Category Manned Spaceflight Log II—2006-2012

Blue Origin

Blue Origin is developing a relatively secret crew transportation system to be launched initially on an Atlas V launch vehicle, although it is also developing its own reusable launch system.

ATK-EADS

This proposal was based upon utilizing a modified first stage of the Ariane V as a new second stage, with a Shuttle solid rocket motor as the first stage. Ariane V was to have been the launch vehicle for the canceled European Hermes mini­shuttle. This new design of launch vehicle has been named “Liberty” and would be used to launch a composite crew capsule.

Sierra Nevada Corporation

Sierra Nevada is developing a small lifting body-style crew vehicle called Dream Chaser also for launch on an Atlas V. This fourth-generation design of lifting body is based upon the NASA HL-20 design and is a fully reusable pressurized lifting body spacecraft. Capable of landing on a conventional runway, this design offers cross-range capability and reduced g-forces on descending occupants and payloads.

SOYUZ TMA-16

Подпись: International designator Launched Launch Site Landed Landing site Launch vehicle Duration Call sign Objective 2009-053A September 30, 2009

Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of

Kazakhstan

March 18, 2010

60 km north of Arkalyk, Republic of Kazakhstan Soyuz-FG (serial number Ы5000-027),

Soyuz TMA (serial number 226)

169 da 04 h 09 min 37 s (Surayev, Williams)

10 da 21 h 16 min 55 s (Laliberte, landed in TMA-14) Tsefay (“Cephus”)

ISS resident crew transport (20S), ISS resident crew 20/21, visiting crew 17 program

Flight crew

SURAYEV, Maxim Viktorovich, 37, Russian Federation Air Force, RSA, TMA commander, ISS flight engineer

WILLIAMS, Jeffrey Nels, 51, U. S.A., NASA TMA flight engineer, ISS-21 flight engineer, ISS-22 commander, third mission Previous missions: STS-101 (2000), Soyuz TMA-8/ISS-13 (2006) LALIBERTE, Guy, 50, civilian (Canadian), space flight participant

Flight log

With the decision to end Shuttle flights and the increase to a permanent crew of six on the ISS due to the expanded science activity, the availability of Soyuz seats for sale to fare-paying tourists would not extend beyond 2009. With up to six permanent resident crew members on board the station, two Soyuz would always have to be docked at the station in order to serve as Crew Rescue Vehicles. In addition to Russian and American crew members, the remaining crew places would be awarded to European, Japanese, and Canadian astronauts under agree­ment, rather than for more commercial deals with space flight participants. With three ISS-20/21 and the final Shuttle-delivered crew member already aboard, the two ISS-21/22 crew members were launched as what were expected to be the last space flight participants for some time. The cost of sending a third Soyuz space­craft to the station, even for a short time, would not be covered by the price of a seat for a single spaceflight participant.

Canadian Guy Laliberte became the lucky passenger on TMA-16, flying as SFP/VC17 on an 11-day mission. Laliberte was the billionaire founder of the Cirque du Soleil Company. His science program included several life science and

image70

The last scheduled space flight participant Canadian Guy Laliberte (center) waves farewell with fellow Soyuz TMA-16 crew members Jeff Williams (top) and Maxim Surayev from the bottom of the launchpad prior to launch from Baikonur. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls.

public outreach activities during his week aboard the ISS. This included a 2 h long TV session on October 9, designed to highlight both the shortage of clean water across the globe and his work in conservation through his non-profit ONE DROP Foundation. Following a week of activities, Laliberte returned to Earth aboard TMA-14 with the ISS-19/20 cosmonauts Padalka and Barratt on October 11.

The docking of the TMA-16 craft to the aft port of Zvezda on October 2 meant that, for the first time, three Soyuz craft were attached to the facility and nine people were on board as residents, if only for a week! With the return of Padalka and Barratt, Williams and Surayev joined De Winne, Thirsk, Romanenko, and NASA astronaut Stott as the ISS-21 crew members. Both newcomers served as flight engineers on the six-person crew until December 1, when the De Winne trio departed on Soyuz TMA-15. Stott had already left station by then aboard STS-129, the last ISS crew member to launch or land on the Shuttle. For a short time, the station crew became a two-person caretaker crew until the arrival of TMA-17 in late December, increasing the resident crew back up to five.

On November 25, the official change-of-command ceremony took place, with Williams and Surayev becoming the core prime crew of ISS-22 (Williams taking the command position and Surayev as flight engineer). Continuing the science on the Russian segment of the station, the ISS-21 investigation program included 304 sessions for 47 experiments, of which only four were totally new. Over 60 hours were arranged for the crew in the ISS-21 phase and over 148 hours in the ISS-22 phase. Over in the U. S. segment, NASA reported that 150 operating experiments were on board the station, conducting research in human research, biological and physical sciences, development of technology, observations of Earth, and edu­cational activities.

After three weeks with a two-man skeleton crew, the TMA-17 docking on December 23 brought three new crew members to the expedition: Russian cosmo­naut Kotov, NASA astronaut Creamer, and JAXA astronaut Noguchi. With the arrival of Noguchi, an expanded Japanese science program was once again poss­ible. Even with a larger crew though, routine maintenance and housekeeping would still take up a lot of crew time.

The first few weeks on station for the TMA-16 crew were quite busy. In late October 2009, HTV-1 was separated from the station using Canadarm2. The unmanned resupply craft, now full of unwanted gear and trash, burned up on reentry on November 1. On November 12, the Progress M-MRM-2 module docked with the zenith port of Zvezda. The following day, the internal hatches were opened and Surayev entered the module for an inspection and to take air samples. This module, called Poisk (“Search”), featured a new Soyuz/Progress docking port and a second EVA airlock for Russian-based EYAs, as well as additional, if limited, storage volume.

On January 14, 2010, Surayev and Kotov conducted a 5h 44min EVA to check the exterior of Poisk and the joint docking seals. Soyuz TMA-16 was relocated by Kotov and Williams on January 21, moving the spacecraft from the aft end of Zvezda to Poisk. The flyover took just 19 minutes, with the TMA-17 crew watching and photographing from inside the station as the operation took place. The next Progress (M-04M) arrived at the station on February 5, docking to the aft port of Zvezda. This was the 36th docking of an unmanned supply vehicle from the Russian Progress series and marked the first time on station that four Russian spacecraft (two Soyuz and two Progress vehicles) were docked.

On February 10, after five busy days of cargo transfers by the station crew, Shuttle Endeavour (STS-130) docked with its crew of six astronauts, delivering the ESA-built Cupola and Node 3 Tranquility (see STS-130 entry). While docked, the crews transferred over 1,3131b (595.57 kg) of supplies across to the station. After the departure of STS-130 on February 20, the TMA-16 crew of Surayev and Wil­liams started to prepare for their return to Earth while assisting the next expedition team to assume command. On March 17, 2010, Jeff Williams formally handed over command of ISS to Kotov. The next day, TMA-16 undocked and followed a normal entry and landing a few hours later. For the record books, the TMA-16 pair had been on board the station for all but two of their 169-day space flight, with their time split between three residencies. They had worked for just seven days as part of the ISS-20 phase, then a further 47 days as flight engineers for ISS-21, before assuming the role of prime ISS crew for ISS-22, which lasted 112 days.

Milestones

270th manned space flight 109th Russian manned space flight 102nd manned Soyuz flight 16th manned Soyuz TMA mission 20th ISS Soyuz mission (20S)

17th ISS Soyuz visiting mission 21/22nd ISS resident crew

First triple docking of Soyuz space craft at ISS: Soyuz TMA-14, TMA 15, TMA-16 featuring nine crew members

First quadruple docking of Russian spacecraft at ISS: Soyuz TMA-15, TMA – 16, Progress M-03M, M-04M

7th and last scheduled space flight participant visiting mission 17th and last scheduled Soyuz visiting mission program

Подпись:

Подпись: STS-129
Подпись: 2009-62A November 16, 2009 Pad 39A, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. November 27, 2009 Runway 33, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. OV-104 Atlantis/ET-133/SRB BI-140/SSME: #1 2048, #2 2044, #3 2058 lOda 19h 16min 13s (STS-129 crew) 90 da 10 h 44 min 43 s (Stott) Atlantis ISS-ULF3, Express Logistics Carriers (ELC1 and ELC2)

Flight crew

HOBAUGH, Charles Owen, 48, USMC, NASA commander, NASA, third mission

Previous missions-. STS-104 (2001), STS-118 (2007)

WILMORE, Barry Eugene, 46, USN, NASA pilot, NASA

MELVIN, Leland Deems, 45, civilian, NASA mission specialist 1, NASA,

second mission

Previous mission: STS-122 (2008)

BRESNIK, Randolph James, 42, USMC, NASA mission specialist 2, NASA FOREMAN, Michael James, 52, USN (Retd.), NASA mission specialist 3, NASA, second mission Previous mission: STS-123 (2008)

SATCHER Jr., Robert Lee, 44, civilian, NASA mission speciahst 4, NASA ISS resident crew exchange

STOTT, Nicole Maria Passano, 46, civilian, NASA mission specialist 5,

ISS flight engineer (down only)

Flight log

At the time of this mission, there were only six flights of the Space Shuttle left on the manifest. With 86% of station assembly complete, the majority of these remaining missions would focus on the delivery of spares and logistics, as well as the removal of unwanted items of hardware and trash and the return of scientific samples. In addition to addressing the delivery of new supplies, STS-129 also would return the final Shuttle-transported space station resident crew member, Nicole Stott, who already knew she was already assigned to a second flight on the

image71

A crew briefing during FD2 activities on the middeck of Space Shuttle Atlantis.

Shuttle in 2011. Originally, it was planned that Stott would return on a Soyuz, replacing Thirsk who was scheduled to come home on a Shuttle. But delays meant they swapped seats, with Thirsk returning on Soyuz and Stott on the Shuttle instead.

Atlantis was rolled from the OPF to the VAB on October 6, 2009 for mating with the ET and twin SRBs. After a 24 h delay due to an issue with the transfer crane in the YAB, the stack was rolled to the pad on October 14, with only minor issues featuring in a relatively smooth processing schedule and countdown. The payload was moved to the pad on October 29 and installed in the payload bay on November 4.

The launch and approach to station went according to the flight plan, with docking occurring on November 18. Following the hatch opening, the two crews greeted each other in the Harmony Module. With six Shuttle crew and four station crew members, ISS was again quite busy. Shortly after the hatches were opened and celebrations completed, Nicole Stott formally ended her residency on the station by officially joining the STS-129 crew.

Just 90 minutes after the hatches had been opened, the Shuttle RMS was grappling the first of two Express Logistics Carriers (ELC-1), handing it off to Canadarm2 on the station. ELC-1 was then plugged into its new location on the Earth-facing side of the ISS port truss. The ELCs were new platforms designed to support large items of hardware and spares. Subsequent Shuttle flights would add more hardware to the units. This first one had a mass of 6,396 kg (14,1001b).

Three EVAs were completed, one each by Forman, Satcher and Bresnik, working in pairs with the third acting as IV crew member. This would total 36 hours 15 minutes of experience between the three astronauts. The first EVA (November 19, 6h 37 min) by Foreman and Satcher featured the installation of a range of hardware and spares and the relocation of a number of items. They worked so efficiently that they found themselves two hours in front of the timeline and were able to perform a number of get-ahead tasks in preparation for EVA 2.

The second excursion outside was performed by Foreman and Bresnik, with Satcher as IV. During this EVA (November 21, 6h 8 min) all tasks were again completed early, allowing further get-ahead tasks to be performed. This included relocating of the second ELC unit, which was loaded with spare parts and had a mass of 6,136 kg (13,5301b).

The final EVA (November 23, 5h 42 min) was performed by Satcher and Bresnik with Foreman taking his turn as IV crew member. The majority of this EVA, as with the earlier two, was taken up with installing new and spare items of hardware and equipment on the exterior of the station. The items relocated by the astronauts across the three EVAs included a spare antenna, an ammonia lines bracket, a bracket on the Columbus laboratory and an additional ham radio antenna. They also installed an antenna on the truss for wireless helmet camera video during future EVAs and relocated the measuring unit which reveals electrical potential around the station. Other tasks included deploying a cargo bracket on the truss, installing a new oxygen tank on the Quest airlock and deploying the next in the series of Material Experiment packing (MISSE 7A&B). Finally, they completed work on the heater cables in advance of the arrival of the Tranquility Node early in 2010.

The three space walks had logged 18 hours 27 minutes. Foreman accumulated 12 hours 45 minutes on his two EVAs, Satcher logged 12 hours 19 minutes in his pair of excursions, while Bresnik logged 11 hours 50 minutes in his two space walks. Shortly after ending his second space walk Bresnik received news of an addition to his family with the birth of his daughter.

While work continued outside, the astronauts transferred over a ton of supplies and logistics into the station and a ton of unwanted equipment, trash, and samples back into Atlantis for return to Earth. With future station operations in mind, the astronauts also armed the Commercial Orbital Transportation Ser­vices (COTS) UHF Communication Unit. This was integrated on the station in preparation for forthcoming commercial resupply flights to the ISS by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX). This new unit would enable communications between the station and the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft during approaches to the station.

Undocking from the station, with Stott now aboard, occurred on November 25, after 6 days 17 hours and 2 minutes of being docked with the complex. The following day, the crew celebrated the U. S. Thanksgiving holiday aboard Atlantis. With 14 tons of supplies now aboard the station, the mission was deemed a com­plete success and with Stott aboard the orbiter, the series of Shuttle-delivered crew members that began with Germany’s Thomas Reiter (ESA) in July 2006 was now complete. In all, 11 resident crew members—two (ESA) European, one (JAXA) Japanese, and eight (NASA) American astronauts—had been delivered and returned on the Shuttle over a period of three years and five months.

Atlantis landed after an 11-day mission. Stott completed a mission of 91 days in space, 86 of which were on station and 79 as resident crew member during ISS-20/21.

Milestones

271st manned space flight 159th U. S. manned spaceflight 129th Shuttle flight 31st Atlantis mission 31st ISS Shuttle mission

First live Tweet up mission from KSC during launch

Second flight of two African Americans on crew (Melvin and Satcher)

Fewest problems reported in processing (54) since STS-125.

Final Shuttle crew rotation mission (Stott landing only)

Bresnik’s daughter born November 21, shortly after his second EVA Stott celebrated her 47th birthday (November 19)

A selected timeline 1961-2012

1961

Apr

May

Aug

Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space and completes one orbit Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space on a suborbital flight Gherman Titov is launched on the first 24 h mission (of 17 orbits)

1962

Feb

Jul

Aug

John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth (with 3 orbits) First X-15 flight to exceed 50 miles (Robert White)

Andrian Nikolayev sets new endurance record (3 da 22 h)

1963

Jun

Aug

Valeri Bykovsky sets new endurance record (4 da 23 h) Valentina Tereshkova becomes first woman in space (2 da 22 h) Highest X-15 flight (66.75 miles) (Joseph Walker)

1964

Oct

First multiperson space crew (three cosmonauts on Voskhod 1 First civilians in space

1965

Mar

Mar

Jun

Aug

Dec

Alexei Leonov becomes first person to walk in space First U. S. multiperson crew (two astronauts on Gemini 3) Ed White becomes first American to walk in space Gemini 5 sets new endurance record (7 da 22 h)

Cooper becomes first person to orbit Earth a second time Gemini 7 sets new endurance record (13 da 18h)

First space rendezvous (Gemini 6 with Gemini 7)

1966

Mar

Sep

First space docking (Gemini 8 with Agena unmanned target vehicle)

Gemini 11 attains highest altitude of Earth orbital manned flight (850 miles)

1967

Jan

Apr

Three Apollo 1 astronauts killed in pad fire

Soyuz 1 pilot Vladimir Komarov killed during landing phase

(continued)

D. J. Shayler and M. D. Shayler, Manned Spaceflight LogII—2006—2012, Springer Praxis Books 158, 383

DOl 10.1007/978-1-4614-4577-7, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

1967

Oct

Nov

(icont.)

X-15 fastest flight (4,520mph or Mach 6.7 by Pete Knight)

X-15 pilot Michael Adams is killed in crash of #3 aircraft after reaching 50.4 miles

1968

Aug

Oct

Dec

Thirteenth and final X-15 astro-flight First three-man Apollo flight (Apollo 7)

Schirra becomes first person to make three orbital space flights Apollo 8 becomes first lunar orbital mission

1969

Jan

Mar

May

Jul

Oct

Nov

Soyuz 5/4 first manned docking and crew transfer (by EVA) Manned test of LM in Earth orbit (Apollo 9)

Manned test of LM in lunar orbit (Apollo 10)

First manned lunar landing (Apollo 11)

First three-spacecraft (Soyuz 6, 7, 8) operations Second manned lunar landing (Apollo 12)

1970

Apr

Jun

Apollo 13 aborted lunar landing mission

Lovell becomes first to fly in space four times

Soyuz 9 cosmonauts set new endurance record (17 da 16 h)

1971

Feb

Apr

Jun

Jul

Third manned lunar landing (Apollo 14)

Launch of world’s first space station (Salyut, which de-orbits October 1971) First space station (Salyut) crew Killed during entry phase (Soyuz 11)

Fourth manned lunar landing (Apollo 15)

1972

Apr

Dec

Fifth manned lunar landing (Apollo 16)

Sixth and final (Apollo) manned lunar landing (Apollo 17)

1973

Apr

May

Jul

Nov

Salyut 2 (Almaz) fails in orbit (de-orbits in 26 days)

Launch of unmanned Skylab (re-enters Jul 1979)

First Skylab crew sets new endurance record of 28 days Second Skylab crew increases endurance record (59 days 11 h) Third and final Skylab crew increases endurance record (84 da 1 h)

1974

Jun

Jul

Dec

Launch of Salyut 3 (Almaz), which de-orbits January 1975 First successful Soviet space station mission (Soyuz 14) Launch of Salyut 4 (de-orbits February 1977)

1975

Apr

Jul

Soyuz 18-1 crew survive launch abort

Soyuz 19 and Apollo dock in space (first international mission)

1977

Sep

Dec

Salyut 6 launched (de-orbits July 1982)

First Salyut 6 resident crew set new endurance record (96 da lOh)

1978

Jan

Mar

Jun

First Soyuz exchange mission (Soyuz 27 for Soyuz 26)

First Soviet Interkosmos mission (Czechoslovakian)

First non-Soviet, non-American person in space (Remek) Second Salyut 6 crew sets new endurance record (139 da 14 h)

1979

Feb

Third Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record (175 da)

1980

Apr

Jun

Fourth Salyut 6 resident crew increases endurance record (187 da 20 h) First manned flight of Soyuz T variant

1981

Apr

Nov

First Shuttle launch (Columbia STS-1) on 20th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight John Young becomes first to make five space flights.

First return to space by manned spacecraft (Columbia STS-2)

1982

Apr

May

Nov

Salyut 7 launched (de-orbits February 1991)

First Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record (211 da 9 h)

First “operational” Shuttle mission (STS-5) is also the first four-person launch

1983

Apr

Jun

Sep

Nov

First flight of Challenger

Sally Ride becomes first U. S. woman in space during STS-7 First five-person launch Soyuz T10-1 launchpad abort First Spacelab mission (STS-9)

First six-person launch

John Young flies record sixth mission

1984

Feb

Feb

Jul

Aug

Oct

First use of MMU (STS-41-B) on untethered space walks Third Salyut 7 resident crew sets new endurance record (236 da 22 h) Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to walk in space (Soyuz T12/Salyut 7)

First flight of Discovery (STS-41-D)

First seven-person launch (STS-41-G)

Kathy Sullivan becomes first American woman to walk in space

1985

Jan

Jul

Oct

Oct

First classified DOD Shuttle mission (STS-51C) First Shuttle abort-to-orbit profile (STS-5IF) First flight of Atlantis (STS-51J)

First eight-person launch (STS-61A)

1986

Jan

Feb

Mar

Challenger and its crew of seven lost 73 seconds after launch (STS-51L) Mir core module launched unmanned First resident crew to Mir (Soyuz T-15)

1987

Feb

Dec

Second Mir resident crew sets new endurance record (326 da 11 h)

First manned Soyuz TM variant

First flight of over a year as third Mir resident crew sets endurance record (365 da 22 h)

1988

Sep

Shuttle retum-to-flight mission (STS-26)

1990

Apr

Hubble Space Telescope deployment (STS-31)

1992

May

First flight of Endeavour (STS-49)

1993

Dec

First Hubble Service Mission (STS-61)

1994

Jan

Feb

Valeri Polyakov sets new endurance record (437 da 17 h) for one mission (lands March 1995)

First Russian cosmonaut to fly on Shuttle (Krikalev during STS-60)

1995

Feb

Mar

Jul

Nov

First Shuttle-Міг rendezvous (STS-63/Mir)

Eileen Collins becomes first female Shuttle pilot First American launched on Soyuz (Thagard on Soyuz TM-21) First Shuttle docking with Mir (STS-71, Thagard down) Second Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-74)

1996

Mar

Sep

Nov

Third Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-76, Lucid up)

Fourth Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-79, Lucid down, Blaha up) Longest Shuttle mission (17da 15h, STS-80)

Musgrave becomes only astronaut to fly all five orbiters

1997

Jan

Feb

May

Jun

Sep

Fifth Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-81, Blaha down, Linenger up)

Second Hubble Service Mission (STS-82)

Sixth Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-81, Linenger down, Foale up)

Collision between unmanned Progress vessel and Mir space station damages Spektr module

Seventh Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-86, Foale down, Wolf up)

1998

Jan

Jun

Oct

Nov

Dec

Eighth Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-89, Wolf down, Thomas up)

Ninth and final Shuttle-Міг docking (STS-91, Thomas down)

John Glenn returns to space aged 77 (36 years after his first space flight) First ISS element launched (Zarya FGB)

First ISS Shuttle mission (STS-88)

1999

Jul

Aug

Dec

Eileen Collins becomes first female U. S. mission commander (STS-93) Mir vacated for first time in 10 years Third Hubble Service Mission (STS-103)

2000

Apr

Oct

Last (28th) Mir resident crew (72 da) First ISS resident crew launched

2001

Mar

Apr

Mir space station de-orbits after 15 years’ service

Dennis Tito becomes first space flight participant or “tourist”

2002

Mar

Apr

Oct

Fourth Hubble Service Mission (STS-109)

Jerry Ross becomes first person to fly seven missions in space First manned flight of Soyuz TMA

2003

Feb

Apr

Oct

Columbia and crew of seven lost during entry phase of mission STS-107

ISS assumes two-person caretaker crews

First Chinese manned space flight (Shenzhou 5)

Yang Liwei becomes first Chinese national in space

2004

Sep

Oct

SpaceShipOne flies to 337,500 ft (102.87 km)

SpaceShipOne flies to 367,442ft (111.99km) and wins $10 million X-Prize

2005

Jul

Oct

First post-Columbia (STS-107) Shuttle retum-to-flight mission (STS-114) First Chinese two-man space flight (Shenzhou 6)

2006

Jul

Aug

Sep

Second post Columbia (STS-107) Shuttle retum-to-flight mission (STS-121) ISS returns to three-person capability Resumption of ISS construction (STS-115)

2007

Aug

Oct

Barbara Morgan becomes the first educator astronaut (teacher) in space (STS-118)

Peggy Whitson becomes first female space station commander (TMA-11/ISS-16)

2008

Apr

Sep

Oct

Sergei Volkov becomes first son of a cosmonaut (Aleksandr Volkov) to fly in space

Zhai Zhigang becomes first Chinese to perform EVA (Shenzhou 7)

Richard Garriott becomes first son of an astronaut (Owen Garriott) to fly in space

2009

May

Final Hubble Service Mission (SM4) Final Shuttle-based EVAs (STS-125)

May

Six-person ISS resident crew operations commence (ISS-20)

Nov

Final ISS crew member to return by Shuttle (Stott on STS-129)

2010

Oct

Maiden launch of Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft

2011

Feb

Final flight (39th) of OV-103 Discovery (STS-133)

Apr

Soyuz TMA-21 (call sign Gagarin) celebrates 50 years of human space flight

May

Final (25th) flight of OV-105 Endeavour Final EVAs by Shuttle crew members (STS-134) ISS assembly complete

Jul

Final Shuttle mission (STS-135)

Final flight (33rd) of OV-104 Atlantis

2012

Jun

First Chinese space station crew (Shenzhou 9, which lasted 13 days) First Chinese female citizen in space (Liu Yang)

SOYUZ TMA-04M

Подпись: International designator Launched Launch site Landed Landing site Launch vehicle Duration Call sign Objective 2012-022A May 15, 2012

Pad, 1 Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of

Kazakhstan

September 17, 2012

85 km north of Arkalyk, Republic of Kazakhstan Soyuz-FG (serial number Л15000-041),

Soyuz TMA-04M (serial number 705) 30S

124 da 23 h 51 min 30 s

Altair

ISS resident crew transport (ISS-31/32)

Flight crew

PADALKA, Gennady Ivanovich, 54, Russian Federation Air Force (Retd.), RSA Soyuz TMA-M commander, ISS-31 flight engineer, ISS-32 commander, fourth flight

Previous missions: Soyuz TM-28 (1998), Soyuz TMA-4 (2008), Soyuz TMA-14 (2009)

REVIN, Sergey Nikolayevich, 46, civilian, RSA Soyuz TMA-M flight engineer, ISS-31/32 flight engineer

ACABA, Joseph Michael, 45, civilian, NASA Soyuz TMA-M flight engineer, ISS-31/32 flight engineer, second flight Previous mission-. STS-119 (2009)

Flight log

Arriving at the station on May 17, which also happened to be Acaba’s 45th birthday, the Soyuz TMA-04M brought three new residents to supplement the three-member ISS-31 crew already on board the complex. Less than four hours after docking, the six astronauts and cosmonauts of the ISS-31 phase were together inside the station, progressing through the welcoming routines and ceremonies. They soon began concentrating on the more formal work schedule, which included receiving the first SpaceX Dragon unmanned supply vehicle on May 25.

By the time this mission flew, the Shuttle had been retired for about a year and media coverage of major launches and events had become sparse at best, coupled with the shift in emphasis of the program away from the “drama” of assembly to the more “mundane” scientific operations and resupply. True, there remained some further Russian components to be delivered to the station, but science and research now moved to the forefront. Even the promotional science

image88

The SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft is grappled by Canadarm2.

material for the mission emphasized a “beehive of activity” for the crew, with delivery of new research facilities and testing for a new microsatellite deployment system.

There were over 240 experiments planned (over 80 of which were brand new), supported by over 400 investigators across the globe. In the Russian segment, there were to be 303 sessions covering 38 experiments, with cosmonauts planned to work on the experiment packages for over 350 hours across the ISS-31 and 32 phases. The experiments included human research, biological and physical sciences, technology development, Earth observation, and education. The NASA press packs included explanations of overlapping science studies beyond ISS-32 into the ISS-33 and 34 expeditions. For ISS-31/32, there were 201 separate investi­gations planned, of which 123 were brand new and 82 were NASA led. A further 118 were internationally supported research investigations.

On May 31, after 9 days 23 minutes docked with the station, the Dragon spacecraft was unberthed using Canadarm2 to begin its return to Earth. While the new spacecraft was docked with the station, the crew had unloaded over 1,1001b (499 kg) of fresh supplies and then refilled the vessel with over 1,3001b (590 kg) of hardware. This time, however, it would be returned to Earth rather than burned up in the atmosphere as with the other types of resupply craft.

On June 21, there was a double birthday celebration on board the ISS, as Padalka celebrated his 55th birthday in space and Kononenko his 48th. For

Padalka this was a very special celebration, as it was the third time he had marked his birthday in space (previously celebrated in 2004 and 2009). It was also the second such occasion for Kononenko, having previously celebrated his birthday in space in 2008.

During the final two weeks of June 2012, the ISS crew was accompanied in space, if in different orbits, by the first Chinese space station crew aboard Tiangong-1. This milestone was noted in the press, though there would be no direct communications between the two crews.

Padalka took over formal command of the station from Kononenko during June 29. A couple of days later, during the early hours of July 1, Soyuz TMA-03 undocked from the station, at which point Expedition 32 officially began. Follow­ing a light-duty weekend, the remaining station crew of three resumed their schedule, although there were further light-duty shifts for the July 4 U. S. Independence Day and the weekend of July 7/8.

On July 17, Soyuz TMA-05M docked with the Rassvet module bringing the three Expedition 33 crew members. For the first two months of their mission, they would serve as Expedition 32 flight engineers under the command of Padalka. With the crew readjusting to six-person operations again, the Japanese HTV-3 was launched on July 20, carrying almost 4 tons of supplies for the station. The latest cargo craft was grappled on July 27 by Canadarm2 and attached to the nadir port of Harmony.

While the crew brought the Japanese resupply craft in to the station successfully, they experienced difficulties in redocking the Progress M-15M space­craft on July 24. M-15M had been undocked two days before and placed in a parking orbit and was due to attempt a redocking to test the new Kurs-NA system. The system failed at 9.3 miles from the station, so the unmanned resupply craft was “parked” a safe distance below the station while the failure was investi­gated. A second attempt was completed successfully, docking with the station in the early hours of July 29. The cause of the original failure was determined to be a fail-safe test which aborted the docking. Once the vehicle had been reattached to the station, Padalka dismantled the Kurs-NA avionics box and then stowed it aboard the Zarya module for later return to Earth for analysis. The Progress was undocked for a final time on July 30.

A new Progress, M-16M, docked with the Pirs module on August 2, delivering over 5,8001b (2600 kg) of cargo and propellant to the station. This was the 48th docking of a Progress to the station since August 2000. The difference with this flight was that the Progress took only four orbits (6 hours) to reach the station instead of the normal two days. This involved four very precise rendezvous man­euvers in the first 2 hours 40 minutes of flight, completed as a test for a proposed shortening of the journey to the ISS by Soyuz TMA-M flights in the hope of reducing the discomfort for the crew of two days in the cramped capsule. This new profile was not expected to be operational on manned flights for over a year.

For most of the month of August, the ISS crew kept busy with their science and preparations for the expedition’s first EVA. Performed by Padalka and Malenchenko, this took place on August 20 (for 5h 51 min) and featured the relocation of the Strela-2 cargo crane from the Pirs to the Zarya module. This was in readiness for the eventual undocking of Pirs to make room for the new Russian Nauka Multi-Purpose Laboratory. The cosmonauts also deployed a small TEKh-44 Sfera (“Sphere”) satellite by hand, which would be used for ground tracking tests over a two-to-five-month period to evaluate orbital debris and decay. The two cosmonauts also installed five micrometeoroid shields outside Zvezda, retrieved an exposure package, and installed support struts on the Pirs EVA ladder ready for relocation across to the Nauka module when it arrived. A second exposure experiment could not be retrieved, as the cosmonauts were unable to close the package enough for it to fit through the Pirs airlock hatch. It was left for a later crew to retrieve.

The Expedition 32 phase drew to a close in September, so while the three Soyuz TMA-04M crew members wound up their research and increased their con­ditioning routine for the return home, the other half of the crew prepared to take over prime command. They conducted two EVAs from the Quest airlock and supported the unberthing of Kounotori-3 from the station on September 12. The unmanned Japanese resupply craft, filled with 16.5 tons of unwanted material, performed a destructive reentry on September 14.

Five days after HTV-3 departed it was time to bid farewell to the TMA-04M crew, who undocked in the early hours of September 17 (Moscow time). They landed less than four hours later, after a 125-day mission. They had resided in the station for 123 days, of which they spent 43 days as part of the Expedition 31 crew and 78 days as the prime Expedition 32 crew. Formal handover of station command occurred on September 15 between Padalka and Sunita Williams.

By the end of the flight, Padalka had accumulated over 710 days in space, on three missions to the ISS and his visit to Mir in 1998/1999. This made him the fourth most experienced space explorer; he also had nine EVAs to his credit. During the post-landing press conference, Padalka (who is unlikely to fly a fifth mission) reportedly spoke openly about the condition of the Russian segment. He described the living conditions as sparse, noisy, cold, and overcrowded, with only one-seventh of the room afforded to the U. S. astronauts. It would not, he felt, be suitable for the proposed 1 yr missions that were being discussed for future expeditions. Some of these differences between the American and Russian seg­ments, especially the noise levels, have been clearly revealed in recent video tours of the station. The noise levels differ noticeably as the guided tour passes from the American to the Russian segment and back again.

Clearly there remains much to do in creating a universal comfortable environ­ment for a crew on long international expeditions. This needs to be addressed before we attempt to venture into deep space.

Milestones

287th manned space flight 119th Russian manned space flight 112th manned Soyuz 30th ISS Soyuz mission (30S)

26th ISS Soyuz visiting mission 4th Soyuz TMA-M flight 31/32nd ISS resident crew

Acaba celebrated his 45th birthday (May 17—the day Soyuz TMA-4M docked with the ISS)

Padalka celebrates his 55th birthday (June 21)

Kononenko celebrates his 48th birthday (also June 21)

Padalka first three-time ISS commander

The Boeing Company

Boeing is developing the Crew Space Transportation (CST-100) crew capsule, initially for launch on an Atlas V. The CST, which can carry a crew of seven, is a cone-shaped capsule resembling the Apollo Command Module, but with a dry­land recovery capability. This new Boeing design is larger than the vehicle which took American astronauts to the Moon between 1968 and 1972, to the Skylab space station in 1973, and docked with a Soviet Soyuz in 1975. However, when compared with the previously proposed Orion deep-space vehicle, the CST-100 is smaller in size.

On August 3, 2012, NASA announced the next step in the development of a new American manned spacecraft by revealing three new partnership agreements with SpaceX ($440 million), Boeing ($460 million), and Sierra Nevada ($212.5 million). As a direct result of Congressional restrictions, the competition was reduced from the original five companies competing for the contract to just two, with a third receiving half funds as an added insurance against unforeseen technical hurdles with either of the other two proposals. SpaceX and Boeing were to develop, test, and mature their designs through to the Critical Design Review (CDR) due in April 2014. This would keep the program on target for its first demonstration flights, which are expected to begin in 2016, achieving operational status from 2017 when the chosen vehicle could be flying crews to the ISS. NASA decided to continue to support the development of Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser concept as the backup option, and while the concept is not expected to participate in the CDR phase it will add further technical analysis of the design and concept of lifting body designs to the data already gathered over the previous 50 years.

As these programs are still in development and the details likely to change, it is too early to include specific information here. Hopefully, the vehicle that becomes America’s next operational manned spacecraft launching crews to the ISS will be in service in time for when the next edition of this log is published.

By 2020, it is also expected that the Boeing Orion spacecraft will be available for crew expeditions into deep space, although its final targets are far from certain at this point.

SOYUZ TMA-17

Подпись: International designator Launched Launch site Landed Landing site Launch vehicle Duration Call sign Objectives 2009-074A

December 21, 2009 (Moscow time)

Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of

Kazakhstan

June 2, 2010

East of the town of Dzhezkazgan, Republic of Kazakhstan

Soyuz-FG (serial number Ы5000-031),

Soyuz TMA (serial number 227)

163 da 5h 32 min 32 s Pulsar

ISS resident crew transport (2IS), ISS expedition crew 22/23

Flight Crew

KOTOV, Oleg Valeriyevich, 44, Russian Federation Air Force, RSA TMA commander, ISS-22 flight engineer/ISS-23 commander, second mission Previous mission: Soyuz TMA-10/ISS-15 (2007)

NOGUCHI, Soichi, 44, civilian (Japanese), JAXA TMA/ISS flight engineer, second mission

Previous mission: STS-114 (2005)

CREAMER, Timothy John, 50, U. S.A., NASA TMA/ISS flight engineer

Flight log

Arriving at the ISS on December 23, 2009 (Moscow time), this trio worked as ISS-22 flight engineers for the first part of their mission alongside Jeff Williams and Maxim Surayev. Then, on March 18, 2010, the undocking of the TMA-16 spacecraft signified the end of the ISS-22 phase and the commencement of the ISS-23 phase, although the formal change-of-command ceremony had taken place on March 17. Kotov’s crew then served as the three-person ISS-23 residency until they were joined by the TMA-18 crew on April 4, bringing the core crew back up to six persons. The ISS-22 residency continued until June 2, when they undocked from the station after formally handing over the prime role to the ISS-23 crew on May 31. In their 163-day space flight, the TMA-17 crew had resided on the station for 161 days. This was divided into an approximate 85-day tour on the ISS-21 phase and a further 75 days during the ISS-22 phase with just over a day as outgoing crew members.

The formal Russian segment research program for this crew encompassed 363 sessions on 42 experiments. Of these, only two were brand new, with the

image72

Wearing festive holiday hats Expedition 22 speak to officials from Russia, Japan, and the United States. (Front row) Flight engineer Maxim Surayev and commander Jeff Williams. (Back row) Oleg Kotov, Timothy Creamer, and Soichi Noguchi (all flight engineers).

remainder being continuations of previous experiments, reflecting the longevity of research on the station. In order to achieve this, mission planners had allocated 114 hours of experiment time over the duration of the ISS-23 residency. NASA announced that 45 experiments were being conducted in the U. S. segment. These encompassed 130 investigations from over 400 scientists across the globe. Eight of these experiments were part of the station’s role as a U. S. National Laboratory. There were also 55 experiments from ESA, CSA, and JAXA assigned to the expedition.

After only three weeks the trio of TMA-17 cosmonauts were joined by the rest of the ISS-22 resident crew, who arrived on Soyuz TMA-18. The very next day, STS-131 was launched, which docked at the Harmony Module on April 7. This Shuttle mission was a logistics resupply mission, during which the joint crews worked for the next 10 days to unload over 17,0001b (7,711.20 kg) of cargo for the station and complete four EVAs. With Caldwell-Dyson on the station and three women on the visiting Shuttle crew, a new record was set with four females in space at the same time and on the same vehicle.

When STS-131 departed, the station crew settled to their scientific, mainten­ance, and housekeeping routines. There was also a flurry of activity relating to the

Progress resupply craft at the station towards the end of April and into May. This included the departure of M-03M (35P) full of discarded items for atmospheric bum-up on April 22. There was also a 20 min 43 s burn of the Progress M-04M (36P) engines to boost the orbital altitude of the complex and, on May 1, the arrival of Progress M-05M (37P) which docked at Pirs. On May 12, the TMA-17 crew relocated their spacecraft in a 27 min flight from the nadir port of Zarya to the aft port of Zvezda, witnessed by the TMA-18 trio from inside the station.

Next for this busy expedition was the arrival of STS-132 on May 16 at the Harmony module, for a week of joint activities and three EVAs designed to support the installation of the Russian MRM-1 module called “Rassvet”. This was permanently installed on to the nadir port of Zarya with the aid of the Shuttle and the station’s robotic arms on May 18. Two days later, after leak checks, Kotov and Skvortsov entered the Rassvet module for the first time for an initial inspection.

STS-132 departed from the station on May 23 and for the next few days, the crew unpacked the Rassvet module. The TMA-17 crew also prepared their Soyuz for the descent. In order to provide the optimum conditions for the landing, the engines of Progress M-05M were fired for almost 10 minutes on May 26 to lower the orbit of the station by just 1 mile (1.60 km) to 214 miles (344.32 km). NASA called this maneuver a “de-boost”. It gave the option of a backup landing site if required.

On May 31, Kotov relinquished command of the station to his Russian colleague Alexander Skvortsov, and the following day the crew prepared their Soyuz TMA-17 for descent. Undocking occurred in the early hours of June 2 and just over three hours later, the Descent Module and crew were back on Earth. All three were in great condition after the mission. Noguchi stated that, compared with his previous brief stay on the station five years earlier during STS-114, it was fun to stay longer in a station which had doubled or tripled in size and habitable volume.

Milestones

272nd manned space flight 110th Russian manned space flight 103rd manned Soyuz flight 17th manned Soyuz TMA mission 21st ISS Soyuz mission (2IS)

22/23rd ISS resident crew

Final docking of a Soyuz at the nadir Zarya port

The first time four women are in space at same time (Caldwell-Dyson and three crew from STS-131)

Kornienko celebrates his 50th birthday and Noguchi his 45th birthday (both on April 15)

Skvortsov celebrates his 44th birthday (May 6)

Подпись:

Подпись: STS-130
Подпись: 2010-004A February 8, 2010 LC39A, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. February 21, 2010 Runway 15, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. OV-105 Endeavour/ET-134/SRB BI-141/SSME: #1 2059, #2 2061, #3 2057 13da 18h 6min 22s Endeavour ISS-20A (Node 3 Tranquility, Cupola)

Flight crew

ZAMKA, George David, 47, USMC, NASA commander, second mission Previous mission: STS-120 (2007)

VIRTS Jr., Terry Wayne, 41, USAF, NASA pilot

HIRE, Kathryn Patricia, 50, civilian, NASA, mission specialist 1,

second mission

Previous mission: STS-90 (1998)

ROBINSON, Stephen Kern, 54, civilian, NASA, mission specialist 2, fourth mission

Previous missions: STS-85 (1997), STS-95 (1998), STS-114 (2005) PATRICK, Nicholas James MacDonald, 45, civilian, NASA, mission specialist 3, second mission Previous mission: STS-116 (2006)

BEHNKEN, Robert Louis, 39, USAF, NASA, mission specialist 4, second mission

Previous mission: STS-123 (2008)

Flight log

Delivering a third connecting node called “Tranquility”, fitted out for additional habitation, plus the Cupola robotic control station with its seven-window pano­ramic view, the STS-130 mission would bring station construction up to 98% complete. Shuttle Endeavour was manifested for the mission, which was originally planned for December 2009, but was postponed until February 2010 following a series of delays.

Final launch preparations began in early October with the twin SRBs stacked on the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP). The ET was attached on November 23. Endeavour was processed in OPF Bay 2 before being rolled over to the VAB on

image73

The Tranquility Node 3 and Cupola in the payload bay of Endeavour prior to docking.

December 11 where it was mated with the twin SRB and ET. This would be the vehicle’s penultimate mission. The rollout to Pad 39A was delayed until early January to allow the processing staff to take a break over the Christmas and New Year holiday.

By late November the launch date had already been moved to February 7. This was to allow a few extra days margin in early February to launch the NASA Solar Science Mission on an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). NASA also stated that it was preferable to have the next Russian Progress vehicle (M-4M, planned for a February 3 launch) already docked with the ISS when Endeavour arrived.

On January 6, 2010, Endeavour was rolled out to the pad. During the second week of January there was a small concern when the ammonia jumper hoses ruptured during preflight qualification tests. These pipes were to be used for con­necting Node 3 to Node 1, so clearly a solution had to be found quickly. To resolve this issue, the hoses were redesigned and four new ones constructed. Final qualification and acceptance tests were completed just days prior to launch.

In the event, the intended launch on February 7 was delayed for 24 hours due to weather concerns. The following day, Endeavour streaked into the night sky without further incident and proceeded smoothly to orbit. Over the next two days Endeavour chased the space complex, the crew gradually adjusting its orbit to match that of the station. During these two days, the crew checked out the tile protection using the RMS and prepared the EVA equipment. Endeavour safely docked with the station on February 9. Two hours later came the now familiar routine of hatch opening and crew ceremonies.

There were three EVAs during this mission, which totaled 18 hours 14 minutes. All three space walks were performed by Behnken and Patrick, with primary focus on the installation of Tranquility and the Cupola.

Using the Shuttle robotic arm, Tranquility Node 3 was removed from the payload bay of Endeavour and relocated to the left port side of Unity during February 12. The first EVA (February 12, 6h 32 min) was in support of the trans­fer operation, with both EVA astronauts working to attach electrical and ammonia cables to the new node. Later that day, members of the crew were able to enter the node from Unity for the first time, conducting preliminary checks of its internal structure, conditions, and systems.

The second EVA (February 13, 5 h 54min) continued the “plumbing in” of the Tranquility module. Using the newly redesigned ammonia coolant line to link Tranquility to the Destiny science laboratory the new module was hooked up to the station’s main coolant system. This EVA also included preparations to relocate the Cupola from its end berthing port location on Tranquility to the nadir (Earth­facing) location on the same node. This transfer was delayed slightly due to minor issues. Once resolved the unit was soon relocated, leaving the end port vacant for a day until PMA-3 was attached to the end of Tranquility. The mission was then extended to 14 days to allow more time for the work being conducted both inside and outside the station.

The third EVA (February 17, 5 h 48 min) was used both to relocate spares for the Dextre robotic arm system and to support the sequenced opening of the seven Cupola window covers. Each cover was tested in turn to confirm its smooth operation before the EVA crew returned inside.

On February 15, U. S. President Obama called the crews to congratulate them on their success. Five days later, Endeavour undocked from the station after 9 days 19 hours 48 minutes attached to the complex. The success of this mission meant that the station was now 98% complete by assembly, and 90% complete by mass. As Endeavour undocked from the station, weather forecasts for the landing day suggested that the return might have to be diverted, but the situation improved to allow the landing back in Florida as planned.

The two new units were the last major habitable modules in the U. S. segment, joining the Destiny laboratory, the Unity and Harmony Nodes, and the Quest airlock. Node 3 was named Tranquility as a result of a number of NASA nomi­nated options for an online public poll. Node 3 was European built and provided much needed additional room for station life support and environmental subsys­tems. Measuring 23 ft (7.01m) in length and 14.8 ft (4.51m) in diameter with a mass of 40,0001b (18,144kg), Tranquility replaced the canceled Habitation Module and offered additional living quarters for the expanded station resident crew. The unit provided additional room for air revitalization, oxygen regulation, and waste handling, with waste and hygiene equipment relocated from other parts

of the station. The Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) exercise device would also be relocated into Tranquility, as would other equipment, freeing up useful volume in other parts of the station.

The Cupola was the other new module to be dehvered to the station. This long-planned unit had arrived at the Cape back in 2004. Its seven-window dome provided a 360° panoramic view of the station, the Earth, and space and was called the “Window on the World”. The design features one overhead and six side windows allowing the unit to serve as the station’s Control Center for robotic and EVA operations and as the focal point for handling the docking, relocation, and undocking of automated cargo craft.

Milestones

273rd manned space flight 160th U. S. manned space flight 130th Shuttle flight 24th flight of Endeavour 32nd Shuttle ISS flight Final nighttime launch of a Shuttle Mass of ISS grows to 1 million pounds (453,600 kg)

. SHENZHOU 9

Flight crew

JING Haipeng, 45, Chinese PLA Air Force, commander, second flight Previous mission: Shenzhou 7 (2008)

LIU Wang, 43, Chinese PLA Air Force, flight engineer LIU Yang, 34, Chinese PLA Air Force, flight engineer

Flight log

This mission came three years after Shenzhou 7 and provided China with a number of space “firsts” and a significant leap in manned space flight experience and operations. The primary objective was to place the first crew on board the inaugural space laboratory. There was also a female taikonaut in the crew, who became the first Chinese female in space. Launch of Shenzhou 9 occurred on the 49th anniversary of the launch of Valentina Tereshkova’s Vostok 6, the first to carry a female cosmonaut into space. Liu Yang’s entry into the record books also came two days before the 29th anniversary of Sally Ride becoming the first American woman in space, aboard STS-7. Liu Yang had been selected as a member of the second (2010) group of taikonauts.

Forecasts of the flight had been circulated for some time before the hardware was brought together to fly the mission. The Chinese had indicated as early as 2003 their desire to create a space laboratory, supplied by Shenzhou spacecraft. In the West, this seemed very reminiscent of the Soviet Soyuz-Salyut missions of 1971-1985. The Shenzhou 9 mission was part of a four-spacecraft program designed to provide the Chinese with experience in space station operations. First, the pre-fitted space laboratory, called Tiangong (“Heavenly Palace”), would be launched unmanned into Earth orbit. This would be followed by Shenzhou 8, also unmanned, which would test the docking system and docking port. Shenzhou 9

image89

Liu Yang, the first Chinese female to fly in space, pictured at the 2012IAF Congress in Rome, Italy, October 2012. Photo copyright: Brian Harvey, used with permission

would then take the first crew to occupy Tiangong and, if successful, a second manned mission, Shenzhou 10, would complete the program.

The launch of Tiangong-1 (2011-053A) by the upgraded Long March 2F (Tl) occurred on September 29, 2011. Over the following month, the systems of the station were activated, evaluated, and tested prior to the launch of Shenzhou 8 (2011-063A), also by a Long March 2F (G), on October 31. The Shenzhou performed an automated docking on November 3 and remained docked with the station for structural integrity tests between the two docked vehicles over the next two weeks.

On November 14, Shenzhou 8 undocked, backed away, re-rendezvoused, and docked a second time with the station as a further test of the automated systems. Shenzhou 8 was undocked a second time on November 16 to complete a short solo flight and landing the next day after a flight of 18 days. These successful steps paved the way for the manned attempt at docking with Tiangong but, as the months slipped into 2012, little information was forthcoming other than that the crew may include a female. The delays caused some in the West to suggest that there were problems either with Shenzhou 8, the station, or in the preparations for Shenzhou 9. But this overlooked the cautious nature of the Chinese program and the absence of the “race” situation that was a prominent part of the early Soviet and American years.

Behind the scenes, preparations for Shenzhou 9 were well under way. The crew assignments were made in March 2012 but remained unannounced until just prior to launch, although many Western space sleuths were able to deduce the likely candidates ahead of the official announcements. The spacecraft assigned to the flight arrived at the Jinquan launch center for processing on April 9, and then the launch vehicle was delivered to the launch site a month later on May 9.

With typical Chinese efficiency, the combined spacecraft and launcher was rolled 1.5 km to the launchpad on June 9, in an operation that took one hour to complete. The sequence of previous missions suggested that a launch could occur sometime between June 14 and 16. The Chinese authorities confirmed this and indicated a planned mission of about 13 days, including an automated docking with Tiangong-1 and 10 days of joint operations, during which the three-person crew (still unidentified officially) would work inside the station. Towards the end of the mission, it was stated, the crew would conduct a manual docking test before final separation and a short solo flight, with reentry and landing the following day.

The three-day countdown began on June 13 and the names of the crew were formally announced in the days prior to launch, making headlines around the world. The launch on June 16 went flawlessly and it took only 9 minutes 45 seconds to place Shenzhou 9 in orbit to begin its 2-day chase towards Tiangong-1. On June 18, the spacecraft made its final approach to the station 140 minutes prior to the planned docking time. There had been five maneuvering bums to adjust the spacecraft’s orbit prior to start of the automated rendezvous. The approach and docking was fully automated, although Liu Wang was ready to take over manual control if necessary. The automated system worked perfectly, however, with preplanned holds at 5 km, 140 m, and 30 m. The docking system was very similar to the Androgynous Peripheral Attach System with two rings first used on Apollo-Soyuz in 1975. The docking between Shenzhou 9 and Tiangong-1 occurred on the second day after launch and was followed a short time later by the crew transferring across to the space laboratory.

During their stay on board the station, the trio rotated their sleeping cycle so that at least one crew member was awake at all times to monitor onboard systems. Most of their time was taken up with evaluations and tests of the new space station, including several small maneuvering engine burns. The science program of 10 experiments included five medical studies of the taikonauts’ own physical con­dition during China’s first extended duration space flight. A series of air samples were taken to evaluate the status and condition of the station and the crew also completed a series of questionnaires on their health and operational tasks. They were also able to communicate with the ground via email. Much was made of the Chinese food available, of their enjoying weightlessness, and of Liu Yang perform­ing tai chi for the cameras. At one point, Liu Wang played a harmonica and all three seemed to be adapting well to their new environment.

The medical experiments focused upon physical exercise, physiology, cell biology, and sleep studies. The air purification system and other onboard systems were also tested and evaluated. Tiangong-1 is the first of a scheduled three stations in the series, leading up to the launch of a larger station (about the size of the U. S. Skylab) due in 2020. These studies in Tiangong-1 will go a long way towards determining which procedures or equipment will be best suited for inclusion on those larger, longer duration stations.

Several celebrations were marked during the mission. On June 26, the crew held a conversation with President Hu Jintao. They also celebrated the Dragon Boat Festival and talked with the oceanauts on the Jiaolong submersible (named after a mythological sea dragon) 7,020 meters beneath the sea in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, part of China’s Deep Dive program. The three taikonauts also had regular contact with family members, who visited Mission Control.

On June 24, the crew mothballed the station and reentered the Shenzhou to undock after 5 days 21 hours and 1 minute. They backed the Shenzhou away some 400 meters before bringing the vehicle back in under manual control. They halted again at 140 m and then 30 m before completing the first Chinese manual docking. The two craft were separate for about 1 hour 30 minutes. Once the docking connections and seals had been checked for integrity, the hatches were opened and the crew reentered the space lab for a few more days of work before returning to Earth. The Shenzhou was undocked a second time on June 28 after 4 days 21 hours 13 minutes, giving a total docked time across the two periods of approximately 10 days 8 hours 14 minutes.

Shenzhou 9 completed its expected short solo flight following the undocking, allowing the crew time to prepare for entry and landing the next day. The recovery of the spacecraft was completed on June 29, with the spacecraft landing safely but heavily and apparently bouncing and rolling before coming to a halt.

Subsequent reports indicated that the Descent Module had actually missed its intended landing target by 9.94 miles (16 km), though this was still within the planned 22.37 miles (36 km) by 22.37 miles (36 km) landing footprint. The DM landed near a small river, hitting a slope on one of the riverbanks before coming to a rest. Rescue crews were soon on the scene and the three occupants seemed none the worse for their ordeal. They departed the landing zone a few hours after landing and then completed a 2-week postffight recuperation and debriefing period. The mission was a huge success for the program and for China on the world stage, with talk of the next stage—Shenzhou 10 visiting the station—being likely as early as 2013, reflecting a renewed confidence in the Chinese program.

As a new pioneer was feted, another was mourned. Less than a month after the landing of Shenzhou 9 and the flight of the first Chinese woman in space, the American lady with that honor, Sally Ride (STS-7, STS-41G), sadly died on July 23, 2012 after a long battle against pancreatic cancer. She was just 61.

Milestones

288th manned space flight 4th Chinese manned space flight 4th manned Shenzhou mission

1st manned Chinese automated docking mission (June 18)

1 st Chinese manual docking (June 24)

1st resident crew on Tiangong-1

1 st Chinese taikonaut to make two missions (Jing Haipeng) 1st Chinese female in space (Liu Yang)

ORION

In 2004 a concept for a new program to send humans back to the Moon and out to Mars was announced by NASA as part of the Vision for Exploration. Under the label of the Constellation Program, a new Crew Exploration Vehicle was pro­posed for human crews to meet those objectives and eventually received the name Orion. In 2005 designs were sought from industry and in August 2006 Lockheed Martin Corporation won the contract. Development began on the spacecraft and program as the replacement for the Space Shuttle, but the change of administra­tion in the White House and a new President saw the cancellation of Constellation as originally envisaged. Orion was redesignated the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and is currently undergoing development for a wide range of missions to the Moon, Mars, and the asteroids as well as a backup vehicle for cargo and crews

An artist’s impression of the proposed Orion spacecraft.

A future Orion-class spacecraft docks with the ISS.

supporting ISS operations. Numerous ground and atmospheric tests and mock-ups have been developed and though it is expected that the first unmanned flight tests of the vehicle in space will commence around 2014, the first astronauts are not expected to fly on board the MPCV/Orion before 2020.

SOYUZ TMA-18

Подпись: International designator Launched Launch site Landed Landing site Launch vehicle Duration Call sign Objectives 2010-11A April 2, 2010

Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of

Kazakhstan

September 25, 2010

Southwest of Arkalyk, Republic of Kazakhstan Soyuz-FG (serial number Ю15000-028),

Soyuz TMA-18 (serial number 228)

176 da 1 h 18 min 38 s Utes (“Cliff”)

ISS resident crew transport (22S), ISS 23/24 resident crew

Flight Crew

SKVORTSOV, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, 43, Russian Federation Air Force, RSA, Soyuz TMA commander, ISS-23 flight engineer, ISS-24 commander KORNIENKO. Mikhail Borisovich, 49, civilian, RSA, Soyuz TMA flight engineer, ISS 23/24 FE

CALDWELL DYSON, Tracy Ellen, 40, civilian, NASA Soyuz TMA flight engineer, ISS 23/24 flight engineer

Flight log

This trio of cosmonauts arrived at the ISS on April 4, 2010. They would serve as flight engineers on ISS-23 under Oleg Kotov as ISS commander until June 2, when the TMA-17 crew departed and their ISS-24 residency began under the command of Skvortsov. On June 18, they were joined on the ISS by the Soyuz TMA-19 crew who became the prime ISS-25 crew after this trio departed. By now, regular rota­tion of crews had become a feature of station operations and one result of its frequency and seemingly routine nature was that these activities dropped down the news-reporting pecking order outside of the space community.

This of course reflects a safe, regular, and consistent period of flight operations, but does not serve to promote the program to the outside world. It is in this situation that the official websites, new reports, and support information from the partner agencies have to champion the program, after such a long time in development and construction. Up on orbit, the promotion of the program through outreach and educational activities is as important as the baseline science, while the crews were also still hard at work finishing the assembly and completing the transformation of the station into the fully functioning research facility it was intended to be. This work has been aided by the growing phenomena of social

image74

Fresh supplies are always welcome on the ISS. Expedition 23 commander Kotov and flight engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson enjoy receiving fresh fruit and vegetables during their residency.

media, in part thanks to the regular blogs, tweets, and messages from the crews on board the station.

During this residency, the crew continued the Russian science work begun by the earlier crews, with 363 planned sessions for 42 experiments, of which only two were new investigations. In the ISS-23 phase, over 114 hours of crew experiment time was manifested, with a further 20 hours 15 minutes planned during the ISS-24 phase. The change from assembly to research was becoming more evident with each new expedition, and the subtitle on the ISS-23/24 NASA Press Kit stated that this expedition would include “Science for Six”. Therefore, in the U. S. segment there would be 130 investigations from 45 new experiments, as well as those ongoing from earlier expeditions with 8 experiments specific to its role as a U. S. National Laboratory and a further 55 investigations from the international partner agencies.

After the docking at Poisk on April 4, the next couple of months proved to be busy prior to the departure of the ISS-22/23 crew in June and the commencement of the ISS-24 phase. Just three days after the TMA-18 crew had arrived at the station, STS-131 arrived aboard Discovery, which docked at the Harmony Node with more supplies. Then, in May STS-132 delivered the Russian Rassvet module.

With the science work, routine maintenance, and housekeeping, work associated with the Progress resupply craft, and the relocation of accumulated logistics, the new crew had plenty to keep them occupied during the first half of their residency. As a result, light duties were planned for the three crew members until the rest of the ISS-24 crew arrived.

Following the arrival of the TMA-19 crew, the two crews soon completed post-docking safety checks and drills and began an increased science program. On June 28, while the TMA-19 crew relocated their Soyuz from the aft part of Zvezda to the Rassvet module, the TMA-18 crew remained inside the station. On July 1, Progress M-04M was undocked from the station, to be replaced on July 4 by Progress M-06M. The 2-day delay in the docking was caused by a loss of a telemetry lock on M-06M, but its second approach occurred without incident.

Diversity featured in most of the routine operations on the station, with crews working in different modules to cope with the increased science research, mainten­ance, and housekeeping duties in the Russian and U. S. segments as well as in the Columbia and Kibo laboratories. On July 11, the crew recorded a partial solar eclipse across the world while continuing their preparations for a series of EYAs.

On July 16, Progress М-ОбМ completed a 17 min 45 s reboost to the ISS, increasing its altitude by 2.3 miles (3.07 km). This was necessary to provide the best conditions for docking the next Progress and to ensure the safe return of TMA-18. During July 15-24, the crews observed the 35th anniversary of the joint U. S./U. S.S. R. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission.

Three EYAs were planned in July and August, from both U. S. and Russian airlocks. The first EVA of the expedition from the Russian segment, by Yurchikhin and Kornienko, took place on July 27 from Pirs. During the 6h 42 min excursion, the cosmonauts replaced several items of equipment and visually inspected the exterior of the Russian segment.

The focus now switched to a series of EVAs from the U. S. segment by Wheelock and Caldwell. The first of these took place on August 7 and lasted a record 8 hours 3 minutes—the longest ISS-based EVA and the sixth longest space walk in history. Unfortunately, they failed in their primary goal to remove and replace the ammonia pump module, falling behind the timeline when one of the four coolant fines became stuck. They loosened the stuck valve, but could not totally disconnect the unit as they approached the end of the EVA. An issue with leaking ammonia crystals also required additional cleanup time, leading to the unexpected record EVA duration. Wheelock later admitted that this EVA was “a tough one”.

The next EVA (August 11, 7h 26 min) focused upon removal of the fluid coolant fine that had leaked during the first EVA. Using brute force, Wheelock closed and removed the fine safely. The pair then disconnected the defunct assembly from the truss and installed it on a payload bracket located on the Mobile Base Assembly. The third EVA (August 16, 7h 20 min) from Quest featured the installation of a spare ammonia pump module on the SI truss. The three U. S. segment EVAs totaled 22 hours 49 minutes, and with these excursions completed it was back to the science.

September saw the TMA-18 crew prepare for their return to Earth. A change – of-command ceremony was conducted on September 22, during which Skvortsov handed over command of the ISS to Doug Wheelock. After a short, 24 h delay due to an erroneous signal, Soyuz TMA-18 undocked on September 25. Following a nominal reentry, Soyuz TMA-18 landed some 3 hours 20 minutes after undock­ing from the station. During a mission of 176 days the crew had resided aboard the station for approximately 174 days. Two days were flown aboard the Soyuz getting to and from the facility. Of the 171 days in residency, 59 days were as part of the ISS-23 expedition and 112 days as the prime ISS-24 expedition. They also spent three days as the outgoing crew prior to undocking from the station.

Milestones

274th manned space flight 111th Russian manned space flight 104th manned Soyuz flight 18th manned Soyuz TMA mission 22nd ISS Soyuz mission (22S)

23/24th ISS resident crew

Record longest ISS-based EVA (August 7, 8 h 3 min)

Caldwell-Dyson celebrates her 41st birthday (August 14); this was her second birthday spent in space having marked her 38th birthday during STS-118 in 2007

Подпись:

Подпись: STS-131
Подпись: 2010-012A April 5, 2010 LC39A, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. April 20, 2010 Runway 33, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. OV-103 Discovery/ET-13 5/SRBs BI-142/SSME: #1 2045, #2 2060, #3 2054 15 da 2h 47 min 10 s Discovery ISS-19A (MPLM, LMC), ISS logistics resupply mission

Flight crew

POINDEXTER, Alan Goodwin, 48, USN, NASA commander, second mission Previous mission: STS-122 (2008)

DUTTON Jr., James Patrick, 41, USAF, NASA pilot MASTRACCHIO, Richard Alan, 50, civilian, NASA mission specialist 1, third mission

Previous missions’. STS-106 (2000), STS-118 (2007)

METCALF-LINDENBURGER, Dorothy Marie, 34, civilian, NASA mission specialist 2

WILSON, Stephanie Diana, 43, civilian, NASA mission specialist 3, third mission

Previous missions’. STS-121 (2006), STS-120 (2007)

YAMAZAKI, Naoko, 39, civilian (Japanese), JAXA mission specialist 4 ANDERSON, Clayton Conrad, 51, civilian, NASA mission specialist 5, second mission

Previous missions’. STS-117/ISS-15/16/STS-120 (2007)

Flight log

With only four or five manifested Shuttle flights to the ISS before their retirement in 2011, the chances of carrying large items to and from the station on the orbiter were diminishing rapidly. Though the majority of the main hardware had been delivered (certainly on the U. S. segment), there still remained a few bulky items to be launched. Time seemed to have flown by since the start of construction just under a dozen years previously and now the countdown to assembly completion was ticking away. One of the main objectives for the payload capacity in these few remaining missions was to stock up the station with supplies and spares. Another was to remove as much unwanted equipment, waste, discarded items, and experi-

image75

Loadmaster Naoko Yamazaki works in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) linked to the ISS during the Discovery mission.

 

ment results as possible to free up the internal volume of the station while the Shuttle’s large load capacity was still available. On this mission, therefore, Discov­ery was carrying the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), which was filled with about 8 tons of supplies and hardware. It would return to Earth with valuable experiment results and samples, unwanted equipment, and as much trash as possible.

As with most previous flights, final preparations for the mission began with the arrival of Discovery back at KSC following its last mission. Two weeks after landing in California at the end of the STS-128 mission in September 2009, Discovery was returned to the Cape. Initial inspections conducted inside the OPF revealed relatively few issues that needed to be addressed in processing for the next mission. Having the MPLM as the primary payload made the preflight processing somewhat easier as well, as the logistics carrier would be installed in the payload bay when Discovery was on the pad.

The stacking of the twin SRBs began in early October and the ET had been mated with the boosters by late November. Everything was ready for the move of Discovery across to the VAB but the weather refused to play ball, with exception­ally cold temperatures being recorded. As a result, the move was delayed until February 22. The mated stack was then moved out to Pad 39A on March 3. The delay shifted the planned launch from March 18 to April 4 but this happened to be the Easter weekend. This was impractical for launch teams, so April 5 was chosen instead. This also gave the new residents on the station, who were sched­uled to arrive via Soyuz TMA-18 on April 4, additional time to acclimatize to their new home before the Shuttle arrived.

Launchpad preparations proceeded smoothly, with the MPLM placed on board Discovery on March 19. After an on-time launch on April 5, 2010, Discovery was back in orbit within 8 minutes to begin a 2-day chase to station. Docking occurred on April 7. When the hatches were opened and the familiar ceremonies observed, the mission was already adding new milestones to the history books. For the first time, four women were in space at the same time and now they were all aboard the same spacecraft. Two Japanese astronauts were also flying together for the first time as well. The orbiter crew also included the final rookies that would fly on a Shuttle mission—Metcalf-Lindenburger, Yamazaki, and Dutton.

Nine days of joint activities were planned following the docking. The MPLM was moved to the Earth-facing port on Harmony on April 7 for unloading. The loadmaster on the crew, in charge of moving the 17,0001b (7711.20 kg) of cargo between the spacecraft and the station, was Yamazaki. With cargo floating both ways, she would be kept very busy during her stay on board the station.

The major elements of cargo transferred were a Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System Rack, a Window Operational Research Facility, an ExPRESS Rack and Zero-G Storage Racks, Resupply Storage Racks, the final four resident crew sleeping quarters (intended for installation in Harmony), the third Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer, and equipment for a new water production system. Other, smaller items of equipment, supplies, and stores were also trans­ferred. With Leonardo emptied, the cargo intended for return to Earth was loaded back into the MPLM.

While work continued inside the station, the crew was also occupied outside, with Anderson and Mastracchio completing three EVAs totahng 20 hours 17 minutes. The first of these (April 9, 6h 27 min) began the work of exchanging an old Ammonia Tank Assembly (with a mass of 1,8001b or 816.48 kg) with a new unit. This took up most of the EVA timeline, but the two men worked efficiently and were able to also repair a Rate Gyro Assembly and retrieve a Material Experiment Exposure Device from the exterior of the Japanese module. The following day was a planned rest day, during which the crew were informed that their mission would be extended by 24 hours to facilitate the RMS inspection of the heat shield while docked with the station instead of after undocking. This was due to a failed Ku-band communication antenna on the orbiter.

The second EVA (April 11, 7 h 26 min) continued the work on the Ammonia Tank Assembly. Despite some difficulty with the installation of the hold-down bolts, the pair were able to complete most of their tasks, with just a few delayed to their third space walk. Electrical cables were connected but the ammonia and nitrogen lines were not. Two micromaterial debris shields were retrieved for analysis back on Earth.

The crew rest day of April 12 was also the 49th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight and the 29th anniversary of the first Shuttle flight. These events were noted in communication sessions with ground control centers, one of which featured a call from Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. The final EVA (April 13, 6 h 24 min) began with the tasks carried over from EVA 2, plus the return of the old Ammonia Tank into the Shuttle’s payload bay. The crew then completed several smaller tasks before winding up the exterior activities for the mission.

In the closing four days of the docked phase, the joint crews completed the relocation of cargo, returning the refilled MPLM back into the payload bay on April 16. They also held press conferences and enjoyed a day off. The undocking on April 17, after 10 days 5 hours 8 minutes of joint operations, was followed shortly afterwards by the traditional fly-around maneuver before the orbiter departed from the vicinity of the orbital complex.

Discovery flew a descending node reentry on April 20 and, in the daylight hours, took the orbiter over most of the continental U. S.A. This profile had been flown only once before (on STS-120 in 2007) since the loss of Columbia in 2003, but it was a journey that afforded the flight deck crew a spectacular panorama as they approached the landing site in Florida.

Milestones

275th world manned space flight 161st U. S. manned space flight 33rd Shuttle ISS mission 131st Shuttle flight 38th Discovery flight 12th Discovery ISS flight 10 th and final round trip MPLM flight 7 th Leonardo MPLM flight First time three females fly on same Shuttle mission

First time four females in space at same time (with ISS resident crew member Caldwell-Dyson)

First time four females on the ISS at same time First time two JAXA astronauts in space at same time First time two JAXA astronauts on the ISS same time

Dutton, Metcalf-Lindburger, and Yamazaki become the final rookies to fly on a Shuttle

Подпись:

Подпись: STS-132
Подпись: 2010-019A May 14, 2010 LC39A, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. May 26, 2010 Runway 33, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida, U.S.A. OV-104 Atlantis/ET-136/SRB BI-143/SSME: #1 2052, #2 2051, #3 2047 11 da 18 h 29 min 9 s Atlantis ISS-ULF4 (Russian Mini Research Module 1 (MRM1), ICC-VLD)

Flight crew

HAM, Kenneth Todd, 45, USN, NASA commander, second mission Previous mission: STS-124 (2008)

ANTONELLI, Dominic Anthony, 42, USN, NASA pilot, second mission Previous mission: STS-119 (2009)

REISMAN, Garrett Erin, 42, civilian, NASA mission specialist 1, second mission

Previous mission: STS-123/ISS-16/17/STS-124 (2008)

GOOD, Michael Timothy, 47, USAF, NASA mission specialist 2, second mission

Previous mission: STS-125 (2010)

BOWEN, Stephen George, 46, USN, NASA mission specialist 3, second mission Previous mission: STS-126 (2008)

SELLERS, Piers John, 55, civilian, NASA mission specialist 4, third mission Previous missions: STS-112 (2002), STS-121 (2006)

Flight log

The STS-132 mission was significant in that the primary payload was not American, but the Russian-built Mini Research Module-1 (MRM-1), also known as Rassvet (“Dawn”). This module was to be installed on to the lower (nadir, Earth-facing) port of Zarya. The secondary payload was the second Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), packed with further spare supplies and equipment.

Inside the YAB, the External Tank was attached to the twin SRBs on March 29. The rollover of Atlantis to the assembly building on April 13 recorded only 22 problems being tracked since the orbiter’s return from STS-129. The payload arrived at the pad inside the payload canister on April 15. Rollout to the pad had

image76

Rassvet (“Dawn”), the Russian-built Mini Research Module-1 (MRM-1), is seen (at right) attached to Zarya.

been scheduled for April 19, but bad weather delayed transfer until late on April 21, with the stack arriving after a 6.5 h journey in the early hours of April 22. The payload was installed in the cargo bay of the orbiter three days later.

Atlantis blasted olf from KSC on time with an all-veteran crew aboard. Just over eight minutes later, the flight entered orbit to begin the chase to station. The following day was taken up with an RMS inspection of the heat shield and preparing the EVA suits and equipment for the planned space walks. Prior to docking, the now traditional backflip maneuver was completed for visual checking and imagery by the station crew. Atlantis docked at the PMA-2 port of Harmony on May 16, less than a month after Discovery had departed at the end of mission STS-131. Two hours later, both crews were inside the station preparing to embark on a week of joint activities.

The Integrated Cargo Carrier was transferred to the station by Canadarm2 and placed on the Mobile Transporter. This unit was packed with spares and equipment for installation during the three EVAs. The unit also held spares designed to support the life of the station towards (and hopefully beyond) 2020. These included a spare Ku-band antenna and truss, six NiH batteries, and spare hardware components for the Dextre manipulator system.

The three EVAs logged 21 hours 20 minutes, with three astronauts (Reisman, Bowen, and Good) completing two space walks each. The first EVA was by Bowen and Reisman (May 17, 7h 25 min) and featured a number of hardware installations, including a space-to-ground Ku-band antenna on the station truss and a new tool platform for Dextre. There was time at the end of the EVA for a get-ahead task, with the crew loosening several bolts holding the batteries that would be exchanged over the next two space walks.

On May 18, the Rassvet module was grappled by the RMS, handed over to the space station RMS, and then attached permanently to the nadir port on Zarya. The Rassvet module features eight workstations inside its pressurized com­partment. It was designed for a variety of scientific experiment operations and research. Taking advantage of the payload and launch capacity of the Shuttle, the Rassvet had 1.5 tons of cargo, supplies, and scientific gear for relocation to the U. S. segment packed inside. The Russians reported that the scientific research to be conducted in the new module included developing technologies, biological sciences, fluid physics, and educational research.

The second EVA (May 19, 7h 9 min) was by Bowen and Good, who began by releasing a snagged cable on the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). The pair then began the exchange of five of the six batteries, a process known as “shepherding”, with the old batteries intended for return to Earth. The team then completed a couple of small chores before wrapping up their excursion. The next day, cosmonauts Kotov and Skvortsov opened the inner hatches and entered Rassvet for the first time.

The final EVA (May 21, 6h 46 min) by Good and Reisman was primarily devoted to completing the exchange of batteries. The original units had a design life of six and a half years but had been in operation for nine years. Prior to closing out the space walk, the astronauts left a Power Data Grapple Fixture in the Quest airlock and prepared the ICC for return to the payload bay of Atlantis, which occurred on May 22. In total, Bowen accumulated 14 hours 34 minutes in two space walks, Reisman logged 14 hours 11 minutes on his two EVAs, and Good completed his two excursions in 13 hours 55 minutes.

Following a couple of rest days, completion of the transfer of cargo signaled the end of joint work with the station crew. During their week of joint activities, the crews had moved over 2,8791b (1305.91 kg) of cargo into the station and some 8,2291b (3732.67 kg) back into Atlantis. The orbiter was undocked on May 23 after 7 days 0 hours 54 minutes. Following the normal fly-around to photograph the station and Shuttle, the two vehicles separated, allowing the Atlantis crew to prepare for the return home and the station crew to resume their science program.

On May 26, Atlantis swooped to a spectacular landing on Runway 33 at the Cape. Following the visit of Atlantis, the station had grown to a mass of 815,0001b (369,684kg) and was now 94% complete by volume and over 98% complete by mass.

Although this was originally to be the final flight of Atlantis, there were plans to prepare the orbiter to be a launch-on-need rescue vehicle (designated STS-335) for STS-134, then scheduled as the final Shuttle mission of the program. However, discussions were ongoing over using the additional hardware for one more flight (STS-13 5). NASA had already bought an extra ET and SRB and needed only Congressional agreement and funding to mount the extra mission.

Milestones

276th world manned space flight 162nd U. S. manned space flight 34th Shuttle ISS mission 132nd Shuttle flight 32nd Atlantis flight 11th Atlantis ISS flight

Only Russian ISS segment component launched by U. S. Shuttle

SOYUZ TMA-05M

Подпись: International designator Launched Launch site Landed Landing site Launch vehicle Duration Call sign Objectives 2012-037A July 15, 2012

Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of

Kazakhstan

November 19, 2012

Northern Kazakhstan landing zone (near to the town of Arkalyk)

Soyuz-FG (R-7) (serial number Л15000-042),

Soyuz TMA-05M (serial number 706)

126 da 23 h 13 min 27 s Agat

ISS resident crew transport (ISS-32/33), Soyuz 31S

Flight crew

MALENCHENKO, Yuri Ivanovich, 50, Russian Federation Air Force, RSA ISS-32/33 flight engineer, Soyuz TMA-M commander; fifth mission Previous missions-. Soyuz TM-19 (1994), STS-101 (2000), Soyuz TMA-2 (2003), Soyuz TMA-11 (2007)

WILLIAMS, Sunita Lyn, 46, NASA, U. S.A., ISS-32 flight engineer, ISS-33 commander, Soyuz TMA-M flight engineer, second mission Previous mission-. STS-116/ISS/STS-117 (2006/2007)

HOSHIDE, Akihiko, 43, JAXA, (Japanese) ISS-32/33 flight engineer, Soyuz TMA-M flight engineer, second mission Previous mission-. STS-124 (2008)

Flight log

In the Expedition 33 preflight Mission Summary, the flight was described as “action-packed”, including the arrival of the first commercial resupply mission and research across a variety of experiments including muscle atrophy. Expedition 33 would continue to expand the research program, looking into the radiation levels aboard the outpost and the effects of microgravity on the human spinal cord. The Agricultural Camera would investigate dynamic processes on Earth (such as melting glaciers), seasonal changes, and how the ecosystem is affected by human intervention. The crew experiment program would encompass further experiments in human research, biological and physical sciences, development of new technologies, Earth observations and education.

Calling the expedition “action-packed” may have been stretching the description a little at the start, but the crew was certainly never at a loss for

image90

Expedition 33 commander competes in the first triathlon in space.

things to occupy their time. With difficulties encountered on their first EVA, there was soon plenty of unplanned “action” for them to deal with. Their mission emblem description explained that the work on the ISS was “heading into the future”. Now that the space station was almost complete and the Shuttle retired, Expedition 33 was part of the push for new goals in space, even though it was not exactly clear where those goals were heading.

The launch occurred on the 37th anniversary of the launch of Soyuz 19 and Apollo 18 under the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, the first joint U. S.S. R./U. S. manned space flight program. This was not lost on the crew or officials recalling the event in their pre and postlaunch speeches. The arrival at the space station on July 17 was also exactly 37 years after the docking of Soyuz and Apollo and gave rise to further celebrations and comments on how far the joint programs had progressed since that time. The Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft was docked success­fully with the Rassvet MRM1 module and, after the hatch opening, normal safety briefings, and welcoming ceremonies, the three new crew members were soon unloading equipment from the Soyuz, powering down their spacecraft, and getting up to speed on the various science and research activities across the station.

For most of their first two months on board the station, the trio were designated flight engineers as part of the ISS-32 Expedition. They were involved with activities associated with the Progress, HTV, and ATV resupply craft, as well as various science activities and general housekeeping duties. As August pro­gressed, Malenchenko assisted Padalka on a Russian segment EVA from Pirs (August 20), while Williams and Hoshide prepared for their own space walk from the Quest airlock using U. S. EMU suits.

That EVA (August 30, 8h 17 min) became the third longest space walk in history. The main objective of the EVA was to install a new Main Bus Switching Unit (MBSU) to the SO truss segment. This unit was one of four which routed electricity from the solar arrays on the truss to the station. After removing the failed unit, the astronauts found it difficult to install its replacement, chiefly because securing the bolts proved to be much harder than anticipated. Indeed, they could not secure one particularly stubborn bolt, so they used a long-duration tie down tether to secure the unit temporarily until a second EVA could be undertaken to finish the task. Unfortunately, with the MBSU out of service and two arrays out of action, the power available on the ISS was reduced by 25%. The EVA crew was able to connect one of two power cables in preparation for the arrival of the new Russian module, but the replacement of a camera on Canadarm2 also had to be postponed. Ironically, an unconnected drop-off of the station’s power system on September 1 meant that a third panel went off-line, reducing the station to five out of eight power channels for the first time in several years. The second EVA, on September 5 (6 h 28 min) was more successful, with the crew able to secure the MBSU and install the Canadarm2 camera.

On September 15, the Altair ISS-32 crew handed over command of the station to the Agat ISS-33 crew shortly before departing the station and ending their 125-day mission. Once again, the resident crew compliment was down to just three. Commander Sunita Williams became only the second female station expedition commander in 12 years and over 30 expeditions. The formal start of ISS-33 operations occurred when Soyuz TMA-04M undocked from the station to begin their return to Earth.

The handover occurred on the same weekend that Williams became the first person to complete a triathlon in space. After “participating” in the Boston Marathon during her first stay on the station in April 2008, Williams “participated” in the Nautica Malibu Triathlon, held in Southern California on September 16. Orbiting some 240 miles (386 km) above the other competitors, she used special exercise equipment designed to keep astronauts fit during their mission and specially formulated to simulate the triathlon experience in space. Using a treadmill and stationary bike, she ran for 4 miles and cycled for 18 miles. To simulate “swimming”, Williams used the Advanced Resistive Exerciser Device (ARED), which allowed her to complete weightlifting and resistance exercises that approximated swimming in microgravity for “half a mile”. Her total time taken for the three disciplines was 1 hour 48 minutes 33 seconds.

The science work gathered pace for the crew through the rest of the month. Other tasks included preparing ATV-3 for undocking from the station. This was accomplished on September 28, with the vessel completing its destructive descent in the atmosphere on October 4. On October 10, the SpaceX Dragon CRS-1 cargo ship (which had launched on October 7) was grasped by the station’s RMS and attached to the Harmony Node, making it the first operational commercial resup­ply mission to arrive at the space station. On board were 8821b (400 kg) of cargo to replenish supplies at the station. The crew loaded about 1,6001b (726 kg) of cargo for return to Earth when the Dragon spacecraft detached from the station on October 28. It splashed down in the Pacific about six hours after undocking.

The next event was the arrival, on October 25, of the other three Expedition 33 crew members on board Soyuz TMA-6M. They were to take over from Wil­liams and her colleagues in November and continue as the Expedition 34 trio for the remainder of the year. With the new crew safely docked and integrated into the main residency program the emphasis shifted to preparations for the next EVA planned for November 1. On this EVA Sunita Williams and Akihiko Hoshide were allocated 6 hours and 30 minutes to repair an ammonia leak on one of the station’s port side radiators. The ammonia, which is circulated through the external thermal control system of the orbital facility, is used to cool the electronics and other systems.

The November 1 EVA (designated U. S. EVA-20) performed by Williams and Hoshide was accomplished in 6h 38 min accomplishing all the assigned and one get-ahead tasks. The pair completed both parts of the EAS (Early Ammonia System) jumper reconfiguration; demated the PVR 2B FQDC (Photovoltaic Radiator Flight Quick Disconnect Coupling); removed the cover from the spare TTCR (Trailing Thermal Control Radiator), then released and deployed the device. They also took documentary photography of the IEA (Integrated Equip­ment Assembly) and the PVR, as well as conducting the get-ahead task of inspecting the port SARJ (Solar Array Joint).

With the EVA completed the “Agat” trio prepared to hand over command of the station to the “Kazbek” crew and end their residency. Formal handover of the command of the ISS from Williams to Kevin Ford took place on November 17. The official ending of the ISS-33 phase and start of the ISS-34 phase took place on

November 19 with the undocking of Soyuz TMA-05M. The residency had accumulated 127 day in space with approximately 60 days spent as part of the ISS-32 expedition and then 63 days as the ISS-33 expedition.

Milestones

289th manned space flight 120th Russian manned space flight 112th manned Soyuz 31st ISS Soyuz mission (31S)

5th Soyuz TMA-M flight 32/33rd ISS resident crew

Williams celebrated her 47th birthday in space (September 19)

Williams becomes only the second female ISS expedition commander Williams also surpasses Whitson’s EVA record for a female astronaut setting a new cumulative EVA record of 50 h 40 min (seven EVAs)

Williams becomes the first person to complete a “triathlon” in space’ on September 16, adding the achievement to her space marathon run completed in April 2008