General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

F-106A and F-106B

Origin: General Dynamics/Convair. USA.

Type: (F-106A) single-seat all-weather interceptor; (F-106B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.500lb (11,130kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney J75-17 two – shaft afterburning turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 3J1n (11 -67m); length (both) 70ft 8j|in (21 -55m); height 20ft 3Jin (6-1 5m).

Weights: (A) empty 23,646lb (10,725kg); maximum loaded 38,2501 b (17,350kg).

Performance: (Both) maximum speed 1,525mph (2455km/h, Mach 2-31); initial climb about 30,000ft (9144m)/min; service ceiling 57,000ft (17,375m); range with drop tanks (A) 1,700 miles (2735km); combat radius, about 600 miles (966km).

Armament: One internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel cannon; internal weapon bay for air-to-air guided missiles, with typical load comprising one AIR-2A and one AIR-2G Genie rockets and two each of AIM-4E, -4F or 4G Falcons.

History: First flight (aerodynamic prototype) 26 December 1956; (F-106В) 9 April 1958, production delivery July 1 959 to July 1 960.

User: USA (ANG, USAF).

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Development: Originally designated F-102B, the 106 was a natural development of the F-102A with new engine and avionics. By redesigning from scratch to the supersonic Area Rule the fuselage was made much neater and more efficient than that of the earlier aircraft and the more power­ful engine resulted in a peak speed approximately twice as fast. The Hughes MA-1 fire control, though no bulkier or heavier than that of the 102, was far more capable and integrated with the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defence system covering the continental United States in an

automatic manner, the pilot acting as a supervisory manager. Though bought in modest numbers, the 106 has had an exceptionally long life­span in the USAF Aerospace Defense Command front-line inventory. At several times the Improved Manned Interceptor program (IMI) has pointed the need for a replacement with longer-range look-down radar and long – range missiles, and much research has been done with the Lockheed YF-12 (described later). At present no replacement, other than the multi­role F-1 5, is in sight and the F-106 and tandem-seat F-106B force (respec­tively numbering originally 277 and 63) will continue until at least 1980. They have been repeatedly updated, with improved avionics, infra-red sensors, drop tanks, flight refuelling and a Gatling gun.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

Left: An F-106A Delta Dart of the 460th FIS, a unit later withdrawn from the Aerospace Defense Command active inventory. Despite repeated updating these well-liked interceptors are beginning to show their age, and plans dating back to the late 1960s for their replacement involved special versions of F-15 and F-14.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Left: A recent photograph of one of the remaining F-106A all- weather interceptors, which equip six home-based Air Divisions each comprising a single 18-aircraft squadron.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

F-15A, F-15B, F-15C, F-15D

Origin: McDonnell Aircraft, division of McDonnell Douglas Corp, St Louis, USA.

Type: Single-seat all-weather air-superiority fighter: (TF) dual-control trainer.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney F100-100 two-shaft augmented turbo­fans, each rated at 14,8711b (6744kg) thrust dry and 23,8101b (10,800kg) with maximum augmentation.

Dimensions: Span 42ft 9|in (13-05m); length 63ft 9jin (19-46m): height 18ft 7iin (5-68m).

Weights: Empty, about 28,000lb (12,700kg): loaded (F or TF, clean) 39,500lb: (F with four Sparrows) about 40,500lb, (three 600gal drop tanks) 54,000lb, (three tanks and two FAST packs) 66,000lb (29,937kg) Performance: Maximum speed (low) over 921 mph (1482km/h, Mach 1-22), (high) over 1.650mph (2660km/h. Mach 2-5): initial climb, over 50,000ft (1 5,240m)/min: service ceiling, over 70,000ft (21,000m): range on internal fuel, about 1,200 miles (1930km): ferry range with maximum fuel, over 3,700 miles (5955km).

Armament: One 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun with 960 rounds: four AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles on corners of fuselage and four AIM-9 ■Sidewinder air-to-air missiles on lateral rails at upper level of wing pylons: centreline pylon stressed for 4,5001b (2041kg) for 600 gal tank, recon­naissance pod or any tactical weapon: inner wing pylons stressed for 5,1001b (2313kg) for any tanks or weapon: outer wing pylons stressed for 1,0001b (454kg) for ECM pods or equivalent ordnance load. Normal external load limit, with or without FAST packs, 12,0001b (5443kg).

History: First flight 27 July 1972: (TF) 7 July 1973: service delivery March 1974 (Cat. II test), November 1974 (inventory).

Users: Israel, Japan, Saudi Arabia, USA (Air Force).

Development: Emergence of the MiG-23 and -25 in 1 967 accentuated the belief of the US Air Force that it was falling behind in true fighter aircraft. Studies for an FX (a new air-superiority fighter) were hastened and, after a^

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Above: Examining the flat-plate antenna of the APG-63 radar.

Left: Landing gears begin to extend from an F-15A of the Heyl Ha’Avir (Israeli air force) carrying neither missiles nor tanks.

Below: Peel-off for landing by Eagles of the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing USAF at Langley AFB, Virginia (note TAC tail badges).

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
These USAF Eagles on detachment to an Arctic base were among the first to be seen with the painted radome which, after prolonged research, is now becoming standard. Low-visibility paint is now used over almost the entire aircraft, the problems with the radome including resistance to erosion by rain and hail, proper adhesion to a slightly flexible surface and avoidance of any degradation of radar performance. It is probable that similar coatings will become standard on other interceptors including RAF Phantoms.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

major competition. McDonnell’s team at St Louis was selected to build the new aircraft. The Air Force funded a new engine, won by Pratt & Whitney, and a new 25mm gun using caseless ammunition (abandoned after difficult development). The Eagle has emerged as probably the best fighter in the world, with thrust at low levels considerably greater than clean gross weight, a fixed wing of no less than 530 sq ft area, a single seat and an advanced Hughes X-band pulse-doppler radar. Though planned as an uncompromised machine for interception and air combat the Eagle also has formidable attack capability over intercontinental ranges. Undoubtedly its chief attributes are its combat manoeuvrability (it can outfly almost any other US machine without using afterburner) and the advanced automaticity of its radar, head-up display, weapon selectors and quick-fire capability. Internal fuel capacity of 11,2001b can be almost trebled by adding a FAST (fuel and sensor, tactical) pack on each side, a "conformal pallet" housing 10,0001b of fuel and target designators or weapons. Very extensive electronic systems for attack and defence, far beyond any standard previously seen in a fighter, are carried. A total USAF buy of 729 aircraft is planned, and though this has not changed since early in the programme the benefits of the "learning curve" (which reduces costs as production continues) are being much more than nullified by cost-inflation. The unit price of $7-5 million of 1975 had been more than doubled by late 1976 to over $1 6-7 million, with a figure in excess of $18 million predicted by Congress. Thus the 729 aircraft will now cost at least $12-2 billion, a figure rising by $500-700m each quarter. Nevertheless the outstanding qualities of this superbly capable fighter com­mend it to many governments; Israel has bought 21 new Eagles plus four reworked development aircraft, costing with support $600 million, and in mid-1976 the F-15 was chosen by Japan as the FX for the Air Self-Defence Force. The F-15B is a dual trainer, and the F-15C and D have increased internal fuel. FAST packs and new programmable radars with much – augmented capability

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Above: Two F-15As of the USAF Tactical Air Command on a ferry mission with centreline but no wing drop tanks.


Below left: An F-15A of the 1st TFW at Langley: other USAF units include the 57th (Nellis), 58th (Luke), 36th (Bitburg), 49th (Holloman), 33rd (Eglin) and 32nd TFS at Soersterburg.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 EagleAbove: Start of a training sortie at a TAC base in the USA. Before takeoff the pilot will pivot the engine inlets downwards as seen in the photograph at left to match their shape to the angle of attack.

Saab 37 Viggen

AJ37, JA37, SF37, SH37 and Sk37

Origin: Saab-Scania AB. Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (AJ) single-seat all-weather attack: (JA) all-Weather fighter: (SF) armed photo-reconnaissance: (SH) armed sea surveillance: (SK) dual trainer.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM8 (licence-built Pratt & Whitney JT8D two-shaft turbofan redesigned in Sweden for Mach 2 and fitted with SFA afterburner): (AJ. SF, SH and Sk) 25,9701b (11,790kg) RM8A: (JA) 28,086lb (12,750kg) RM8B.

Dimensions: Span of main wing 34ft 9^in (10’6m): length (AJ) 53ft 5jin (1 6-3m): (JA37 with probe) 53ft 11 in: height 18ft 4J-in (5-6m).

Weights: Not disclosed, except AJ37 "normal armament" gross weight of 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) about 1,320mph (2135km/h, Mach 2), or Mach 1 -1 at sea level: initial climb, about 40,000ft (12,200m)/ min (time from start of take-off run to 32,800ft—10,000m. = 100sec): service ceiling, over 60,000ft (18,300m): tactical radius with external stores (not drop tanks), hi-lo-hi profile, over 620 miles (1000km).

Armament: Seven pylons (option: nine) for aggregate external load of 13,2001b (6000kg), including Rb04E or Rb05A missiles for attack, and Rb27, Rb28 and Rb324 missiles for defence. In addition the JA37 has a 30mm Oerlikon KCA gun and will carry "new long – and short-range missiles for air-to-air interception": Skyflash is being evaluated.

History: First flight 8 February 1967: (production AJ) 23 February 1971: service delivery (AJ) June 1971.

User: Sweden (RSAF).

Saab 37 Viggen
Development: Yet again blazing a trail ahead of other nations, the Royal Swedish Air Board planned System 37 in 1958—61 as a standardized weapon system to be integrated with the Stril 60 air-defence environment of radars, computers and displays. Included in the system is a standard platform (in this case a supersonic manned aircraft) produced in five

Saab 37 Viggen

Three-view of JA37, with side view (centre) of SK37 trainer.

versions each tailored to a specific task. Thanks to a unique configuration with a 400 sq ft wing preceded by a canard foreplane with trailing-edge flaps, the Viggen (Thunderbolt) has outstanding STOL (short take-off and landing) performance and excellent turn radius at all speeds. Efficient and prolonged operations are possible from narrow strips 500m (1,640ft) in length, such as stretches of highway. Equipment in all versions includes headup display, autothrottle/speed control on approach, no-flare landing autopilot and thrust reverser. The AJ operates camouflaged in attack wings F7, F15 and F6. with production continuing in 1 977 on a mix of AJ, SF. SH ►

Now in service with the Flygvapen FI 3 wing at Norrkoping, the JA37 is an outstanding all-weather fighter, seen here with belly gun pod, instrumentation pod, two BAe Dynamics Sky Flash missiles and three Swedish-made RB24 Sidewinder missiles.

Saab 37 Viggen

Подпись: and Sk models. At the beginning of the year about 145 had been delivered of the total orders for 1 80 of these versions. During 1 976 Viggens in RSAF service were grounded until the cause of inflight structural (wing) failures had been fully explained and aircraft rectified. Apart from this the Viggen hasSaab 37 Viggenproved as outstanding as it looked on paper in the 1960s, and even today no other Western European aircraft can rival it for radar performance, flight performance and short field length in all weathers. The latest Viggen variant, the JA37, is considerably different, with a new engine, very powerful gun. UAP 1023 pulse-doppler radar, digital automatic flight control system and extremely advanced inertial measurement and central computer systems. The development effort for the JA37 rivals that for the complete original aircraft, but with the help of a fleet of special-purpose test aircraft (some new and most rebuilds of early AJ and other models) the JA was cleared for production in 1976. By the start of 1 977 most of the initial batch of 30 were on the line, and service delivery is due in 1978. Eventually 200 are to equip eight squadrons.

Saab 37 Viggen

Above: Afterburning takeoff of one of the original AJ37 attack aircraft.


Left: A display of weapons in front of an AJ37, with RB04E missiles on the aircraft.


Below: The SK37 is the tandem-seat dual­control trainer, able to carry AJ37 weapons.


Saab 37 ViggenSaab 37 Viggen

General Dynamics F-111

"TFX ", F-111 A to F-111F, EF-111A and FB-111A

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth (EF-111A, Grumman Aerospace), USA.

Type: Two-seat all-weather attack bomber: (EF) two-seat electronic warfare: (FB) two-seat strategic bomber.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney TF30 two-shaft afterburning turbofans, at following ratings: (F-111 A, C) TF30-3 at 18,5001b (8390kg): (D, E) TF30-9 at 19,6001b (8891 kg): (F) RF30-100 at 25,1001b (1 1,385kg): (FB) TF30-7 at 20,350lb (9230kg).

Dimensions: Span, 72-5° sweep (A, D, E, F) 31ft 11-yin (9-74m); (C, FB) 33ft 11 in (10-34m): span, 16° sweep (A, D, E. F) 63ft (19-2m); (C, FB) 70ft (21 -34m): length 73ft 6in (22 4m): height 17ft 1£in (5-22m). Weights: Empty (A, C) 46,1721b (20,943kg): (D, E, F) about 49,0001b (22,226kg): (FB) about 50,0001b (22,680kg): maximum loaded (A, 3) 91,5001b (41,500kg): (D, E, F) 99,000lb (44,906kg): (FB) 119,0001b (54,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean), Mach 2-2 at 35,000ft or above, or about 1,450mph (2335km/h): maximum speed at low level (clean) Mach 1 -2 or 800mph (1287km/h): maximum speed at maximum weight, subsonic at low level: service ceiling (clean) (A) 51,000ft (15,500m): (F) 60,000ft (18,290m): range on internal fuel (A, C) 3,1 65 miles (5093km). Armament: Internal bay for two 750lb (341kg) bombs or 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun: eight underwing pylons for total of 31,5001b (14,290kg) of stores, inner pylons swivelling with wing sweep and outer four being fixed and loaded only with wing at 1 6°.

History: First flight 21 December 1 964: service delivery June 1967: first F-111 F with -100 engine, May 1973: EF-111A (Grumman ECM conversion) 1977.

Users: Australia, US Air Force. continued►

General Dynamics F-111

Below: An unusual view of an F-111 E, an interim version basically similar to the original F-111A but with enlarged engine inlet ducts (for a more powerful version of the TF30 afterburning turbofan which was never fitted). The main unit equipped with this sub – type is the 20th TFW based at RAF Upper Heyford, in England. Aircraft in normal operational service have a black radome, unlike that of this aircraft which was on test missions in the United States. Even today the F-111 is the only true all-weather tactical aircraft in service, apart from the US Navy A-6.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: Three-view of the FB-111A strategic bomber version.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: A gaily-painted development prototype of the EF-111A all – weather electronic-warfare aircraft, with canoe (belly) and fin aerials for the ALQ-99 EW (Electronic Warfare) installation. The EF-111A programme is being handled chiefly by Grumman.

Below: Considerably more powerful than any other type of F-111, the F-111 F is an excellent aircraft in all respects. All the examples of this sub-type in combat duty are serving with the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Lakenheath. England, where this photograph was taken in 1979 during training missions.

General Dynamics F-111

General Dynamics F-111

Development: Developed to meet a bold Department of Defense edict that a common type of "fighter" called TFX should be developed to meet all future tactical needs of all US services, the F-111A proved both a world – beater and a great disappointment. Thrown into the public eye by acrimo­nious disagreement over which bidder should get the production contract, it then stayed in the news through being grosslyoverweight, up in drag and suffering from severe problems with propulsion, structure and systems. Eventually almost superhuman efforts cleared the F-111A for service, overcoming part of the range deficiency by a considerable increase in internal fuel. The RAAF bought 24 F-111C with long-span wings and stronger landing gear and took delivery after they had been nine years in storage. The RAF ordered 50 similar to the C but with updated avionics, but this deal was cancelled. Only 141 low-powered А-models were built, the US Navy F-111 В fighter was cancelled, and the next batch was 94 of the E type with Improved intakes and engines (20th Tac Ftr Wing at Upper Fleyford, England). Then came the 96 F-111D with improved avionics (27th TFW in New Mexico) and finally the superb F-11’1 F with redesigned P-100 engine of greatly increased thrust and cheaper avionics (366 TFW, in Idaho). The heavier FB-111A, with the ability to carry six AGM-69A SRAM missiles externally, was bought to replace the ES-58 and early B-52 models in Strategic Air Command. Cost-inflation cut the FB order from 210 back to 76. With several RF and ECM conversions the total programme amounted to 539 plus 23 development prototypes. To keep the line open a further 12 were authorised in 1974 to be built at a low rate until 1976. 1

In 1979 the only work on F-111s was structural improvement of aircraft in service and Grumman’s conversion of surplus F-111 As to EF-111A standard with the ALO tac-jamming system of the EA-6B Prowler but without extra crew. Despite lack of funds it is hoped to rebuild 40 aircraft of this type to equip two USAF squadrons. The EF will not carry weapons, and will direct other aircraft. No aircraft has ever had worse luck or a worse press, and in combat in South East Asia the sudden loss of three of the first six aircraft was eventually found to be due to a faulty weld in the tailplane power unit. In fact all models of the F-111 are valuable machines with great range and endurance, excellent reliability and great ability to hit a point target in a first-pass strike, even in blind conditions. These aircraft are bombers, with much greater power and weight than four-engined bombers of World War II. It was un­fortunate they were loosely launched as "fighters".

Left: Apart from the much older and probably more vulnerable B-52 the only American strategic bomber is the FB-111A, one of which is seen here about to take fuel from a KC-135 tanker. It is carrying its usual armament of four SRAM missiles on the external pylons; if necessary a further two can be accommodated in an internal bay plus two (rarely, four) more on additional wing pylons.

General Dynamics F-111General Dynamics F-111
Below : Since the early 1970s General Dynamics has been proposing ‘stretched’ versions of the FB-111A as a new strategic bomber for USAF Strategic Air Command. This artist’s impression shows the FB-111 H, with longer fuselage, much greater fuel capacity, bogie main landing gears and two General Electric F101 engines (the same as used in the cancelled B-1 bomber). It would have been an extremely formidable aircraft with much greater radius of action than the somewhat limited FB-111A but was never built.

McDonnell Douglas F-101 Voodoo

F-101 A, В and C and RF-101A to H

Origin: McDonnell Aircraft Co (division of McDonnell Douglas Corp), USA. Type: (A, C) day fighter-bomber: (B) all-weather interceptor: (RF) all – weather reconnaissance.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney J57 two-shaft turbojets with afterburner: (F-101 B) 14.9901b (6800kg) J57-53 or -55 (others) 14,8801b (6750kg) J57-13.

Dimensions: Span 39ft 8in (12’09m); length 67ft 4|in (20-55m): (RF) 69ft 3in: height 18ft (5’49m).

Weights: Empty (typical of all) 28,000lb (12,700kg): maximum loaded (B) 46,700lb (21,180kg): (all versions, overload 51,0001b, 23,133kg). Performance: Maximum speed (B) 1,220mph (1963km/h, Mach 1 -85): .(others, typical) 1,1 OOmph: initial climb (B) 17,000ft (51 80m)/min: service ceiling 52,000ft (1 5,850m): range on internal fuel (B) 1,550 miles (2500km): (others) 1,700 miles (2736km).

Armament: (B) three Falcon (usually AIM-4D) air-to-air missiles semi – submerged in underside, sometimes supplemented by two AIR-2A Genie nuclear rockets on fuselage pylons: (C) three 20mm M-39 cannon (provision for four, with Tacan removed) in fuselage: (RF) none. As built, all A and C and derivatives fitted with centreline crutch for 1 MT tactical nuclear store and wing pylons for two 2,000lb (907kg) bombs, four 680lb (310kg) mines or other ordnance.

History: First flight 29 September 1954: service delivery (A) May 1957: final delivery (B) March 1961.

Users: Canada, Taiwan, USA (ANG).

McDonnell Douglas F-101 Voodoo
McDonnell Douglas F-101 Voodoo

Development: By far the most powerful fighter of its day, the Voodoo was based on the XF-88 Voodoo prototype flown on 20 October 1948. Originally a long-range escort for Strategic Air Command, the F-101 A became a tactical attack machine: 50 were followed by 47 improved C models, all of which set records for accident-free operation and were con­verted to unarmed RF-101G and H for the Air National Guard, augmenting

McDonnell Douglas F-101 Voodoo

Above: RF-101 C with (bottom) side view of RF-101G.

McDonnell Douglas F-101 Voodoo
35 RF-101A and 1 66 RF-101C built earlier and used intensively at all levels in Vietnam. The В interceptor sacrificed fuel for a radar operator to work the MG-13 radar fire-control; 478 were built and converted to F-101F or dual-control TF-101 F for Air Defense Command (now Air National Guard). In 1961 66 ex-ADC aircraft were transferred to the RCAF as CF-101s; in 1970 the CAF exchanged the 58 survivors for 66 improved F and TF and they still serve as the only CAF all-weather fighters.

McDonnell Douglas F-101 VoodooLeft: A daytime recovery at a SE Asia base during the Vietnam war, in which the RF-101 C (illustrated) was even more important than its successor, the RF-4C from the same manufacturer. CF-101s continue in service.


Jaguar GR.1 and T.2, Jaguar A and E, and Jaguar International

Origin: SEPECAT. consortium formed by British Aerospace (ВАС) and Dassault-Breguet, France.

Type: (GR.1, A and International (I.)) single-seat all-weather attack: (T.2 and E) dual operational trainer.

Engines: Two Rolls-Royce/ТигЬотёса Adour two-shaft augmented к turbofans: (except I.) 7.305lb (3313kg) Adour 102: (I.) 8.000lb (3630kg) Adour 804.

Dimensions: Span 28ft 6in (869m); length (except T.2, E) 50ft 11 in (15 52m); (T.2, E) 53ft 11 in (16-42m): height 16ft 1 iin (4-92m). Weights: Empty, classified but about 1 5,0001b (6800kg): "normal take-off" (ie, internal fuel and some external ordnance) 23,0001b (10,430kg): maximum loaded 34,000lb (15,500kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (lo, some external stores) 820mph (1320km/h. Mach 1-1), (hi, some external stores) 1.055mph (1700km/h. Mach 1-6): climb and ceiling, classified: attack radius, no external fuel, hi-lo-hi with bombs. 507 miles (81 5km): ferry range 2,614 miles (4210km). Armament: (A, E) two 30mm DEFA 553 each with 150 rounds: five pylons for total external load of 10,0001b (4536kg): (GR.1) as above but guns two 30mm Aden: (T.2) as above but single Aden. (International) wide range of options including increased external loads.

History: First flight (E) 8 September 1968: (production E) 2 November 1971: (production GR.1) 11 October 1972: squadron delivery (E, A) May 1972, (GR, T) June 1973.

Users: Ecuador, France, India, Oman, UK (RAF).

Development: Developed jointly by ВАС in Britain and Dassault-Breguet in France, to meet a joint requirement of the Armee de Г Air and RAF, the



Above: Three-view of Jaguar GR.1 without stores.

Jaguar is a far more powerful and effective aircraft than originally planned and has already demonstrated unmatched capabilities in service. The original idea was a light trainer and close-support machine, with 1,3001b

continued ►



XZ358 was one of the last of the 202 Jaguars delivered to the Royal Air Force. It is a GR.1 multi-role single-seater, pictured here making an afterburning takeoff in clean condition. By late 1980 almost all the aircraft in service will be fitted with more powerful Mk 104 engines of the same thrust as the Mk 804 fitted to the Jaguar International export version.

weapon load, but with British pressure this was upgraded to today’s out­standing aircraft whose only marketing problem is the fact that the French partner prefers aircraft which appear to be all-French (yet. in fact, Dassault makes only the same proportion of the Mirage F1 as it does of the Jaguar, namely, about 50 per cent). Despite this unhappy political scene the sheer merit of the Jaguar, and the enthusiastic missionary work done by its operating units in the Armee de I’Air and RAF, is gradually winning valuable orders, beginning with Ecuador and Oman in 1974. Further sales are likely with the more powerful International version now flying. The two basic single­seat versions share a common airframe but are totally different in equipment. The French A model has a simple twin-gyro platform, doppler, and a basic navigation computer; in 1977 an Atlis laser pod was being added. The RAF GR.1 has inertial navigation, head-up display, projected map display, radar height, integrated nav/attack system and laser ranger, as well as com­prehensive ECM and option of a multi-sensor reconnaissance pod. All versions can have nose radar, refuelling probe and the option of overwing pylons for light dogfight missiles (Jaguar development aircraft have flown with Matra Magics in these positions). Thanks to a dynamic programme of engine development Jaguar users have the option of various increased- thrust Adours, including the Mk 804 (Adour 26) fitted to the basic Jaguar International, and the even more powerful Adour 56 and 58 (in the 10,0001b, 4500kg class) which will be available from 1980. It is the intention of the RAF to select one of the uprated engines and convert all Jaguar engines to this standard, to gain even better field length and flight performance with large mission loads. By 1977 some 300 aircraft had been delivered, and several new customers were engaged in contract negotiation.

SEPECAT JaguarRight: This Jaguar International is one of ten single – seaters (as illustrated) and two two-seaters equipping No 8 Sqn of the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force. This unit is normally based at Thumrayt, in Dhofar province, and is dedicated to long-range ground attack with various weapons and to air combat with Magic missiles on overwing pylons.

Below: Test firing of a Matra 550 Magic close-range air-to-air missile from special overwing pylons added to a Jaguar retained for research and trials programmes by British Aerospace Warton Division. Another completed programme concerns fitting the Thomson-CSF Agave radar, and many other sensors are available as options.




Above: Fly-past by single-seat Jaguar A and two-seat Jaguar E aircraft of the 7e Escadre de Chasse, Агтёе de Г Air, normally based at St Dizier. This was the first Jaguar wing to be fully equipped in the French air force, with a strength of 35 single – seaters and 25 dual-control trainers with the conversion unit.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Grumman A-6A, B,C, E, EA-6Aand В and KA-6D

Origin: Grumman Aerospace, USA,

Type:(A-6A, В, С, E) two-seat carrier-based all-weather attack: (EA-6A) two-seat ECM/attack; (EA-6B) four-seat ECM; (KA-6D) two-seat air­refuelling tanker.

Engines: (Except EA-6B) two 9,3001b (4218kg) thrust Pratt £t Whitney J52-8A two-shaft turbojets: (EA-6B) two 11,2001b (5080kg) J52-408. Dimensions: Span 53ft (16-15m): length (except EA-6B) 54ft 7in (16 64m); (EA-6B) 59ft 5in (1811m): height (A-6A, A-6C, KA-6D) 15ft 7in (4-75m): (A-6E, EA-6A and B) 16ft 3in (4-95m).

Weights: Empty (A-6A) 25.684lb (11,650kg): (EA-6A) 27,769lb

(12,596kg): (EA-6B) 34,5811b (15,686kg): (A-6E) 25.630lb (11,625kg): maximum loaded (A-6A and E) 60.626lb (27,500kg): (EA-6A) 56,500lb (25.628kg): (EA-6B) 58,500lb (26,535kg),

Performance:Maximum speed (clean A-6A) 685mph (1102km/h) at sea level or 625mph (1006km/h, Mach 0-94) at height: (EA-6A) over 630mph, (EA-6B) 599mph at sea level: (A-6E) 648mph (1043km/h) at sea level: initial climb (A-6E. clean) 8,600ft (2621 m)/min: service ceiling (A-6A) 41,660ft (12,700m): (A-6E) 44,600ft (13,595m): (EA-6B) 39,000ft (11,582m): range with full combat load (A-6E) 1,077 miles (1733km), ferry range with external fuel (all) about 3,100 miles (4890km). Armament: All attack versions, including EA-6A, five stores locations each rated at 3,6001b (1633kg) with maximum total load of 15,0001b (6804kg): typical load thirty 5001b (227kg) bombs: (EA-6B, KA-6D) none.

History: First flight (YA2F-1) 19 April I960: service acceptance of A-6A 1 February 1963: first flight (EA-6A) 1963: (KA-6D) 23 May 1966: (EA-6B) 25 May 1 968: (A-6E) 27 February 1 970: final delivery 1975. User: USA (Navy, Marine Corps).

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Development: Selected from 11 competing designs in December 1957, the Intruder was specifically planned for first-pass blind attack on point surface targets at night or in any weather. Though area ruled, the aircraft (originally designated A2F) was designed to be subsonic and is powered by two straight turbojets which in the original design were arranged with tilting jetpipes to help give lift for STOL (short takeoff and landing). Despite its considerable gross weight – much more than twice the empty weight and heavier than most of the heavy World War II four-engine brombers—the

Above: Three-view of A-6E, with side views of EA-6A (centre) and EA-6B (bottom).

Intruder has excellent slow-flving qualities with full span slats and flaps. The crew sit side-by-side under a broad sliding canopy giving a marvellous view in all directions, the navigator having control of the extremely compre­hensive navigation, radar and attack systems which are integrated into DIANE (Digital Integrated Attack Navigation Equipment). In Vietnam the A-6A worked round the clock making pinpoint attacks on targets which could not be accurately bombed by any other aircraft until the arrival of the F-111. The A-6E introduced a new multi-mode radar and computer and supplanted earlier versions in Navy and Marine Corps squadrons. The EA-6A introduced a valuable group of ECM (electronic countermeasures), while retaining partial attack capability, but the extraordinary EA-6B is a totally redesigned four-seat aircraft where the entire payload comprises the most advanced and comprehensive ECM equipment ever fitted to a tactical aircraft, part of it being carried in four external pods with windmill generators to supply electric power. The latest addition to attack versions was TRAM (Target Recognition Attack Multisensor), a turreted electro-optical/infra-red system matched with laser-guided weapons. In 1 977 Grumman was building new Prowlers and the last A-6Es, and converting A-6A models to the latest E standard. In the course of 1977 the first Intruders were to be modified to fire the Harpoon active-seeker missile.

Left: An A-6E Intruder of a crack Marine unit, / 3 VMA(AW)-242, popularly called The Bats’.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Below left: Together with a handful of USAF F-111As the Grumman A-6 series were the only tactical aircraft able to operate at night or in bad weather during the tragic war in Vietnam. These A-6As from USS Constellation are seen each laying down a dozen 1,0001b retarded bombs.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler
Below: A-6A trials aircraft from Naval Ordnance Test Station carrying Condor missile.

McDonnell Douglas/Hawker AV-8B

AV-8B and proposed variants

Origin: McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR, St Louis), USA: principal associate, British Aerospace (Hawker Aircraft, Kingston), UK. Type: V/STOL light attack: proposed versions include sea-based air defence, reconnaissance and dual trainer/multi-role.

Engine: One Rolls-Royce Pegasus 103. (Pratt & Whitney F402) vectored – thrust turbofan rated at 21,5001b (9752kg).

Dimensions: Span 30ft З5ІП (9-20m); length 42ft 11 in (13-1m): height 11ft 3iin (3-4m).

Weights: Empty 12,4001b (5625kg): design, 22,7501b (10,320kg): loaded (close-support seven Mk 82 bombs) 25,994lb (11,790kg): maximum over 29,000lb (13,150kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, clean, over Mach 1: operational radius (VTO, 7,800lb/3538kg weapons) 115 miles (185km), (STO, 12 Mk 82 Snakeye, internal fuel) 172 miles (278km), (STO, seven Mk 82, external fuel) 748 miles (1204km): ferry range over 3,000 miles 4830km). Armament: Two 20mm Mk 12 cannon in single belly pods, six underwing pylons and centreline hardpoint for weapon/ECM/fuel load of 8,000!b (3630kg) for VTO or 9,000lb (4080kg) for STO.

History: First flight (YAV-8B) 9 November 1978: operational capability originally planned for 1981—2.

Users: US Marine Corps, US Navy.

McDonnell Douglas/Hawker AV-8B
Development: Following proposals in 1973 by Hawker Siddeley and McDonnell Douglas for an advanced development of the Harrier the then UK Defence Minister, Roy Mason, said there was "not enough common ground" for a joint programme. This caused a delay of many months, but the US government eventually studied an improved aircraft designated AV-16A with a new wing and the uprated Pegasus 15 engine, before deciding to try to achieve as much as possible of the same advantages in payload/range and weapon load with the existing engine. Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney have studied the Pegasus 11D (800lb extra thrust) and 11+ (1,0001b more) but these remained mere proposals as this book went to press, despite the fact Rolls-Royce ran a Pegasus at over 25,0001b thrust in May 1972. Under the present programme all changes are confined to the airframe, the main improvement being a completely new wing, with greater

Подпись: Above: Three-view of AV-8B Advanced Harrier as currently planned.

span and area, less sweep, a supercritical section and graphite-epoxy construction throughout the main wing box and large single-slotted flaps and drooping ailerons. Strakes and a large hinged belly flap will increase air pressure under the fuselage in VTO, while other changes include inlets matched to the engine (they are too small on previous production Harriers) and front nozzles cut off square with the efflux.

Overall improvement in payload/range. compared with an AV-8A, is about 100 per cent. There is still a chance that further gains may result from improvement to the F402 engine, and production AV-8Bs may have the raised cockpit of the British Sea Harrier. The US Marine Corps requirement is for 336, and a variant might possibly be purchased by the US Navy for its own use. Present plans envisage the AV-8B having the Angle-Rate Bomb­ing System, with dual-mode TV and laser spot coupled via IBM computer to the Marconi-Elliott HUD. Fixed or retractable probe refuelling is likely, but radar will not be fitted. Two AV-8As were rebuilt by McDonnell Douglas as YAV-8Bs, and have performed very well in Navy/Marine Corps trials, but Congress has consistently shown itself hostile to what it regards as a foreign aircraft and production funds had been withheld as this book went to press despite sustained pleas from the Marines. The Navy has been more muted, but also wants a radar-equipped version known as AV-8B – Plus. If Congress should release funds, production aircraft would have about half British content, but would be assembled at St Louis.

McDonnell Douglas/Hawker AV-8B
Below: The first of two YAV-8B trials aircraft (rebuilt from AV-8As), hovering at the McDonnell Douglas plant at St Louis after 9 November 1978, which was when this important prototype first got its wheels off the ground.

Shenyang F-6 bis

F-6bis (NATO code name "Fantan A”)

Origin: State Aircraft Factory. Shenyang, People’s Republic of China. Type: All-weather fighter, attack and reconnaissance aircraft.

Engines: Two axial turbojets with afterburners (see text).

Dimensions (estimated): Span 33ft 5in (10 2m); length 50ft (15-25m); height 11ft (3-35m).

Weights: (estimated) Empty 13,6701b (6200kg): loaded (clean) 20,2851b (9200kg), (maximum) 23,6001b (10,700kg).

Performance (estimated): Maximum speed, clean (sea level) about 760mph (1225km/h. Mach 1), (high altitude) about 1,190mph (191 Okm/h. Mach 1-8): combat radius (hi-lo-hi, two bombs, two tanks) 500 miles (800km).

Armament: Not known, but almost certainly includes internal guns, external stores pylons for tanks and ordnance and comprehensive ECM equipment.

History: First flight, possibly 1968; service delivery, probably early 1970s. Users: People’s Republic of China (AF, Navy), Egypt (?).

Development: Obviously derived from the F-6, the Chinese-built MiG – 19SF, the F-6bis represents the first (enforced) attempt by the Shenyang – based home industry to produce combat aircraft independently. Despite extreme difficulties caused by a lack of industrial backing and skilled labour, the production of nationally developed aircraft was forced on the PRC (People’s Republic of China) by its isolation from technically advanced nations and imminence of the Soviet threat. The excellent qualities of the MiG-19 basic design eventually led to the F-6 being chosen for development in preference to the F-7. the illegally manufactured MiG-21 PF. During the 1960s the Shenyang F-6bis took shape as an enlarged F-6 with lateral inlet ducts feeding direct to the two engines (a Chinese illustration suggests that the mid-wing has been retained, with ducts above and below), leaving the nose free for a large search radar of unknown type. The sketch referred to showed no wing cannon, but the two 30mm NR-30s of the F-6 have probably been retained in view of the great length of inlet duct ahead of the wing, interfering with pilot view. The inlets are apparently simple and non­variable, efficient at low level but limiting high-altitude Mach number. The radar could be a derivative of the "Spin Scan B" as used in later North Vietnamese MiG-21 PF fighters sent via China, but in the author’s opinion

Shenyang F-6 bis

is more likely to be a copy of the much more powerful AWG-10 or APQ-109 fitted to Phantoms of the late 1960s. Whether the PRC has also copied Sparrow and/or Sidewinder is problematical.

In his Fiscal Year 1977 report the US SecDef (then Donald Rumsfeld) described the "Fantan-A" as a principal tactical aircraft of the PRC Navy: earlier it was known to be in service with the PRCAF. Compared with the F-6 it should be a considerably more effective machine, provided engine power has risen at least in proportion to the weight. Some Western reports suggest that the engines are the Tumansky RD-9B-811. of 8.270lb (3750kg) maximum thrust: in the author’s view an equally plausible possibility is that the bigger and more powerful R-11 engine of the F-7 (13,1201b, 5950kg) could have been chosen. Indeed use of this engine in the F-9 might in some degree explain the early termination of Chinese production of the F-7. As this book went to press little is known of the F-6bis and it could even be subject to severe problems and limitations. It should in any case not be confused with the entirely different combat aircraft (believed to be a twin – engined delta) which will be powered by the Chinese-assembled Rolls – Royce Spey.

Below left: A line-up of F-6bis attack aircraft of the Air Force of the People’s Liberation Army of China.

Below: Bombs falling from the wing pylons of an F-6bis which also appears to have open weapon-bay doors (also seen at left).

Aermacchi M. B. 326 and 339

M. B.326 and 326 GB and GC (AT-26 Xavante), 326K (Atlas Impala), 326L and M. B.339

Origin: Aeronautics Macchi SpA (Aermacchi): licence-production in Australia. Brazil and S Africa.

Type: Two-seat basic trainer and light attack aircraft: (326K) single-seat trainer/attack: (339) two-seat all-through trainer.

Engine: One Rolls-Royce Viper single-shaft turbojet: (original production versions) 2,5001b (1134kg) thrust Viper 11: (GB, GC, H and M) 3,4101b (1547kg) Viper 20 Mk 540: (K, L and 339) 4,000lb (1814kg) R-R/Fiat Viper 632-43.

Dimensions: Span (over tip tanks) 35ft 7in (10-85m); length 34ft 11 in (10-64m): height 12ft 2£in (372m).

Weights: Empty (G trainer) 5,920lb (2685kg): (G attack) 5,640lb (2558kg): (K) 6.240lb (2830kg): maximum loaded (G trainer) 10,0901b (4577kg): (G attack) 11,5001b (5217kg): (K and 339) 12,5001b (5670kg). Performance: Maximum speed (G clean) 539mph (867km/h): (K clean) 553mph (890km/h): (339) 560mph (901 km/h): initial climb (G clean) 6,050ft (1844m)/min: (G attack at max wt) 3,100ft (945m)/min: (K clean and 339) 6,500ft (1980m)/min: service ceiling (G trainer clean) 47,000ft (14,325m): (G attack, max wt) 35,000ft (10,700m): range on internal fuel (G trainer) 1,1 50 miles (1 850km): (K with max weapons) about 1 60 miles (260km).

Armament: Six underwing pylons for load of up to 4,000lb (1814kg) including bombs, rockets, tanks, missiles, reconnaissance pods or gun pods: some versions have single 7-62mm or similar gun (or Minigun) in fuselage: 326K (Impala) has two 30mm DEFA 553 cannon in fuselage, each with 125 rounds. (339) two 30mm DEFA cannon can be carried in wing – mounted slipper pods: other options as 326.

History: First flight 10 December 1957: (production 326) 5 October 1 960: (K, prototype) 22 August 1970: (339) 12 August 1976.

Users: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia (X), Brazil (X), Dubai, Ghana, Italy, S Africa, Togo (X), Tunisia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe-Rhodesia (Atlas).

Aermacchi M. B. 326 and 339

Подпись: Above: Three-view of typical M.B.326G with wing gun pods.

Development: The most successful Italian military aircraft programme in history, the 326 was designed by a team led by Ermanno Bazzocchi and was put into production as a trainer for the Regia Aeronautica. which received 90. In addition the South African AF has over 1 50 К models, built by Atlas Aircraft with locally built engines, and expects to build over 200, while other big customers include Australia (114, 85 built by CAC in Melbourne), Brazil (122 locally built Xavantes) and many emergent nations. The latest sub-types are the 326K with the most powerful Viper, the 326L with two seats but К attack capability, the M uncompromised dual trainer and the M. B, 339 with redesigned airframe for all-through training, with raised instructor seat under a sloping canopy. Despite having a largely redesigned structure the 339 is hoped (optimistically) to be priced at only £850,000.

Below left: A formation of South African Air Force equipment, a Mirage IlfCZ and DZ with an Impala in the foreground.

Aermacchi M. B. 326 and 339
Below: By 1980 more than 160 AT-26 Xavantes had been assembled in Brazil by EMBRAER, with American avionics and extra weapons.