Category Mig

L№G-17 /1340 / SMI

When they began work on the preliminary design of a fighter capable of breaking the sound barrier in level flight in 1950, the OKB engineers decided to power it with a new, smaller Mikulin turbojet. At that time Mikulin, the engine manufacturer and academician, had just devel­oped a big and powerful turbojet, the AM-3, to power the Tu-16 bomber. Rated at 8,575 daN (8,750 kg st), it was probably the most powerful jet engine in the world Of course, it was much too large to use in a fighter. So Mikulin hit upon the idea of developing an engine with the same layout, operating cycle, and architecture as the AM-3 but on a scale one-third as large

On 30 June 1950 Khrumchev, minister of the aviation industry, Mikoyan, Yakovlev, and Mikulin were called to the Kremlin to discuss the plans for the engine that, by decree of the USSR council of minis­ters, would power the new Yakovlev and Mikoyan fighters This engine, referred to as the AM (Aleksandr Mikulin)-5, was not an imme­diate success Numerous adjustments proved to be necessary, and it was obvious that they could be performed best on a flying test bed rather than a factory test bench. Mikoyan, who was very interested in the new engine, offered to install two AM-5s side-by-side in a MiG-15, a proven aircraft For his part Yakovlev proposed arranging them in pods under the wing of his new fighter, the Yak-25

In the end the first two AM-5s replaced the single VK-1 of the MiG – 15 bis 45 (the experimental aircraft that had led the wray to the MiG – 17) This modification was approved on 20 April 1951 by the council of ministers and renamed the SM-1. The prototype rolled out of the facto­ry at the end of 1951 and was put into the hands of test pilot G A Sedov The goals of the SM-1 tests were to improve on the performance of the MiG-17 with a minimum of modifications and to bring the AM – 5A to the required level of reliability and fuel efficiency

The AM-5A had no afterburner, and its maximum rating was 1,960 daN (2,000 kg st) But the thrust of the two engines together was greater than that of a single VK-1 F with reheat. Moreover, the two AM – 5As weighed 88 kg (194 pounds) less than one VK-1F Yet it quickly became apparent that the thrust of the AM-5A was inadequate to meet the design specifications Mikulin then decided to add an afterburner to the engine, which thus became the AM-5F and was rated at a maxi­mum dry thrust of 2,015 daN (2,150 kg st) and a reheated thrust of 2,645 daN (2,700 kg st). Both fuel tanks—with capacities of 1,220 1 (322 US gallons) and 330 1 (87 US gallons)—were located m the fuselage behind the cockpit. To accommodate the required increase in airflow, the engine air intake ducts were widened. A canister for a 15-m2


The typical shape of the SM-l’s dual exhaust nozzles The aircraft was used as a test bed for the AM-5 engine.

(161-square foot) tail chute was attached to the fuselage under the tail section.

The AM-5F development flights with the SM-1 and later the SM-2 convinced Mikoyan, Mikulin, and other experts that the thrust of this engine was still inadequate for the next generation of Soviet aircraft. Mikulin embarked immediately on the creation of a new afterburner and increased the engine compressor output from 37 to 43.3 kg/sec. Out of this came a much more powerful turbojet, the AM-9, later renamed the RD-9B. The top speed of the compressor’s first stage was already supersonic, and with the afterburner the thrust reached 3,185 daN (3,250 kg st). This was the engine that the MiG OKB counted on for its new supersonic interceptor.


Span, 9.628 m (31 ft 7 in); overall length, 11.264 m (36 ft 11.5 in); fuse­lage length, 8.603 m (28 ft 2.7 in); wheel track, 3.849 m (12 ft 7.5 in); wheel base, 3.368 m (11 ft 0.6 in); wing area, 22.6 m2 (243.3 sq ft); empty weight, 3,705 kg (8,166 lb); takeoff weight, 5,210 kg (11,483 lb); wing loading, 230.5 kg/m2 (47.2 lb/sq ft).



Max speed, 1Д93 km/h at 1,000 m (644 kt at 3,280 ft); 1,154 km/h at

5. m (623 kt at 16,400 ft); climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft) in 0.16 min; to

5.0 m (16,400 ft) in 0.94 min; to 10,000 m (32,800 ft) in 2.85 min; to

15.0 m (49,200 ft) in 6.1 min; service ceiling, 15,600 m (51,170 ft); range, 920 km at 5,000 m (570 mi at 16,400 ft); 1,475 km at 10,000 m (915 mi at 32,800 ft); 1,965 km at 15,000 m (1,220 mi at 49,200 ft); take­off roll, 335 m (1,100 ft); landing roll, 568 m (1,863 ft).

Ye-150 and Ye-152 Series


The Ye-150 experimental prototype was designed as a test bed for the new Mikulin/Tumanskiy R-15-300 turbojet. The intent of the aircraft – plus-engine project was to lay the foundation for a new generation of interceptors. The aircraft was designed to fly at speeds of about 2,800 km/h (1,510 kt) and altitudes of 20,000 to 25,000 m (65,600 to 82,000 feet).

The initial plan called for the new engine to be tested on a remote­ly controlled aircraft. This turbojet had a veiy short lifetime, but in that brief period it was powered up on the test bench, examined in flight, and even used to power a missile. It had a dry thrust of 6,705 daN (6,840 kg st) and a reheated thrust of 9,945 daN (10,150 kg st); its after­burner also had a second-stage nozzle called an ejector that supplied 19,405 daN (19,800 kg st) of thrust at Mach 2.4-2.5 and helped to clean up the base drag. For components particularly sensitive to the thermal


The boundary layer bleed in the "ejector" slot helped to clean up the base drag.

stresses (aerodynamic heating) that were the result of high speeds, the manufacturers decided to use heat-resistant materials such as stainless steel in place of duralumin.

The fuselage was shaped like a cylinder 1,600 mm in diameter except at the rear, where the diameter increased to 1,650 mm in the afterburner/ejector area. The shock cone in the engine air intake had a triple-angle profile and was made of dielectric material to house the antenna for the Uragan-5 interception system. The flow rate in the air inlet duct was controlled by a two-position translating ring. As soon as the aircraft reached Mach 1.65 the ring moved forward automatically; once the aircraft dropped back under that speed, the ring returned to its primary position.

The delta wing had a sweepback of 60 degrees at the leading edge, a thickness-chord ratio of 3.5 percent, Fowler-type flaps, and two-part ailerons with balance surfaces at the trailing edge. The wing could be fitted with two pylons for air-to-air missiles. The gear kinematics were standard: the nose gear strut retracted forward into the fuselage, and the main gear wheels also retracted into the fuselage while their struts folded into the wing. The cockpit was equipped with a curtain-type ejection seat. The fuel system included five fuselage tanks with a total capacity of 3,2701 (863 US gallons) plus two wet wing tanks that carried 245 1 (65 US gallons) apiece. The stabilator controls were boosted by two BU-65 power units, and those of the ailerons and rudder by two BU-75 power units. There were two separate hydraulic systems, one primary circuit and one for the servo-controls. The main circuit served the gear, the flaps, the three airbrakes on the underside of the fuselage, the translating ring on the air intake, and the surge bleed valve (on the fuselage sides) while also acting as a backup for the servo-control units. The PT 5605-58 tail chute measured 18 m2 (193.7 square feet). The cockpit hood was made of T2-55 glass, a 12-mm-thick material capable of withstanding 170° C (338° F) in aerodynamic heating.

The Ye-150 rolled out in December 1958 and was first piloted by A. V. Fedotov on 8 July 1960. During the fourth flight, on 26 July, aileron flutter was observed at Mach 0.925. The problem was quickly solved by fitting a damper on the aileron controls. After the fifth flight the tests had to be suspended because the casing of the engine gearbox had cracked. Tests resumed on 18 January 1961 with a brand-new R-15-300 turbojet. From 21 January to 30 March the aircraft made eight more flights and reached Mach 2.1 at 21,000 m (68,900 feet). After a second engine change, the Ye-150 made another twenty flights and hit a top speed of Mach 2.65 at 22,500 m (73,800 feet). At that point the ejector was replaced and the cockpit’s thermal insulation improved; tests resumed on 14 November 1961 and ended on 25 January 1962. There were forty-two flights altogether. Tests of the Uragan-5 complex with two K-9 missiles were not carried out until the Ye-152 A was ready a lit­tle later.


Span, 8.488 m (27 ft 10.2 in); overall length (except probe), 18.14 m (59 ft 6.2 in); fuselage length (except cone), 15.6 m (51 ft 2.2 in); wheel track, 3.322 m (10 ft 10.8 in); wheel base, 5.996 m (19 ft 8 in); wing area, 34.615 m2 (372.6 sq ft); empty weight, 8,276 kg (18,240 lb); take­off weight, 12,435 kg (27,405 lb); fuel, 3,410 kg (7,515 lb); wing loading, 359.2 kg/m2 (73.6 lb/sq ft); max operating limit load factor, 5.1.


Max speed, 1,210 km/h (653 kt) at sea level; 2,890 km/h at 19,000 m (1,560 kt at 62,300 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft) in 1 min 20 sec; to

20,0 m (65,600 ft) in 5 min 5 sec; service ceiling, 23,250 m (76,260 ft); landing speed, 275-295 km/h (148-160 kt); endurance, 1 h 50 min; range, 1,500 km (930 mi); takeoff roll, 935 m (3,065 ft); landing roll, 1,250 m (4,100 ft).


In the mid-1960s the MiG OKB, in cooperation with the Kazan Aviation Institute (KAI), developed versions of the MiG-21 PF and MiG-21 PFM to be operated as remotely controlled target drones for WS and PVO pilots as well as AAA gunners. For this purpose, fighters that had out­lived their operational parameters were used.

The radar in these aircraft was replaced by ballast to restore the aircraft’s trimming. The ejection seats were removed to make room for remote control equipment and the drive mechanism for the control surfaces. The target drone was controlled by radio signals from the ground or from another aircraft specially equipped to steer the drone with preset routines. Those modifications were carried out in the WS ARZs (air force overhaul workshops). The remotely controlled MiG – 21Ye could take off and make maneuvers, but only within the subsonic flight envelope.

Because the MiG-21 PD was an experimental aircraft, the landing gear was not retract­able.


This experimental version of the MiG-21 bis was designed to develop new on-board systems to be installed in cruise missiles and was, like the MiG-21 bis, powered by an R-25 turbojet.

Mikoyan and the Konmsiya

It took until the end of the MiG OKB’s fifth decade and the start of the konversiya for the first real civil project to find its way to the design bureau’s drawing boards. This project was not initiated either by

Aeroflot or by a foreign airline. It was instead a purely homemade product searching out its own customers—or even partners. And it is not the only such project in the OKB’s files.

1-270 / Zh

In the history of aviation transitional periods are always marked by attempts to develop more powerful engines The first turbojets offered only meager thrust. For example, the first Soviet jet—the TR-1, designed and built by A. M Lyulka—delivered power equivalent to 1,323 daN (1,250 kg st) and was not available until 1947. The wartime German jets Jumo 004 and BMW 003 had thrusts limited to 880 and 785 daN (900 and 800 kg st) respectively Therefore, during this transi­tional period several aircraft manufacturers including Mikoyan and Guryevich decided to test the efficiency of rocket engines or ZhRD (Zhidkostniy Raketniy Dvigatyel liquid-propellant rocket engine) for a new type of high-speed, high-altitude interceptor At that time, only the rocket engine could meet those two requirements One of the basic advantages of rocket engines is that their thrust is slightly subordinat­ed to speed and altitude, two values that then depended only on the amount of combustible and oxidizer the interceptor could carry in its tanks.

The first thing that catches one’s eye about the three-view drawing of the Zh is the T-tail (the stabilizer is on top of the fin). In a note dated 30 May 1946 that was included with the preliminary design, Mikoyan and Guryevich wrote "If one reduces the effect of the wing on the sta­bilizer, it may be supposed that the moment characteristics will not be modified up to Mach 0 9 This is why the stabilizer has been moved upward, in relation to the wing, this displacement is equal to 1 2 MAC (mean aerodynamic chord).” Similar high-set stabilizers would appear later on transonic aircraft such as the MiG-15, MiG-17, and 1-320 But in 1946 TsAGI had not yet studied the characteristics of swept-wing air­craft, and manufacturers were not yet equipped with the necessary experimental and scientific facilities. This is why both 1-270 prototypes built at the end of 1946 had a straight wing The sweep angle at the leading edge was 12 degrees. Only the stabilizer was swept back (30 degrees at the leading edge) as shown in the preliminary design.

The 1-270 was an all-metal aircraft with a circular semimonocoque fuselage and a cantilever midwing. The fuselage was built in two parts and then mated (a first for MiG), The one-piece wing had a five-spar box structure and thick skin panels and was embedded in the lower part of the fuselage Its laminar flow airfoil was relatively thm The pre­liminary design called for a wing with a 20-degree quarter-chord sweep angle identical to that of the MiG-8, but as noted both prototypes received a straight wing with a modest taper to both the leading and trailing edge The main gear had a very narrow wheel track (1.6 m


The first prototype of the 1-270, or Zh-1, made its First flight without its power plant, towed behind a Tu-2 It was then released and allowed to glide to a landing.


The Zh-1 was somewhat short-lived Test pilot Yuganov had to make a belly landing, and the aircraft was thought to be beyond repair.




[5 feet, 3 inches]) and retracted inward into the wing center section The nose gear well and the two 23-mm NS-23 cannons (40 rpg) were located under the pressurized cockpit

It was planned to put two rocket pods (four RS-82s each) under the wing, but the idea was not accepted. The seat was equipped with a small pyrotechnic device to enable the pilot to eject in case of emer­gency. The power plant was a dual-chamber RD-2M-3V bipropellant rocket engine dev eloped by L S Dushkm and V P Glushko The com­bined thrust of both chambers was 1,421 daN (1,450 kg st)—that is, 1,029 daN (1,050 kg st) for the mam chamber and 392 daN (400 kg st) for the cruise chamber mounted on top The rocket engine was pump – fed by a mixture of nitric acid, kerosene, and hydrogen peroxide (80 percent). The propellants weighed 2,120 kg (4,672 pounds). All propel­lants were stored in three sets of tanks 1,620 kg (3,570 pounds) of nitric acid in four tanks, 440 kg (970 pounds) of kerosene in one tank, and 60 kg (132 pounds) of hydrogen peroxide in seven tanks The pro­pellant turbopumps were driven by two generators one that was part of the aircraft’s electrical system; and a second, powered by the wind – milling action of a small propeller in the nose, that served as a backup The first prototype or Zh-1 was rolled out at the end of 1946 with­out its power plant and made a few flights in December 1946 towed behind a Tu-2 bomber During these tests the bomber released it, and it glided to landings Before these first glide descents, pilots trained on a modified Yak-9 fighter that was weighted with lead ingots to approxi­mate the design yaw and pitch characteristics of the 1-270 The RD-2M – 3V rocket engine was mounted on the second prototype or Zh-2. In early 1947 an OKB test pilot, V. N Yuganov, used the engine in flight. He handed responsibility for the test flights over to a military pilot, A, K. Pakhomov, who shortly thereafter botched a landing and destroyed the aircraft. Within weeks Yuganov belly-landed the Zh-1, and the pro­totype was not repaired The 1-270 never made it past its factory tests And with the MiG-9, the Yak-15, and the first surface-to-air missiles in operation, the rocket-powered interceptor was no longer essential to the air defense forces So work came to a halt on the 1-270 and the RM-1, a similar type of interceptor designed by A S Moskalyev


Span, 7 75 m (25 ft 5 1 in); length, 8 915 m (29 ft 3 in); height, 3 08 m (10 ft 1 3 in), height in level flight position, 2 58 m (8 ft 5 6 in), wheel track, 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in); wheel base, 2.415 m (7 ft 11 10 in), wing area, 12 m2 (129 2 sq ft), empty weight, 1,546 kg (3,407 lb); takeoff weight, 4,120 kg (9,080 lb), propellants, 2,120 kg (4,672 lb), wing loading, 343.3 kg/m2 (70 4 lb/sq ft).


The second prototype of the 1-270 or Zh-2, had a standby electrical system that was powered by the windmilling action of the small propeller in its nose


This photograph of the Zh-2 shows the two superimposed chambers of the RD-2M-3V rocket engine.


Max speed, 900 km/h at 5,000 m (486 kt at 16,400 ft), 928 km/h at 10,000 m (501 kt at 32,800 ft), 936 km/h at 15,000 m (505 kt at 49,200 ft), climb to 10,000 m (33,800 ft) in 2.37 min; to 15,000 m (49,200 ft) in 3.03 min; service ceiling, 17,000 m (55,760 ft), landing speed 137 km/h (74 kt); takeoff roll, 895 m (2,935 ft); landing roll, 493 m (1,617 ft); endurance with both chambers, 255 sec; with the cruise chamber only, 543 sec.

MiG-19 Series

The First Soviet Supersonic Fighter

The MiG-19 was taken for its premier flight on 5 January 1954 by G. A. Sedov, now the chief constructor at the Mikoyan ОКБ. It is no secret that the transition to supersonic speed was lengthy, tricky, and bloody. Ivashchenko died in a MiG-17, and many pilots were lost in other OKBs and aircraft manufacturers all the world over.

Some pilots succeeded in reaching and even surpassing Mach 1 for a short while, but for the true supersonic effect one had to maintain that speed for a long time in level flight. The SM-2, the first prototype of the MiG-19, seemed to have all of the prerequisites for supersonic flight: a thin wing with a high sweep angle (57 degrees), a reduced mas­ter cross-section, and a pair of AM-5A engines, a new type of compact and efficient turbojet. But the problem proved to be far more intricate than expected. More than one person would have lost heart, but all concerned clenched their teeth and committed themselves deeply.

Work on the engine got under way when it was decided to add an afterburner to the axial flow AM-5A turbojet. Mikulin knew how to make a success of this afterburner with an efficient flame holder that did not reduce the gas rate of flow in the combustion chamber. The armorer N. I. Volkov moved two of the three cannons and their ammu­nition into the leading edge of the wing near the root. In this manner, empty space in the wing was filled and some much-sought-after room was made in the fuselage for new equipment.

For their part, A. G. Brunov, deputy chief constructor, and R. A. Belyakov, department manager, developed a new servodyne-powered flight control unit. The variable incidence stabilizer was replaced by a stabilator, a single pivoted tailplane (without elevator) for pitch control (also called a slab tailplane) All flight control systems were duplicated to guard against failure of the main unit, and the stabilator was fitted with a booster control and an artificial feel unit. (As explained by Bill Gunston in Jane’s Aerospace Dictionary, "In aircraft control system arti­ficial feel can be explained by forces generated within system and fed to cockpit controls to oppose pilot demand. In fully powered or boosted system there would otherwise be no feedback and no ‘feel’ of how hard any surface was working.”) The engine flameout problems that occurred during cannon tests with the MiG-9 had not been forgotten, and everything was done to dodge the difficulty. The ejection proce­dures were also improved to protect the pilot at much higher speeds.

A lot of useful information was collected during the SM-2 flights. Unexpected spins occurred due to the blanketing effect of the wing on the stabilator at great angles of attack (AOA). The aircraft had to be returned to the wind tunnel, and tests there led engineers to move the stabilator from the top to the base of the fin. Moreover, the location of the wing fences was modified. This is how the SM-2 became the SM-9.

At this time the North American F-100 Super Sabre could not exceed Mach 1.09. From the start Sedov reached Mach 1.3 or 1,400 km/h (756 kt) in the MiG-19 and thereby beat—unofficially—the world speed record. But there remained many youthful inadequacies to cure. The stretch of the turbine blades at high rotation speeds ceased to be a problem once new heat-resistant steel was used to make the blades. The inadequate roll handling was improved by placing spoilers ahead of the ailerons. The longitudinal swings noticed at high speeds van­ished thanks to the new artificial feel system. The pressure surges felt on the rudder pedals at transonic speed were remedied by initiating a vortex flow—or burbling—on the rear of the fuselage. All of this was done step by step.

Only fourteen months after the SM-9’s first flight, two production MiG-19s were delivered to a hghter regiment. The MiG-19 was mass – produced and operated in many countries.

MiG-21 / Yg-E/1 / Ye-E/2 / Ye-E/3 |Ye-BB|

The first three MiG-21 prototypes, Ye-6/1, Ye-6/2, and Ye-6/3, were built and flight-tested in 1957 and 1958. They were powered by a new version of the AM-11 turbojet, the R-11F-300 (developed from the experimental R-37F) rated at 3,800 daN (3,880 kg st) dry or 5,625 daN (5,740 kg st) with afterburner. Their stabilators were lower than that of the Ye-5, forcing designers to rearrange the airbrakes in these units; the two canted ventral fins on the fuselage under the tail were replaced by a single unit; the nozzle throat was lengthened; and the rear part of the cockpit hood was redesigned. Only the Ye-6/1 retained the six wing fences first seen on the Ye-5.

The MiG-21’s airbrakes closely followed the shape of the NR-30 gun fairings.

In no time the Ye-6/1 reached Mach 2.05 at 12,050 m (39,520 feet). But the seventh flight, on 28 May 1958, ended in tragedy after the engine failed at about 18,000 m (59,040 feet). The test pilot, V. A. Nefyedov, struggled desperately to return to the airfield in order to save the aircraft and the recording of all its flight data. He made it to the runway, but as the plane touched down it overturned and caught fire Severely burned, Nefyedov died in a hospital a few hours later. The official inquiry established that the pilot was betrayed by the pres­sure drop in the hydraulic system due to engine failure. Because the stabilator was hydraulically controlled the standby electrical control was automatically activated, but it took the backup unit far too long to set the stabilator at the proper angle. As a consequence the hydraulic system on the Ye-6/2 was duplicated and backed up by an emergency pump, and the electrical control unit was removed. К. K. Kokkinaki was given responsibility for the Ye-6/2 test program. This second pro­totype, numbered 22, was equipped experimentally with missile launching rails at the wing tips.

The Ye-6/3 made its first flight in December 1958 and became world-famous a few months later under the fanciful designation Ye-66 while beating two world records:

1. 31 October 1959. Speed over a 15- to 25-km (9- to 16-mile) course at unrestricted altitude, 2,388 km/h (1,289.52 kt). Pilot, G. K.


MiG-21F (MiG OKB three-view drawing)


A MiG-21F equipped experimentally with K-13 air-to-air missiles under wing pylons. The cannons were removed.

Mosolov. Highest speed attained during this flight, 2,504 km/h (1,352.16 kt)

2. 16 September 1960. Speed over a closed circuit of 100 km (62 miles), 2,148.66 km/h (1,160.28 kt). Pilot, К. K. Kokkinaki. High­est speed attained during this flight, 2,499 km/h (1,349.46 kt) or Mach 2.35


Just as the MiG-27 was developed from the MiG-23BM, the MiG-27K was developed from the MiG-23BK (32-26). Its new PrNK-23K nav – attack system could manage the aircraft’s flight path and fire the can­non and missiles simultaneously. Compared with the MiG-23M’s PrNK – 23S, it offered new control possibilities: PMS mode (sighting from a maneuvering aircraft for bomb release as well as cannon and rocket fire) and PKS mode (time-tagged and corrected target tracking and bombing in blind flight according to navigation coordinates).

The twin-barrel 23-mm was also replaced by one GSh-6-30 six-bar­rel underside cannon. The SUV fire control system had many capabili­ties: programmed firing, missile and rocket firing (with emergency control), display of weapon availability, bomb release (cluster or indi­vidual), and cannon firing. The SUV also warned the pilot of the weapon racks’ release. The aircraft was equipped with a flight manage­ment system (with automatic mode transfer), radar warning receiver, active radar jammer, and smoke-emitter. The MiG-27K could cany the same array of weapons as the MiG-23B plus laser-guided missiles. Pro­duction took place over several years.

Like the MiG-27, the МЮ-23К could carry four metric tons of external military load


Span (72" sweep), 7.779 m (25 ft 6.3 in); span (16° sweep), 13.965 m (45 ft 9 8 in); fuselage length (except probe), 15.489 m (50 ft 9.8 in); wheel track, 2.728 m (8 ft 11.4 in); wheel base, 5.991 m (19 ft 7.9 in); wing area (72° sweep), 34.16 m2 (367.7 sq ft); wing area (16° sweep), 37.35 m2 (402 sq ft); max takeoff weight with eight FAB-500 bombs, 20,670 kg (45,555 lb); max takeoff weight on unprepared strip, 18,100 kg (39,890 lb); landing weight, 14,200 kg (31,295 lb); max landing weight, 17,000 kg (37,470 lb); on the load sheet, one 790-1 (209-US gal) drop tank is worth 750 kg (1,655 lb), two are worth 1,530 kg (3,370 lb), and three are worth 2,280 kg (5,025 lb); wing loading (72° sweep), 605-529.9 kg/m2 (124-108.6 lb/sq ft); wing loading (16° sweep), 553.4-484.6 kg/m2 (113.4-99.3 lb/sq ft).

The MiG-27M can be easily recognized by the dielectric lip located above the laser range finder window and by the leading edge root extension.

MHM5P bis / SP-1

The development of an all-weather fighter for the PVO had become a necessity. When the first Soviet airborne radars appeared at the end of the 1940s, it was decided that the MiG-15 bis would receive this advanced equipment. But first a number of questions had to be answered regarding the capabilities and efficiency of both the radar control unit when engaging enemy aircraft and the sighting system in blind flying (at night or in clouds).

The council of ministers called for development work on both the airborne radar and the aircraft on 7 December 1948. The first ranging


Installation of the Toriy radar on the MiG-15P bis necessitated alteration of the fuse­lage nose structure up to the no. 8 frame

radar, the Toriy, was developed by A. B. Slepushkin, pioneer of Soviet radar technology. It was a peculiar system: its one antenna both trans­mitted and received signals. It was housed in a small radome made of a specially developed dielectric material. The Toriy was not easy for the pilot to control while trying to intercept enemy aircraft because it could not track targets automatically.

From the start MiG OKB engineers were determined not to let the efficiency and performance of the MiG-15 bis suffer because of the addition of radar. Production MiG-15 bis no. 3810102 built at factory no 1 was sent to the OKB workshop and modified, becoming the SP-1. The two guns on the left of the fuselage were removed; only the N-37D with forty-five rounds was retained. The ASP-3N gunsight was replaced by a new model, and the S-13 camera gun usually placed above the air intake was moved to the right side of the fuselage. Most important, a radar display was set into the instrument panel. With that display the pilot was able to track an invader, bring his aircraft into line with it, and measure its distance before firing.

As it turned out, many other modifications had to be made, mainly structural ones:

—because of the radar installation and armament removal, the fuse­lage nose section was made over up to the no. 8 frame and length­ened by 120 mm (4.7 inches)

—the area of the airbrakes was increased, and their shape and axis of rotation were altered (22 degrees in relation to the vertical)

—the cockpit windshield was fitted with 64-mm-thick bulletproof glass, and the shape of the windshield and the canopy was changed in order to retain a good forward view despite the nose modifications

—the wing anhedral was increased from 2 to 3 degrees —the front leg of the landing gear had to be moved 80 mm (3.5 inch­es) forward to bring the NR-37 cannon axis as close as possible to the aircraft datum line

—the wheel fork was replaced by a half-fork, and the double gear doors were replaced by a single door —the elevator control was fitted with a BU-1 servo-control unit

The SP-1 prototype was equipped with an ARK-5 automatic direc­tion finder and an MRP-48 marker receiver. After the factory flight tests conducted in December 1949 by A. N. Chernoburov and G. A. Sedov, the aircraft was transferred to the Nil WS on 31 January 1950 for its state trials. They ended on 20 May 1950.

The test report noted a number of defects. The pitching stability was too scanty at landing, and compared with the MiG-15 (SV) the dynamic stability margin had decreased. In straight level flight, the air­craft tended to bank to the left and then side-slip at 940-950 km/h (508-513 kt) Poor aileron efficiency limited the bank angle to 5 degrees.

The report concluded that the SP-1 could not be used as an all – weather interceptor because its Toriy ranging radar did not work properly. The all-weather radar tests were conducted by Suprun, Kalachev, Pibulyenko, Blagoveshchenkiy, Antipov, Dzyuba, and Ivanov, all military pilots. Several passes were made in attempts to locate 11-28 and Tu-4 bombers. The SP-1 was not certified because it was too difficult for a pilot to fly his aircraft and operate the radar at the same time—and moreover, the Toriy was not very reliable. Its manufacturer upgraded the unit, which then became known as the Toriy A and was installed on the MiG-17 (SP-2). But its most serious shortcoming was not addressed: the Toriy A still could only track incoming aircraft manually.

In 1951 five SP-ls equipped with RP-1M radars were assembled at factory no. 1. On 25 November one was sent to the Nil WS for trials, but the aircraft and its upgraded radar unit still failed to earn certifica­tion. Like the MiG-15 bis, the MiG-15P bis (SP-1) was powered by a 2,645-daN (2,700-kg st) VK-1 turbojet.


Span, 10.085 m (33 ft 1 in); overall length, 10.222 m (33 ft 6.5 in); wheel track, 3.852 m (12 ft 7.6 in); wheel base, 3.075 m (10 ft 1.1 in);


On the MiG-15P bis the two NR-23 cannons usually found at the lower left of the MiG – 15 bis front fuselage had to be removed.


The wing anhedral of the MiG-15P bis was increased slightly, as was the area of the air­brakes.


The SD-21 was a MiG-15 bis used for testing S-21 rockets, hence its designation.

wing area, 20.6 m2 (221.7 sq ft); empty weight, 3,760 kg (8,287 lb); takeoff weight, 5,080 kg (11,196 lb); fuel, 1,168 kg (2,574 lb); wing load­ing, 246.6 kg/m2 (50.55 lb/sq ft).


Max speed, 1,022 km/h at 5,000 m (552 kt at 16,400 ft); 979 km/h at 10,000 m (529 kt at 32,800 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft) in 2.15 min; to 10,000 m (32,800 ft) in 5.35 min; service ceiling, 14,700 m (48,200 ft); range, 1,115 km at 10,000 m (692 mi at 32,800 ft); takeoff roll, 510 m (1,670 ft).

MiG-19SU / SM 50/SM 51/SM-52

Still faster, still higher: those two imperatives summed up the develop­ment requests received from military authorities such as the WS and the PVO. They also summed up the specifications of the SM-50 and SM-51, two prototypes of a high-speed interceptor with a lofty service ceiling.

The SM-50 was powered by two AM-9BMs whose reheated thrust was 3,135 daN (3,200 kg st) and by the U-19 booster container with two power ratings: 1,275 daN (1,300 kg st) and 2,940 daN (3,000 kg st). The rocket engine could not be relit in flight. The SM-51 was powered by two Sorokin R3M-26 experimental turbojets derived from the AM-9BM with 3,725 daN (3,800 kg st) of thrust and by the U-19D booster contain­er. Its rocket engine had the same thrust as that of the U-19 but could be turned off and relit four times in flight. The SM-50 was developed from the MiG-19S, while the SM-51 was developed from the MiG-19P.


The single ventral fin of the MiG-19S had to be replaced by two well-spaced fins on the SM-50 because of the rocket engine exhaust.

The booster container, planned by D. D. Sevruk and built at the MiG ОКБ, was fastened under the fuselage. It was composed of:

—the RU-013 rocket engine

—three tanks: one for the TG-02 fuel, one for the AK-20 oxidizer, and

one for the concentrated hydrogen peroxide —the combustion chamber feed pumps —the replenishment system for the three tanks —the dump valves

The rocket engine weighed 338 kg (745 pounds); the fuel, 372 kg (820 pounds); the oxidizer, 112 kg (247 pounds); and the hydrogen per­oxide, 74.2 kg (163.5 pounds). The U-19 and U-19D booster containers operated almost autonomously; their only links to the cockpit were the electrical ignition control and the dump valve control.

Both the SM-50 and SM-51 were armed with two NR-30 cannons located in the wing roots. The SM-51 was equipped with an RP-5 Izum – rud radar. The takeoff weight of both aircraft—including the booster container—was 9,000 kg (19,835 pounds).

All factory test flights of the SM-50 and SM-51 were made by V. A. Nefyedov under the supervision of Yu. N. Korolyev, chief engineer.


The rocket engine contour gave the SM-50 a very strange silhouette.

Their maximum speed was 1,800 km/h (972 kt), their dynamic ceiling was 24,000 m (78,700 feet), and they could climb to 20,000 m (65,600 feet) in eight minutes. Their range—not an important factor for this type of aircraft—was limited to 800 km (497 miles). The state trials of the SM-50 were carried out by two LII pilots, M. M. Kotelnikov and A. A. Shcherbakov. Five SM-50s were built in factory no. 21.

The SM-52 was identical to the SM-51 with the exception of its radar, which was the Almaz (“diamond") model.