neutral gray finish, tail markings are a white vertical stripe on red vertical surfaces. (USAF)

image480

Consolidated B24H, serial unknown, aircraft J3-P, of the 755th Bs, 458th BG, 96th CBW, 2nd Air Div. The markings of the 2nd Air Div were changed to colored vertical tails by ВСІ 55-21, dated June 23, 1944. This aircraft has the red tail with a white vertical band of the 458th BG, together with the earlier upper right wing marking of a white letter “K” on a black circle (for natural metal aircraft). Late 1944. (USAF)

image481

Consolidated B-24H, serial unknown, aircraft Z5-E “The Shack”, of the 754th BS, 458th Bg, 96 CBW, 2nd Air Div. Red tail with a white vertical stripe. Note the grayed-out fuselage insignia, a somewhat superfluous effort! Seen at Horsham St. Faith, England, on February 26,1945.

image482

Consolidated B-24H-L-FO, 42-7478, aircraft ЕС-P bar, “Flying Crusader” of the 578th BS, 392nd BG, 14th CBW, 2nd Air Div, typifies a late camouflaged B-24. The vertical tail markings are white, with a black horizontal stripe. Note that the right tail has received a replacement dark olive drab rudder, still showing its medium green blotches and its portion of the old circle marking painted over. The group code letter “D” does not appear on the right wing circle. Code letters on fuselage are gray and the radio call number on the fin are in yellow. Aircraft letter on the tail is white. (USAF)

image483

Consolidated B-24H, serial number unknown, aircraft “I” of the 715th BS, 448th BG, 20th CBW, 2nd Air Div, taking off from its base of Seething, England. It is on the way to drop supplies to Allied troops battling east оГ the Rhine river in Germany, in the spring of 1945. Group markings were a black diagonal bar across the yellow tail; the squadron insignia was the yellow diamond on the black bar. The aircraft letter is within the diamond. (USAF)

image484Boeing B-17 of the 452nd BG, 45th CBW, 3rd Air Div is seen from above, showing the group letter "L” in a white rectangle above the right outer wing. Taken over Berlin on April 29, 1944, it appears as if both outer wing panels have been repaired, but not repainted prior to this mission. (USAF)

image485

Consolidated B-24H-15-FO, 42-52618, aircraft R5-K “Chief Wapello”, of the 839th BS, 487th BG, was in one of the five H-24 groups in the 3rd Air Div, which also had nine B-17 groups. It proved to he too difficult to operate the two types together, and they were replaced by B-17s after only a few months. The group code letter “P” is seen on the tail and on the wing in the white rectangle. Code tetters were gray, and the aircraft letter “K” was in yellow in both positions, as was the radio call number. (USAF)

image486

Boeing B-17G-45-BO, 42-97258, of the 452nd BG, 45th CBW, 3rd Air Div, with a lot of company, on the way to Germany in May, 1944, No squadron codes were used by this group. The CADMs are to ВСІ 55-14, dated December 25, 1943. Note that this B-17 has a replacement camouflaged outer right wing panel. (USAF)

image487

Boeing B-17G-65-VE, 44-8439, aircraft “R”, of the 95th BG, 13th CBW, 3rd Air Div, seen at a strip in Belgium in 1945. It has the usual Mack rectangle on the tail and the red band up the trailing edge of the rudder; however, a replacement rudder has not yet been painted in the red color. A red band at an angle across the lower left outer wing completes the markings. Date not known, but after January 11,1945, and prior to March 7,1945, in conformance with the latest CADM orders. (USAF)

image488

Boeing B-17G-70-BO, 43-37928, aircraft “D”, of the 490th BG, 93rd CBW, 3rd Air Div, seen in Belgium in 1945. The group marking is a red band across the vertical tail, one-third of its height, together with red hands across the wing, at the inner end of the aileron, and across the middle of the horizontal tail. The 9rd CBW adopted these markings when it was originally equipped with B-24s, and carried them across when the 3rd Air Div became an ail B-17 force in summer 1944. It was the only group in the 3rd Air Div whose markings could be seen easily, and this lead to major changes in the other group markings in the 3rd Air Div in early 1945. (William L, Swisher)

image489

Two B-17Gs, 42-97627 in natural metal, and 42-97555, in camouflage, of the 413th BS, 96th BG, 45th CBW, 3rd Air Div, are seen on their bomb run over the target in late 1944. Using the H2X radar housed in the usual ball-turret position, these acted as radar path-finders for the main bomber force in bad weather when the target could not be seen visually. As they were used with any of the 3rd Air Div forces, they did not carry the usual group tail markings. (USAF)

image490

Three Douglas C-47As towing Waco CG-4A gliders show oft’ the new invasion stripes on June 6, 1944, D-Day. They are from (he 88th TCS, 438th TCG, of the Ninth Air Force. (March AFB Museum)

 

. Combat Aircraft Distinctive Markings,. Invasion Stripes, and Unit Insignia
ALLIED INVASION STRIPES

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force issues Top Secret memo whose subject was “Distinctive Marking – Aircraft”, dated April 18, 1944 (the “Invasion Stripes”)

On April 13, 1944, the newly formed Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force issued a draft of a major Operation Memoran­dum, Number 23, entitled “DISTINCTIVE MARKING – AIRCRAFT”. This was approved very quickly and issued on April 18, 1944. Only 100 copies of the Top Secret document were made; 55 were issued to the necessary commands, each bearing its own number. The other 45 copies were held as spares. The following information comes from copy number 36, issued to the Chief Administrative Officer (this was declassified by DOD on October 12,1966, at the request of the author).

TOP SECRET TOP SECRET

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS COPY No.38

ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

OPERATION MEMORANDUM ) 18 April, 1944

NUMBER 23 )

DISTINCTIVE MARKING – AIRCRAFT

1. OBJECT

The object of this memorandum is to prescribe the distinctive markings which will be applied to US and BRITISH aircraft in order to make them more easily identified as friendly by ground and naval forces and by other friendly aircraft.

2. SCOPE

a. The instructions contained herein will apply to the following types of US and BRITISH aircraft; (I) Fighters and fighter – bombers. (2) Tactical and photographic reconnaissance aircraft. (3) Aircraft employed in spotting for naval gunfire and field artillery. (4) Light bombers. (5) Medium bombers. (6) Troop carrier aircraft, including four engine types. (7) Glider tugs, including four engine types. (8) Liaison aircraft and Air OP’s employed in forward areas for fire spotting and adjustment or for advanced aircraft control. (9) Coastal Command, Air Sea Rescue and disembarked Fleet Air Arm aircraft except seaplanes and four engine aircraft which need not be marked.

b. These instructions will not apply to the following classes of aircraft:(l) Four engine bombers. (2) Air transports. (3) Gliders. (4) Night fighters. (5) Seaplanes.

3. GENERAL

a. The instructions contained herein will be effective on the day of the assault and thereafter until it is deemed advisable to change. Aircraft will be given distinctive markings as shortly before the day of the assault as it is possible in order to protect the effectiveness of their use.

b. These instructions are in no way intended to change the present US and BRITISH national markings now in use, namely: the USAAF white star on a white horizontal bar; and the RAF red, white and blue roundel.

4. DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS

a Single engine aircraft. (It Upper and lower wing surfaces of aircraft listed in paragraph 2 a above, will be painted with five white and black stripes, each eighteen inches wide, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, arranged in order from center outward; white, black, white, black, white. Stripes will end six inches inboard of the national markings. (2) Fuselages will be painted with five parallel white and black stripes, each eighteen inches wide, completely around the fuselage, with the outside edge of the rearmost band eighteen inches from the leading edge of the tailplane.

b. Twin engine aircraft. (I) Upper and lower wing surfaces of aircraft listed in paragraph 2 a above, will be painted from the engine nacelles outward with five white and black stripes, each twenty-four inches wide, arranged in order from center outward: white, black, white, black, white. (2) Fuselages will be painted with five parallel white and black stripes, each twenty-four inches wide, completely around the fuselage, with the outside edge of the rearmost band eighteen inches from the leading edge of the tailplane.

c. Four engine troop carrier aircraft and glider tugs. (I) Same as for twin-engine aircraft, wing stripes to be outboard of the outer engine nacelles.

d. Stripes will in no case be painted over the national markings, which take precedence. Wing stripes will extend from leading edge to trailing edge of wings. Special equipment, such as deicer boots, will not be painted over.

e. Types of paint to be employed: (1) USAAF Units – as directed by the Commanding General of the Air Force concerned. (2) RAF Units – as directed by the appropriate BRITISH agency.

f. At Appendix ‘A’ are sample sketches of aircraft painted according to these instructions.

5. BRIEFING

Army, Navy and Air Commanders will disseminate complete information concerning these distinctive markings to all troops under their commands no earlier before the day of the assault than will insure the complete distribution of the information.

By command of General Eisenhower:

W. B. Smith

Lieutenant General, U. S. Army,

OFFICIAL: Chief of Staff.

H. R. BULL,

Major General, G. S.C.,

Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3.

COPY NO.

DISTRIBUTION

Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force,

1-3

Command-in-Chief, 21 Army Group,

4-8

Commanding General, First US Army Group,

9-10

Air Commander-in-Chicf, AEAF,

11-16

The Secretary, The Admiralty,

17

The Under Secretary of State, The War Office (MO 3)

18

Commanding General, ETOUSA

19

Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces,

20

The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry

21-23

Commanding General, USSTAF,

24

Air Officer Commanding, Bomber Command

25

Chief of Combined Operations,

26

The Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet,

27

The Secretary, Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D. C.

28

OPD, War Department, Washington, D. C.

29

OPD, Navy Department, Washington, D. C.

30

A. F.H. Q.

31

Supreme Commander, SFLAEF,

32

Deputy Supreme Commander,

33

Chief of Staff,

34

Deputy Chief of Staff,

35

Chief Administrative Officer,

36

Adjutant General,

37

Secretary General Staff,

38

AC of S, G-l,

39

AC of S, G-2

40-41

AC of S, G-3

42-47

AC of S, G-4,

48-50

AC of S, G-5,

51

Chief Engineer,

52

Chief Signal Officer,

53

Public Relations Division,

54

Headquarters Commandant,

55

Spares

TOP SECRET

56-100

APPENDIX ‘A’

to SHAEFOP MEMO NO 23 dated 18 April, 1944

 

Width of Stripes 18 inches to start 6 inches inboard of National Marking.

 

Width of Stripes 18 inches each.

 

Dark Green

 

Ocean Grey

 

Sky

 

Width of Stripes 24 inches to start outboard of Engine Nacelles

 

PRU Blue

 

Width of Stripes 24 inches each.

 

NOTE: National Markings are not to be painted over by the black and white stripes.

 

image492image493image494image495image496

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force issues Top Secret memo whose subject was “Distinctive Marking - Aircraft”, dated April 18, 1944 (the “Invasion Stripes”)

image497

Lockheed F-5B-1-LO, 42-68205, shows off the new invasion markings at Poltava, Russia, on June 21,1944. It was part of the first shuttle force to attack Germany, then continued on to Russia. Unfortunately, the force had been followed by a Luftwaffe Heinkel He 177, and that night, the Germans launched a devastating raid, destroying many of the B-17s. (USAF)

First Army Commander requests change to narrower stripes (“Invasion Stripes”) for Field Artillery and Liaison Aircraft, May 1944.

The First Army Commander, Lieut. Gen Omar Bradley, on May 16, 1944, requested authority to modify distinctive markings for Field Artillery and Liaison (CUB) aircraft. Modification requested was to use 8 inch stripes instead of 18 inch stripes, it was not considered that this change would jeopardize the safety of these small aircraft through identification failure by friendly Air and Ground Forces. Reason for the request was the excessive weight added by paint and the increased difficulty in concealing such aircraft in forward combat areas. This request was approved the next day.

“Invasion Stripes” removed from top surface of wings and fuselage of small artillery liaison aircraft (Piper Cubs), June 1944

HQ Allied Expeditionary Air Force informed SHAEF, HQ 21 AG, Advanced Allied Expeditionary Air Force, HQ Second Tactical Air Force, Main HQ Ninth Air Force, HQ Air Defense Great Britain, HQ USSTAF, HQ Eighth Air Force, ANCXF, and HQ Coastal Com­mand, on June 22,1944, that:

Small artillery liaison aircraft (Piper Cubs) may be seen in the Beachhead combat zone, with no distinctive markings on the top surface of wings and fuselage. Markings will continue to be carried on the ventral surfaces. This necessary due to difficulty encountered in providing camouflage for these aircraft while they are on their unprotected landing grounds very near to the front lines.

image498

Douglas A-20J-15-DO, 43-21745, aircraft 8L-S, “Irene”, of the 646th BS, 410th BG, Ninth Air Force, seen at its English base on June 22,1944. It shows how the full complement of stripes were carried until October, 1944 (see a later photo of this aircraft in this section). Note the roughness of some of the painting, probably done without the benefit of taping. (USAF)

image499

Stinson L-5-VW, 42-98592, seen at strip A-8, Picauville, Normandy, on July 7,1944. Note the full size invasion stripes, versus those on the Piper L-4s. (William L. Swisher)

HQ Allied Expeditionary Air Force proposes “Invasion Stripes” be discontinued immediately, July 1944

On July 6, 1944, HQ Allied Expeditionary Air Force sent SHAEF Forward HQ a request that the provisions of SFLAEF Operation Memo.

No. 23 for distinctive markings be suspended effective (hat date. The request continued:

Recommend that no further aircraft be given the distinctive markings and that markings already on aircraft be allowed to fade out and not be renewed. If suspension approved request that all Army and Navy Commanders be instructed to inform all troops particularly gun crews that henceforth they can expect to see friendly aircraft without distinctive markings and that absence of the markings can no longer be accepted as an indication that aircraft are hostile.

In response, SHAEF Forward, signed Eisenhower, sent the following signal to ANCXF, Main EXFOR, on July 9, 1944:

With reference AEAF signal A-124 dated 6th July, 1944. As distinctive markings reduce speed and add to maintenance of aircraft it is desired to suspend SHAEF Operation Memorandum No. 23. Advise earliest date by which you can inform all concerned so that the Memorandum can be canceled from that date. AEAF state it is impracticable to remove markings from all aircraft on one date. National markings remain unchanged.

image500

Northrop P-61A-5-NO, 42-5563, of the 422nd or 425 th NFS, Ninth Air Force, on August 12,1944. It is now marked only on the lower wing and boom surfaces, in accordance with the latest SHAEF orders. (March AFB Museum)

image501

De Havilland Mosquito NF Mk. XVII night fighter, HK470, of 604 Sq, RAF, thal dropped into strip A-8. Picavilte, France, on August 13,1944, It shows how the stripe markings had been removed from the top of the wings and fuselage. This was done to decrease the aircraft’s vulnerabil­ity to enemy gunnery spotters overlooking these strips close to the front line in Normandy. (William L. Swisher)

This signal was followed up by another dated July 30,1944, from the same source, sent to EXFOR, 12 Army Group. This read as follows:

1. Operation Memorandum number 23 refers.

2. Proposed to retain distinctive aircraft markings on the fuselage only and allow markings on the wings to fade out naturally. This to apply only to those aircraft that operate in immediate battle areas.

3. Propose following classes of aircraft do not carry distinctive markings:

a. Coastal Command aircraft.

b. Shore based Fleet Air Arm aircraft, (unless based in FRANCE.)

c. 8th Air Force fighter aircraft. (These aircraft do not operate in close support of the Armies.)

d. Fighter aircraft employed exclusively in anti-CROSSBOW operations. (Attacks against V-l sites in Europe – au­thor).

e. High altitude photo-reconnaissance aircraft.

f. Gliders.

4. Request your concurrence or comments by 030900B.

EXFOR MAIN responded on July 31,1944, stating that:

Ref. your signal of 302025B. Subject distinctive markings on aircraft. Proposal agreed.

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Noorduyn UC-64A-ND, 43-5363, carrying very low stripes on the bottom of the fuselage. Note that the large fuselage insignia is actually more visible than most of the stripes. Seen at strip A-8, Picauville, Normandy on August 13,1944. (William L. Swisher)

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RAFTaylorcraft Auster, serial number N????, overpainted. Unit unknown, but it is carrying the full-size invasion stripes. Seen at strip A-8, Picauville, Normandy, on August 14,1944 (William L. Swisher)

However, on August 1, 1944, ANCXF (Allied Naval Commander Expeditionary Forces) responded to the SHAEF proposal with the following signal:

Yours 302025. Proposal to retain fuselage markings only concurred in but consider this should continue to apply to all classes of aircraft as in your memorandum number 23.

Markings have proved valuable to Naval Forces where operations are not confined to Assault Area and to remove them from some classes of aircraft will cause doubt.

If it is decided to remove wing markings concede that this should be done in as short a time as possible and all concerned then informed.

Somewhat later, on August 7, 1944, HQ Twelfth Army Group (signed Bradley), sent SHAEF Forward the following signal:

Reference SHGCT dated 30 July 1944. This Headquarters concurs in the proposed change of distinctive aircraft markings as contained therein.

Change No. 4 to the Op. Memo No. 13, dated October 13, 1944 ordered the removal of all stripes on Allied aircraft, but on October 25, 1944, a TWX from USSTAF to the various fighter commands stated that:

The present method of applying distinctive markings on your fighters authorized by SHAEF. By this authority you are autho­rized to disregard instructions contained in change no. 4 to Operations Memorandum No. 13 (29 April 1944) of HQ ETOUSA dated 13 October 1944.

Distinctive Markings on single and twin engined aircraft will be as follows:

(A) The under, repeat, under surface of fuselages of single engined aircraft will be painted with five (5) parallel white and black stripes, each eighteen (18) inches wide, with the outside edge of the rearmost band eighteen (18) inches from the leading edge of the tailplane.

(B) The under, repeat, under surface of twin engined aircraft will be painted with five (5) parallel white and black stripes, each twenty-four (24) inches wide, with the outside edge of the rearmost band eighteen (18) inches from the leading edge of the tailplane.

In other words, this meant that the stripes now disappeared from the top of the wings and fuselages of all fighter type aircraft.

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Douglas A-20J-15-Do, 43-21745, aircraft 8U-S, “Irene”, of the 646th BS, 410th BG, Ninth Air Force, seen later in the summer of 1944, dearly shows how the upper invasion stripes were painted out on the wings and fuselage after October 25,1944. (LISAF)

The requirements for the distinctive aircraft markings did not come up again until December 5, 1944, when SHAEF MAIN from Robb (RAF Air Marsha] J. M. Robb, Deputy Chief of Staff (Air)), sent the following message to “MED Allied Air Force for Slessor and Bottomley”:

Reference MAAF Signal dated December 2. (not retained in this file – author). Identification difficulties have also been experi­enced in this theatre, and several incidents have occurred recently involving attacks by American fighters against friendly aircraft, sometimes with fatal results. The P. R. Wing aircraft, especially Mosquitoes of Second TAF, have been the chief victims of such attacks and CONINGHAM’s request that the aircraft of this wing be allowed to retain the distinctive striped markings used for OVERLORD operations in order to facilitate identification has been agreed.

CONINGHAM has recommended that the standard RAF markings be made more distinctive on operational aircraft by widen­ing the yellow ring surrounding the roundels. Agree that this is the best arrangement for fighters and fighter bombers which operate low down but prefer your proposals for remaining day types.

If approved request Air Ministry initiate action.

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A really rare bird! This is a French designed and built Potez 542, carrying Ihe small invasion stripes favored by the Free French Air Force. It is marked with French roundels on the fuselage and wings, rudder stripes and the Cross of Lorraine on the rear fuselage. Seen at strip Y-9, Dijon/ Long-Vic, France, on October 6, 1944. (William L. Swisher)

Final action on SHAEF Operation Memorandum Number 23 came the next day, December 6, 1944, when SHAEF released the following document:

This is the First Suspcnsion/Cancellation of a SHAEF OPERATION MEMORANDUM.

SUSPENSION OF OPERATION MEMORANDUM NUMBER 23, 6th December, 1944

DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS – AIRCRAFT

1. The provisions of Supreme Headquarters, AEF, Operation Memorandum No.23, Distinctive Markings – Aircraft, are suspended effective December 31st, 1944.

2. Except as noted in sub-paragraph 4d. below, distinctive markings will be removed where this can be done without damage to the aircraft and with due regard to the materials and time available for this work.

3. Addressees will ensure complete dissemination of the pertinent provisions of this suspension by the quickest pos­sible means consistent with security.

4. All Commanders will particularly ensure that personnel under their command are instructed that:-

a. The fact that an aircraft of allied manufacture is seen without distinctive markings does NOT necessarily indicate that the aircraft is hostile.

b. For some time Allied aircraft may still be seen carrying distinctive markings, which, with the exception of those in sub-paragraph d below, should now be disregarded.

c. Faded striping under certain conditions of light closely resembles the German cross.

d. For the purposes of facilitating identification by other friendly aircraft all of the photo reconnaissance aircraft of Number 34 Wing, Second Tactical Air Force will be painted with standard invasion markings until such time as all recipients of this instruction are notified by Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second Tactical Air Force.

5. The removal of these distinctive markings in no way affects the presently prescribed national markings, which will continue to be carried on aircraft.

6. In future, should there be a requirement for distinctive markings, application will be made to this Headquarters.

By Command of General EISENHOWER.

Thus ended the saga of the now famous “invasion stripes.” Frankly, they were a testament to the sad state of aircraft recognition throughout the armed forces (on both sides) and that most armed men would rather take the risk of shooting down one of their own aircraft rather than letting a doubtful type escape (the author taught aircraft recognition throughout WWII and later served with the Royal Observer Corps in England, so he was very familiar with the problem). The problem persists to this time, under the euphemism of “friendly fire.”

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Four North American P-51Ds from the 361st FG, Eighth Air Force, assigned to provide top cover for aircraft of the Ninth Air Force finally able to attack the Germans in the Battle of the Bulge. The very bad weather that allowed the Germans to make their attack without major Allied air attacks, can clearly he seen in this photo. Note that almost all vestige of the invasion stripes has disappeared from these aircraft. The SHAEF order discontinuing their use was dated December 6,1944, and stated that they were to be discarded on December 31,1944. Nearest aircraft is a P-51D-10-NA, 44-14358, aircraft E9-K “Princess Geraldine", of the 367th FS, 361st FG. Squadron colors are a yellow spinner, aircraft nose and rudder. Seen at strip A-64, St, Dizier, France, on December 30,1944. (William E. Swisher)

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UNIT INSIGNIA

These unit insignia are of four famous Fighter Groups and some of their Squadrons, assigned to the Kth Air Force in England, during 1942-1945. The 20th FG was in the 67th Fighter Wing of the 1st Air Division, the 55th and 78th FGs were in the 66th Fighter Wing of the 3rd Air Division, and the 56th was in the 65th Fighter Wing of the 2nd Air Division. Note that the insignia shown here arc the WW2 ones, and have been superseded by later ones in some cases. The insignia of the 3rd Air Division HQ completes the page.

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These insignia are from four Fighter Groups and one Bomb Group of the 18th Air Force. The 353rd FG and 357th FG were part of the 66th Fighter Wing, of the 3rd Air Division, the 355th FG part of the 2nd Air Division, and the 356th FG part of the 67th Fighter Wing, 1st Air Division, The 91st BG was part of the 1st Combat Bomb Wing, 1st Air Division.

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These insignia are all from 8th Air Force units, except for the 44th BS, 40th BG which was assigned to the 20th Air Force, initially in India and then on Tinian Island. This unit used B-29s. The 34th BG was assigned to the 93rd Combat Bomb Wing, 3rd Air Division, the 92nd BG to the 40th Combat Bomb Wing, 1st Air Division, the 93rd BG to the 20th Combat Bomb Wing, 2nd Air Division, and the 94th BG was part of the 4th Combat Bomb Wing, 3rd Air Division.

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The 95th BG served with the 13th Combat Bomb Wing, and the 96th BG with the 45th Combat Bomb Wing, both assigned to the 3rd Air Division. The 303rd BG served with the 41st Combat Bomb Wing, and the 306th BG with the 40th Combat Bomb Wing, both of the 1st Air Division. The 13th, 22nd, and 27th PRS units were part of the 7th PRG. All units were part of the 8th Air Force. Final four insignia are from the often forgotten support units, also of the 8th Air Force.

Spec. No. 98-24105-Q issued on October 1, 1942, revised Radio Call Number, and other detail requirements for markings on airplanes and airplane parts

This new release of the markings spec, grew to no less than twelve pages in length. The revisions included those for camouflage markings and were as follows:

All exterior markings on aircraft with camouflage finishes were to be applied with either red, black, or blue, shades Nos. 45,44, and 47 respectively, of Bulletin No. 41, of the same materials as the finish on the airplane.

Lower Wing Markings required that the marking “U. S.ARMY” was to be painted on the lower surface of the lower wing of biplanes or on the lower surface of the wings of monoplanes, except when the airplane was camouflaged, in which case the marking was not to be used. The letters “U. S.” were to be painted on the right wing, and the word “ARMY” on the left wing, with the top of the letters toward the leading edge. These markings were to be centrally located with respect to the wing outline. The letters were to be of the vertical type, 24 inches high and with strokes four inches wide.

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Douglas C-47-DL, 41-18393, is shown in North Africa at the end of 1942, Note the RAF fin flash on the fin. This was painted on all AAF aircraft operating in Operation TORCH and lasted well into 1943. (Nick Williams)

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Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VB, RAF serial number АЛ963, in yellow, on Dark Olive Drab and Neutral Gray camouflage. AAF star insignia on wings and fuselage. Note the Medium Green blotching on fin, rudder and elevators. There is a yellow number “2” on nose. (USAF)

Vertical Tail Markings required that each airplane should have a radio call number painted on its vertical tail surfaces. The number was to consist of at least four numbers, to be determined as follows: The first number was to be the last number of the year in which the airplane was manufactured, and the remaining numbers were to consist of the serial number of the air plane, using zero where necessary between the year designated and the serial number to make four numbers.

Example No. 1. – The radio call number of an airplane manufactured in 1942, having serial number 42-5434, was to be

25434.

Example No. 2. – The radio call number of an airplane manufactured in 1942, having serial number 42-7, was to be

2007.

Aradio call number was to be placed on each side of the vertical tail surface. Where more than one vertical surface was used the call number was to appear on the left exposed side of the left hand surface, and the right exposed side of the right surface. Each numeral was to be of the block type, the width two-thirds of the height and the strokes approximately one inch wide for each six inches in height. The distance between the numerals was to be equal to one-half the width of a numeral. The actual size of the numerals was to be such that the call number would be readily discernible from a distance of approximately 150 yards.

Uncamouflaged airplanes were to have the number on the vertical stabilizer surface. For light colored backgrounds, the numbers were to be black, and for dark backgrounds, the numbers were to be orange-yellow to chip No. 5 of Spec. 3-1.

Camouflaged airplanes were to have the number across both the vertical stabilizer and the rudder surfaces. For light colored backgrounds, the numbers were to be black Shade 44, Bulletin No. 41. For dark backgrounds, the numbers were to be red or blue, color shades Nos. 45 or 47 of Bulletin No. 41.

Camouflage no longer required for any AAF aircraft except night Fighters, November 1943

On November 3, 1943, HQ. AAF sent the following message to the VIII Ar Force Service Command:

Approved policy on camouflage is quoted in substance as follows: “No requirement exists for camouflaging any AAF aircraft except Night Fighters.

Night Fighters shall be painted with non reflecting type camouflage paint.

Camouflage paint will be eliminated from all production AAF airplanes subsequently produced except Night Fighters.

Navy type aircraft will be accepted with Navy camouflage.

Camouflage may be removed from existing AAF airplanes at the option of the Theater Commander or Commanding General under whose jurisdiction such aircraft operate in accordance with technical instructions issued by Commanding General Air Service Command.

Future production aircraft which require painting such as fabricated of wood shall be painted with aluminated paint”.

Above policy in no way prohibits Theater Commander if he desires from (retaining-sic) aircraft camouflage.

Western Proc. Dist. informed that camouflage would be removed from P-38s and B-29s, November 16,1943.

On November 16,1943, the Prod. Eng. Sect. (WF), informed the Western Proc. Dist., Los Angeles, that camouflage would be removed in production from P-38 and B-29s, but not from other aircraft until the Army, Navy, and Lease-Lend recipients could reach an agreement.

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Boeing B-17F-10-BO, 41-24484, aircraft LL-C, of the 401st BS, 91st BG, was named “Bad Egg”. Covered with massive green blotches, it shows red outline insignia overpainted with a blue border. Code letters are in Yellow. It is seen at its base near Bassingbourne, England, on October 15, 1943. (USAF)

Douglas details corrosion on natural metal C-54Bs, October 1944

In the same October copy of the service bulletin, Douglas detailed how to prevent corrosion of the wing and nacelle skins due to exhaust gases. This had been found prevalent due to these aircraft being delivered in natural metal finish, rather than camouflage finish. (This became a problem on most post war piston-engined commercial transports and resulted in extensive painting of the affected areas – author).

Skin Treatment

CORROSION OF WING AND NACELLE SKIN DUE TO EXHAUST GASES

Excessive corrosion of wing and nacelle skin surfaces due to exhaust gases has been found on C-54 series airplanes delivered with natural rather than camouflage finish.

To eliminate this corrosion, the following procedure is recommended:

1. Remove oil and dirt from areas affected by wiping with rags saturated with wash thinner or suitable solvent. Wipe the surfaces with dry rags before allowing the thinner or solvent to evaporate completely.

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Republic P-47D-28-RE, 44-19898, aircraft G9-S of the 509th FS, 405 th FG, nose cowl was in red and the band across the vertical tail is black. It still has the invasion stripes under the fuselage only. The significance of the black “D" is not known. (William L. Swisher)

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North American P-S1D-S-NA, 44-13483, aircraft no. l, “Little Stud” of 325th FG, 15th Air Force in Italy late 1944. Natural metal with red spinner and nose hand, black and yellow checks on the tail, (Robert L. Baseler)

2. Prepare the affected area for painting by using either of two methods, depending upon the severity of the corrosion:

a. If the corrosion is light or moderate, polish with Bon Ami in the normal manner. Other abrasives may be used, but care should be taken to see that they are not too severe.

b. If the corrosion is severe, smooth the surface of the metal by means of an abrasive cloth or sandpaper (no. 280 to 400 grit). Apply a hydrofluoric acid-gum tragacanth solution (see NOTE) with a paint brush and continue brushing to aid the etch­ing action. When the surface and pitted areas appear clean, remove the gum-acid solution with damp rags, flush thoroughly with water, and wipe dry.

CAUTION: Goggles, rubber aprons, and rubber gloves should be used when the gumacid solution is applied. Short-time con tact with the acid is not harmful if the acid is rinsed off immediately with plenty of water. The acid should not come in contact with areas or parts, particularly plated steel, other than specified. The landing gear should be covered with paper during this cleaning.

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North American P-51B, serial unknown, aircraft no.261, of the 26,h FS, 51я FG, at one of the Fourteenth Air Force South China airfields. It had to be evacuated on November 19,1944, in Ihe face of a strung Japanese offensive. Aircraft is in standard camouflage and has two yellow hands, trimmed in hlack on the vertical tail and yellow wing tips, possibly yellow. The sharks teeth nose marking is in black, white and red. (USAF)

After the surfaces are thoroughly cleaned, apply one spray coat of zine chromate primer (Spec. AN-TT-P-656) to affected areas and allow to dry. Apply two spray coats of aluminized lacquer over the primer surfaces.

NOTE: To prepare the aluminized lacquer, add 2 parts of lacquer thinner (Spec. AN-TT-T256) to 3 parts of Du Pont No, 1234 clear lacquer. Add 6 ounces of aluminum paste (Spec. AN-Tr-A-461) for each gallon of thinned lacquer. The procedure should be repeated when subsequent cleaning of the surface removes the aluminized lacquer to the extent that the zinc chromate primer is exposed.

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Two Dark Olive Drab and Neutral Gray, and one natural metal Martin B-26, drop their bombs in Italy, late 1944. Nearest aircraft is B-26C-45- MO, 42-107531. All are from the 441st BS, 320th BG, as shown by the yellow aircraft tail numbers. (USAF’ via Gerry R. Markgraf)

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Boeing B-29-10-BA, 42-63393, aircraft “I", named “B-13 Rush Order”, of Ihe 462nd BG,58th BW, Twentieth Air Force, seen in China late 1944. (USAF)

Aluminized lacquer will be applied to the exterior areas affected on C-54B airplane AAF 43-17150 and all subsequent prior to delivery. Starting with C-54B airplane AAF 43-17163, the interior surfaces of the trailing edge of the center wing will have two coats of aluminized A and A lacquer (Army Specification 3-168) applied over the zinc chromate primer coating in production.

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Boeing B-29-15-BW, of the 678th BS, 444th BG, Twentieth Air Force, flying over the Himalayan Mountains enroute to Japan on November 21, 1944. The lead aircraft is 42-6399, and has the squadron unit insignia on its nose. All aircraft carried the large black diamond above the serial number on the tail; the aircraft no. in white signified the aircraft number in the group. No.34 leads nos. 44 and 55 in this photo. A large yellow band with black diagonal stripes, around the fuselage behind the wing, indicates the 678th BS. (USAF)

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Six Martin B-26s, one camouflaged and the rest natural metal, of the 441st BS, 320th BG, over Italy in late 1944, The most distant natural metal aircraft has invasion stripes under the fuselage only, probably a replacement aircraft from England. (USAF via Gerry R. Markgraf)

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Douglas C-47A-40-DC, 42-24051, aircraft CN-N of the 73rd TCS, 434th TCG, leads others from that unit and the 74th TCS, 434th TCG, Ninth Air Force. They are on their way to drop supplies to the beleaguered troops in Bastogne, Belgium, December23,1944, Note the external supplies on rack under the fuselage and wings of the aircraft. Invasion stripes remain only under the fuselage. The lead aircraft still carries the factory applied medium green blotches and dearly shows the repainted blue outline to the 1943 insignia. (USAF)

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Republic P-47D-6-RE, 42-74742, aircraft WZ-D bar, “Snafu”, of the 84th FS, 78th FG, Eighth Air Force, is seen after a belly landing at Duxford in England on December 15,1944. Nose checks are black and white, the name and the 90 mission markers are in yellow, code fetters white as is the band across the fin. The rudder is black- Note the large rear view mirror above the front screen. (USAF)

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Boeing B-17F-40-DL, 42-3236, aircraft PY-3236 of a training group, starting up. Note its two-color top camouflage. Behind it are five more fi­ns, one P-51A, one Curtiss P-40, three P-47s, one B-25, one B-24 and one A-34. Location unknown, but is a major base with acres of concrete ramp and runways.

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North American P-51D-10-NA, 44-14495, aircraft SX-I “Dallas Doll”, of the 352nd FS, 353rd FG, Eighth Air Force, is seen wailing for its next mission on a typical wet December day in 1944. The spinner and nose band are in black and yellow, and there is a black band across the vertical tail. The under-fuselage invasion stripes were ordered to be removed at the end of 1944. (USAF)

The History Of USAAF Aircraft Markings, Insignia, Camouflage, And Colors

This volume covers the history and development of how and why the US Army Air Forces finished and marked their aircraft, between 1941 and 1947. The US Army Air Forces was formed out of the earlier unsatisfactory command structure, when in March 1941, the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, directed that action be taken to place the existing Air Corps and Army Air Force Com­bat Command (which had replaced the earlier GHQ Air Force) un­der one command. Shortly after this, he revived the office of Assis­tant Secretary of War for Air; the new secretary, Robert A. Lovett, proceeded to promote increased aircraft production and to stream­line the Army air arm.

The resulting reorganization created the new Army Air Forces (note the plural form of the title) on June 20, 1941 with General H. H. Arnold appointed as its Chief, directly responsible to the Army Chief of Staff. The new AAF was superior to the Air Corps and the Air Force Combat Command. Under Arnold, Maj. Gen. George H. Brett, the new Chief of the Air Corps, and Lt. Gen. Delos C. Emmons, commanding general of the Air Force Combat Command, were made responsible for service and combat functions, respec­tively.

However, it soon became apparent that there were still defects in the new organization, but it was not until early in 1942 that these were finally rectified by making the AAF a virtually autonomous force within the War Department. These changes had been made possible by official recognition of the major part airpower had played in the Nazi conquest of Europe, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

As a result, a new War Department Circular, No. 59, was is­sued on March 2,1942, effective on March 9,1942. This abolished the Army GHQ, and placed the AAF on the same level as the ground army, if not as that of the Army itself. The earlier Office of the Chief of the Air Corps and the Air Force Combat Command were abolished. Despite this new directive, Gen. Arnold still obtained most of his authority, as head of an all-but independent air force, from being a member of the American-British Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) and the American Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), formed in February, 1942.

However, this new command structure did get the AAF a posi­tion commensurate with its growing size and power. This resulted in Gen. Arnold and the AAF assuming a role in the war effort far greater than that prescribed in War Department Circular No. 59. This finally reached a point where the AAF reached a quasi-equal­ity with the Army and Navy, as compared to its actual legal status of equality with the Army ground and service forces.

Very rapid growth of the AAF resulted in the formation of no less than sixteen separate Air Forces world-wide. First of these were the Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Air Forces, within those areas of the continental USA. These soon became the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces. The Fifth, Seventh, Tenth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth Air Forces served in the Chinese-Burma-Pacific theaters; the Eighth, Ninth, Twelfth, and Fifteenth in the Europe-Mediterranean theaters; the Sixth in the Panama Canal Zone, and the Eleventh in Alaska. The Eighth Air Force was re-deployed to the Pacific theater in 1945, after the end of the war in Europe.

Other specialized commands were eventually formed, includ­ing the Technical Training Command and the FlyingTraining Com­mand (these were later merged into a single Training Command), Air Corps Maintenance Command, and the Air Corps Ferrying Com­mand (this eventually became the Air Transport Command).

At the peak of its strength, the AAF had no less than 2,411,294 men in service, and 78,757 aircraft in its inventory. There were no less than 243 active groups in service by April 1945, and 224 of these were overseas. After the end of the war, the reduction in strength was very rapid and only 303,600 men remained in the ser­vice by May 1947. Less than four months later the AAF was re­placed by the new, independent, US Air Force, on September 18, 1947. Planning for this event had actually begun in 1943, but it took all of this time before the Air Force finally became an equal partner with the Army and Navy.

To make the subject matter of this volume more manageable and understandable, it has been broken down into seven chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 covers 1941, Chapter 2 1942, Chap­ter 3 1943, Chapter 4 1944, Chapter 5 1945-1947. Each of these chapters fully covers, in chronological order, the development of standard aircraft color schemes and finishes, development of cam­ouflage color schemes and finishes, evolution of the national insig­

nia, the markings for airplanes and airplane parts, unit insignia and tactical markings, and the evolution of standard color shades.

Chapter 6 covers briefly the development of the colorful Com­bat Aircraft Distinctive Markings for the Eighth Air Force in En­gland, the special SHAEF “Invasion Stripes, and Unit Insignia”. Chapter 7 covers the development and usage of the standard USAAF aircraft color shades.

Appendix A covers the aircraft designation system used throughout the life of the AAF, and Appendix В covers the various aircraft maintenance markings used.

Photographs and color drawings have been included in each chapter and appendix, where applicable, to illustrate the applica­tion of the requirements to aircraft. Some photographs also illus­trate mistakes or incorrect application of the requirements. With the vast number of aircraft used by the AAF, it is only possible to display a representative selection of their photographs, and the reader should also make use of the large number of titles published on the AAF for further reference. However, much incorrect or misleading information has been published on the subject of this book; readers are advised to use their discretion and make use of the official in­formation contained in this volume.

All of the data in the text has been extracted from a huge vari­ety of official documents, specifications, technical orders, memo­randum, etc. produced by the AAF during the period covered by this volume. The AAF used a logical, uniform numbering system for all of its specifications, and all of the earlier aircraft ones fell into category 98-XX or 99-XX. The official nomenclature has been used throughout, including the various changes it went through. To save space, the reference “Specification Number” has been short­ened to "Spec.”. In contrast to many other publications on this spe­cialized subject, the author has given the full text of the main offi­cial documents. This allows the reader to follow the requirements laid down for USAAF personnel to follow, and those levied on the huge number of manufacturers involved during the war. In many of these requirements, the needs of our Allies also had to be consid­ered and, indeed, there were many joint committees formed for just such needs.

Most of the time, the new USAAF cooperated very closely with its chief ally, the older British Royal Air Force, to their mutual benefit. However, as one reads the history of these events, it be­comes apparent that there were two areas in which there appears to have been a degree of unwarranted chauvinism on the part of cer­tain USAAF personnel. The first one was the tremendously slow effort to use white camouflage on the Anti-Submarine Command’s aircraft, like the RAF Coastal Command had been using very suc­cessfully for some time. In fact, the white scheme was not adopted until just before the USAAF handed over this duty to the US Navy.

The second area was the paint and colors to be used on the USAAF long range, high flying, Lockheed F-5 reconnaissance air­craft. Much effort was expended on the so-called haze paint schemes, but in the end various synthetic blue colors were used. This was despite the existence of well-developed color schemes in use by the RAF for the same duties. The discrepancy in this area is height­ened by the later use of totally undocumented blue colors on vari­ous Consolidated F-7 (B-24 modified) aircraft for use in the Pa­cific. These color discrepancies were all the more surprising in view of the existence of the joint Army-Navy committee that issued the joint ANA 157 and 166 color bulletins. However, such events were very unusual, and contrary to the normal cooperation in effect until the end of the war.

To avoid confusion, all dates have been converted to the month/ day/year format. Some of the official nomenclature may seem strange, such as the use of the French word "cocarde” for the “star – in-circie” insignia in Specification 24114 of October 1940, but this was the official term used until the issue of the joint Army-Navy Spec. AN-I-9 in 1943.

To fully understand the use of the official documentation, it is necessary to realize that specifications were mandatory for use by both contractors and the service, while technical orders and techni­cal instructions were only applicable within the service. However, waivers or deviations could be obtained by contractors in specific situations, when agreed to by the service. Although all of the speci­fications, etc., are dated, it did not necessarily mean that the re­quirement went into effect immediately, unless a mandatory com­pliance date was included. Effects of this lag in applying require­ments are called out in the text, where known.

To clarify and coordinate the mass of data generated between 1941 and 1947, charts covering the specifications, technical orders, color specifications, etc., issued during each year, will be found near the front of Chapters 1 through 5.

These charts allow complete correlation of all of the service marking and color requirements for any given period, as detailed in each of the Chapters. To make it easier to find specific references in the text, many sub-headings indicate the more important data in all chapters. To save space, and endless repetition, several have been used in the captions to the photographs; these will be found in the list of abbreviations.

The publisher has decided to print the numerous standard USAAF color shades, rather than using inserted color chips. Every effort has been made to make the printed color shades as accurate as possible: those whose needs require the highest possible accu­racy in color shades are requested to contact the author, via the publisher,

The author is aware that it has not been possible to include all of the available data in this volume; for example, it was found that the data for the section on the very colorful Combat Aircraft Dis­tinctive Markings was so extensive that, after consultation with the publisher, it was decided to publish it later, as a separate work. Nevertheless, the author believes that this work covers a subject long demanding this kind of attention and has done his best to sat­isfy the objective; any errors that may be in this volume are his responsibility. He hopes that the reader will enjoy the volume and that they will inform him of any corrections or additions that may come to light.

USAAF Time Line — National Star Insignia

 

1941

 

The History Of USAAF Aircraft Markings, Insignia, Camouflage, And Colors

Insignia Spec. no. 241102-K July 20, 1941 to May 28, 1942

 

1942

 

Insignia Spec. ПО.24102-К Amend. #3

May 28, 1942 to June 29,1943

 

Allied invasion of North Africa Novembers, 1942

 

1943

 

Variation with 2 inch yellow outline, 8th AF. op. memo no. 9, October 1, 1942 Also used in North Africa.

 

The History Of USAAF Aircraft Markings, Insignia, Camouflage, And Colors

Insignia to AN-l-9a

June 29.1943 to August 14, 1943

 

Insignia to AN-l-9b

August 14, 1943 to January 14, 1947

 

Insignia Spec. no. AN-1-9b, Amend.#2 January 14, 1947 to September 26, 1947

 

USAAF becomes US AIR FORCE September 26, 1947

 

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