Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II


Origin: Fairchild Republic Co, USA,

Type: Single-seat close-air-support aircraft.

Engines: Two 9,275lb (4207kg) thrust General Electric TF34-100 two – shaft turbofans.

Dimensions: Span 57ft 6in (17-53m); length 53ft 4in (16-26m): height 14ft 5iin (4-4m).

Weights: Empty 21,8131b (9894kg): maximum loaded 47,2001b (21,410 kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) 460mph (740km/h), 380mph (612km/h) at maximum weight: initial climb 1,000ft (328m)/min at maximum weight: take-off distance (at maximum weight) 3,850ft (11 73m),

(at forward-airstrip weight with six Mk 82 bombs), 1,1 30ft (344m): steady speed in 45° dive with full airbrake 299mph (481 km/h): close-air-support radius with reserves 288 miles (463km): ferry range 2,723 miles (4382km). Armament: 30mm high-velocity GAU-8/A cannon in forward fuselage:

11 pylons for total external ordnance load of 16,0001b (7257kg) (excep­tionally, 18,5001b, 8392kg).

History: First flight 10 May 1972: service delivery for inventory December 1974.

User: US Air Force.

Development: Despite the more overt attractions of Mach 2 aircraft the US Air Force was forced to consider the CAS (close air support) mission because of the total unsuitability of its existing equipment. In both the wars it had had to fight since World War II – Korea and Vietnam – its aircraft had been worldbeaters but planned for a totally different kind of war. What was needed, it appeared, was something like an up-to-date Skyraider that could carry a heavy load of ordnance, had good endurance and could survive severe damage from ground fire. Between 1963-69 extensive ►

Right and below: Thunderbolt lls pictured during their initial shakedown flying at Davis-Monthan and IMellis AFBs.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

studies gradually refined the AX specification, which had begun by pre­supposing a twin turbo prop and ended with a larger aircraft powered by two turbofans. After an industrywide competition the Northrop A-9A and Fairchild A-10A were chosen for prototype fly-off evaluation, which took place with two of each type at Edwards in October-December 1972. The A-10A was announced winner and GE the winner of the contest to produce the 30mm tank-busting gun, the most powerful ever fitted to any aircraft, with very high muzzle velocity and rate of fire, and muzzle horsepower 20 times that of the 75mm gun fitted to some B-25s in World War II. Named Avenger, this gun is driven hydraulically at either 2,100 or 4,200rds/ min, and is fed by a drum containing 1,350 milk-bottle-size rounds. Empty cases are fed back into the rear of the drum. By 1978 ground-reloading will probably be done by a*special powered system. Underwing load can be made up of any stores in the Tactical Air Command inventory, the landing gears (which protrude when retracted for damage-free emergency landing) and all tail surfaces are interchangeable, the cockpit is encased in a "bath" of thick titanium armour, and the engines are hung above the rear fuselage where their infra-red signature is a minimum. Originally Tactical Air Command intended to buy 600 of these grey-painted brutes, but despite unavoidable escalation in cost and degradation in performance the planned number has grown to 733, of which half had been delivered by 1980 at a current rate of 1 4 per month.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Above: Thunderbolt Ms on the flight line at Nellis where the USAF Tactical Fighter Weapons Center is located. Operationally the A-10A is classed as a fighter, though this is not its role.

Left: Firing the 30mm GAU-8/A cannon at simulated armour; this is the most powerful gun ever fitted to an aircraft. The pilot has not opened his split ailerons which in dives serve as brakes.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Below: Releasing a Paveway-series Mk 82 laser-guided bomb from level flight. Targets are detected by the Pave passive laser receiver pod seen carried on a pylon under the nose.

Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

F-104A to G, J and S, CF-104, QF-104,

RF and RTF-104, TF-104 (data for F-104G)

Origin: Lockheed-California Co, USA: see text for multinational manu­facturing programme.

Type: (A. C) single-seat day interceptor: (G) multimission strike fighter: (CF) strike-reconnaissance: (TF) dual trainer: (QF) drone RPV; (F-104S) all-weather interceptor: (RF and RTF) reconnaissance.

Engine: One General Electric J79 single-shaft turbojet with afterburner: (A) 14,8001b (6713kg) J79-3B: (C. D, F, J) 15,8001b (7165kg) J79-7A: (G, RF/RFT, CF) 15,8001b (7165kg) J79-11A: (S) 17,9001b (8120kg) J79-19 or J1Q.

Dimensions: Span (without tip tanks) 21 ft 11 in (6-68m): length 54ft 9in (16-69m): height 13ft 6in (4-11m).

Weights: Empty 14,0821b (6387kg): maximum loaded 28,7791b


Performance: Maximum speed 1,450mph (2330km/h, Mach 2-2): initial climb 50,000ft (1 5,250m)/min: service ceiling 58,000ft (17,680m) (zoom ceiling over 90,000ft, 27,400m): range with maximum weapons, about 300 miles (483km): range with four drop tanks (high altitude, subsonic) 1,380 miles (2220km).

Armament: In most versions, centreline rack rated at 2,000lb (907kg) and two underwing pylons each rated at 1,0001b (454kg): additional racks for small missiles (eg Sidewinder) on fuselage, under wings or on tips: certain versions have reduced fuel and one 20mm M61 Vulcan multi-barrel gun in fuselage: (S) M61 gun, two Sparrow and two Sidewinder.

History: First flight (X. F-104) 7 February 1954: (F-104A) 17 February 1956: (F-104G) 5 October 1960: (F-104S) 30 December 1968: final delivery from United States 1964: final delivery from Aeritalia (F-104S) 1975.

Users: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, W Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan. Jordan. Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, USA (ANG).

Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

Development: Clarence L. (‘ Kelly") Johnson planned the Model 83 after talking with fighter pilots in Korea in 1951. The apparent need was for superior flight performance, even at the expense of reduced equipment and other penalties. When the XF-104 flew, powered by a 10,5001b J65 Sap­phire with afterburner, it appeared to have hardly any wing: another odd feature was the downward-ejecting seat. The production F-104A had a more powerful engine and blown flaps and after lengthy development entered limited service with Air Defense Command in 1958. Only 153 were

Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

Three-view of F-104S, showing Sparrows and Sidewinders.

built and after a spell with the Air National Guard, survivors again saw ADC service with the powerful GE-19 engine. Three were modified as Astronaut trainers with rocket boost, one gaining a world height record at nearly 119,000ft in 1963. The В was a dual tandem trainer, the C a fighter- bomber for Tactical Air Command with refuelling probe, the D a trainer version of the C and the DJ and F respectively Japanese and German ver­sions of the D. The G was a complete redesign to meet the needs of the Luftwaffe for a tactical nuclear strike and reconnaissance aircraft. Struc­turally different, it introduced Nasarr multi-mode radar, inertial navigation system, manoeuvring flaps and other new items. Altogether 1,266 were built, including 970 by a NATO European consortium and 110 by Canadair. Canadair also built 200 basically similar CF-104s, while Japan built 207 J models closely resembling the earlier C. The German RF and RTF are multi – role-sensor reconnaissance and trainer versions, while increasing numbers of all versions are being turned into various QF-104 RPVs.

The only type of Starfighter built new since 1967 has been the Italian F-104S. Developed jointly by Lockheed and Fiat (Aeritalia), the S is an air – superiority fighter armed with two Sparrow air/air missiles (hence the suffix – letter S). Built under Lockheed licence, the S has a more powerful J79 engine, updated Autonetics R21G radar (with MTI, ECCM and improved reliability) and several detail changes to improve air/air role performance. The secondary ground-attack capability is retained, and in recent months the Regia Aeronautica force of 205 F-104S have begun to carry the Orpheus multi-sensor reconnaissance pod carried on the centre-line. Turkey has bought 40. followed by a second batch of the same size.

Below: Launching a Kormoran anti-ship missile from an F-104G of the West German Marineflieger. These aircraft are to be replaced by the first IDS Tornados to enter inventory service.

Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

Panavia Tornado

Tornado IDS (GR.1), ADV (F.2) and dual (T.3)

Origin: Panavia Aircraft GmbH, international company formed by British Aerospace, MBB of W Germany and Aeritalia.

Type: Two-seat multi-role combat aircraft, (S) optimised for strike, (AD) for air defence, (T) dual trainer.

Engines: Two Turbo-Union RB.199 Mk 101 three-shaft augmented turbofans each rated at 1 5,000lb (6800kg) with full afterburner.

Dimensions: Span (25°) 45ft 7iin (13-90m), (65°) 28ft 2Jin (8-60m); length (IDS) 54tt 9iin (16 7m), (ADV) 58ft 9in (17-9m); height 18ft 83ІП (5-7m).

Weights: Empty, about 24,000lb (10,890kg): loaded (clean) about 35,OOOIb (15,880kg): maximum loaded, about 60,000lb (18,150kg). Performance: Maximum speed (clean), at sea level, about 910mph (1465km/h, Mach 1-2). at height, over 1,320mph (2135km/h, Mach 2): service ceiling over 50,000ft (1 5,240m): range, about 1,000 miles (1610km) on internal fuel (high, wings spread), or over 3,000 miles (4830km) in ferry mode with maximum fuel.

Armament: Two 27mm Mauser cannon in lower forward fuselage: seven pylons, two tandem on body and four on the swinging wings, for external load up to 1 8.0001b (81 65kg). ADV has only one MK27 gun, plus four Sky Flash missiles recessed under fuselage and two or four AIM-9L Sidewinder close-range missiles.

History: First flight (prototype) 14 August 1974), (production IDS) July 1979, (ADV) September 1979: service delivery (IDS to trials unit) February 1978, (squadron service, MFG) 1982.

Panavia Tornado

Users: W Germany (Luftwaffe, Marineflieger), Italy, UK (RAF). Development: No combat aircraft in history has ever been planned with such care by so many possible customers. Studies began in 1967, after the French had abandoned the AFVG aircraft in the same class and decided not to participate in collaborative aircraft of this type. Panavia Aircraft was registered on 26 March 1969 in Munich as a three-nation company to manage the MRCA (multi-role combat aircraft) programme, with shares

Panavia TornadoAbove: Two MBB – assembled prototypes: white-painted 04 and camouflaged 07. later joined by other pre-production machines and production IDS.

held in the ratio ВАС 42J per cent, MBB 42J per cent and Aeritalia 15 per cent. In September 1969, after intense competition with the United States, the RB.1 99 was selected as the engine and a month later Turbo-Union was formed as the engine-management company with shares held in the ratio Rolls-Royce 40 per cent. MTU 40 per cent and Fiat 20 per cent. Thanks to careful planning the Tornado programme has since demonstrated that it is possible for several nations to work together to create a modern military aircraft which promises to exceed all possible rivals in mission effectiveness, versatility and low cost, having already demonstrated better mission capability than the latest competing types designed specifically for that mission. Its design missions are: close air support/battlefield interdiction: long-range interdiction/strike: naval strike: air superiority: air defence/ interception; reconnaissance; training. At one time it was planned that the three nations should develop slightly different versions with either one or two seats and dry or wet wings, but all basic aircraft now in production are identical, with two seats and sealed integral-tank wings. From stem to stern the Tornado is totally modern — a fact which its many competitors have sought to counter by claiming it to be "complicated” or "expensive".

In fact it is not possible to fly the required missions without carrying the equipment, and the fly-away price of £3-9 million (in September 1974 sterling) is by a very wide margin cheaper than any comparable aircraft. The only aircraft that bears comparison with MRCA is the larger F-14, which cannot meet the MRCA requirements in the attack and reconnaissance roles, and is officially doubted as having the capability – in the European environ­ment — to fly the interception missions of the Tornado ADV. Other combat aircraft with a single seat and non-swinging wing are grossly deficient in all ►

Panavia TornadoPanavia Tornado
Below: Prototype 02, assembled in Britain in 1974, with ‘tri-national’ markings, original tail/body fairing and camera on the front of the passive-ECM fairing.

Panavia Tornado

Nosing in over its home airfield – Warton, on the north shore of the Ribble estuary— the first Tornado F.2 interceptor gives a hint of its outstanding capabilities. Two engines (of amazing compactness and fuel-economy), two crew, a new advanced – technology radar, swing wings, extra fuel (in a longer fuselage), the world’s most modern sensors and cockpit displays, and Skyflash and (not fitted here) AIM-9L missiles form an unequalled combination.

Panavia Tornado

Panavia Tornado
roles except close-range air combat, a specialised mission for which the common version of Tornado is not intended (though its performance in this role is considerably better than a Mirage III, F-5 or F-4).

The basic Tornado has highly compact and efficient engines of extremely advanced design, with automatically scheduled inlets and nozzles. Flight control is by large tailerons, augmented at low sweep angles by wing spoilers; the system is fully digital and signalled by quad fly-by-wire via an automatic command and stability augmentation system. For high lift at low speeds the wings have full-span slats and double-slotted flaps. Other equipment includes a mapping radar, terrain-following radar and computer, and laser target ranger for extreme accuracy. ECM and other penetration aids are exceptional. Planned production for the three original partners comprises 809 aircraft, of which 385 will be for the RAF, 202 for the Luftwaffe (replacing the F-104G and G91 R), 122 for the Marineflieger (replacing the F-104G) and 100 for the Regia Aeronautica (replacing the F-104G and G91Y) in all roles. The variety of external stores to be carried by MRCA exceeds that for any other aircraft in history, embracing almost every airborne store of three major nations in virtually all combat roles. A propor­tion of aircraft for the first three customers will be dual trainers (the first flew on 5 August 1 975) which retain all the fuel capacity and weapons of single­pilot versions.

Of the RAF total of 385, about 220 will be of the common IDS (inter-

Panavia Tornado
Above: Initial gun-firing trials took place in April 1978 with prototype 06 (the gun had been air-tested in a Lightning).

Left: Another photograph of 06, which was the first to fly stores – separation tests, a task completed in March 1976.

Below: First launch from Tornado of a Kormoran anti-ship guided missile took place from 09 at Decimomannu in July 1978.

Panavia Tornado

diction strike) variant: the other 165 will be of the ADV (air-defence variant) type, planned to replace the Phantom in the air defence of the UK, Commonality with the IDS aircraft is officially put at 80 per cent, differences mainly being confined to the forward fuselage though the wing-root gloves have acute sweep and no Kruger flaps. Engines are unchanged, though higher-thrust versions are available on customer request. The ADV fuselage is longer partly to accommodate Sparrow or Sky Flash missiles nose-to-tail and partly to accommodate much additional fuel. The radar is a completely new Marconi Foxhunter set, with planar scanner by Ferranti inside a more pointed radome which reduces drag. Computer and radar programs are quite different from those of the IDS, though each version has considerable capability in the primary role of the other. Great attention has been paid to the ADV target identification and vision-augmenting subsystems, to make full use of the range of the radar and Sky Flash missile. The radar homing/ warning installation is also new, and quite different from equipment fits used on the IDS version.

In mid-1979 the 16 prototype and pre-production Tornados had flown and been succeeded by the first few production machines (the first two being dual-pilot versions with full operational capability) and the first ADV prototypes. At that time three contracts for production batches had been signed for a total of 314 aircraft for inventory service with the four initial customers.

FMAIA 58 Pucara

IA 50 Gil, IA 58 and Astafan Trainer

Origin: FMA (Military Aircraft Factory), Argentina,

Type: IA 58, tactical attack and counter-insurgency: IA 50, utility transport and survey; Trainer, trainer and light attack.

Engines: (IA 58) two 1,022ehp ТигЬотёса Astazou XVIG single-shaft turboprops; (IA 50) two 1,000ehp Turbomeca Bastan VIC single-shaft turboprops; (Trainer) two 2,7101b (1230kg) thrust ТигЬотёса Astafan geared turbofans.

Dimensions: Span (IA 58 and Trainer) 47ft 6gin (14 5m); (IA 50) 64ft 3iin (19’59m); length (IA 50 and Trainer) 46ft 3in (14-1m); (IA 50) 50ft 2iin (15’3m); height (IA 58 and Trainer) 17ft 7in (5-36m); (IA 50) 18ft 5in (5 ■ 61 m).

Weights: Empty (IA 58) 8,9001b (4037kg), (IA 50) 8,6501b (3924kg); (Trainer) 8,3771b (3800kg); loaded (IA 58) 14,3001b (6486kg); (IA 50) 17.0851b (7750kg); (Trainer) 14.3301b (6500kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (IA 58) 323mph (520km/h); (IA 50) 310mph (500km/h); (Trainer) about 400mph (643km/h); initial climb (IA 58) 3,543ft (1080m)/min; (IA 50) 2,640ft (805m)/min; service ceiling (IA 58) 27,165ft (8280m); (IA 50) 41,000ft (12,500m); range with maxi­mum fuel (IA 58) 1,890 miles (3042km); (IA 50) 1,600 miles (2575km). Armament: IA 58, and optional for Trainer, two 20mm Hispano cannon and four 7-62mm FN machine guns in forward fuselage; pylons under fuselage and outer wings for up to 3.307lb (1 500kg) of stores or tanks. History: First flight (IA 50) 23 April 1963; (IA 58) 20 August 1969; (service delivery of I A-58) November 1974.

Users: Argentina, Bolivia (?).

FMAIA 58 Pucara

Development: The unusual but effective Pucara was derived from the larger IA 50 Gil (Guarani II) multi-role transport, noted for its slender unswept wings but sharply swept fin and rudder. The first production batch of Gil’s comprised 18 to the Argentine Air Force for communications and seating for up to 15 passengers, four as photo survey aircraft with the

FMAIA 58 Pucara

Military Geographic Institute and one as a VIP transport for the President of Argentina. Many others were ordered later, some having ski gear for use in the Antarctic. The smaller IA 58 seats pilot and observer in tandem Martin – Baker ejection seats and is well equipped for all-weather tactical Co-In operations. Deliveries began in 1975 on the first batch of 30 for the Argentine Air Force, with further batches up to a predicted total of 100 being discussed. Interest has been expressed by several other nations in this versatile and cost/ effective aircraft, which can operate from rough strips down to about 2,000ft in length. The Trainer uses the IA 58 airframe restressed to have two turbofan engines on the sides of the fuselage, the twin-wheel main gears retracting forwards into wing pods in the same locations as the engine nacelles on the IA 58. It was expected that this project would lead to a tactical Со-In version, but development has been delayed by inflation.

FMAIA 58 Pucara
Below: The first production Pucara, which flew in November 1974; about 30 had been delivered by the summer of 1979.

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

A-4A to A-4S and TA-4 series

Origin: Douglas Aircraft Co. El Segundo (now division of McDonnell Douglas, Long Beach). USA.

Type: Single-seat attack bomber: ТА, dual-control trainer.

Engine: (В, C. L, P. Q. S) one 7,7001b (3493kg) thrust Wright J65-16A single-shaft turbojet (US Sapphire): (E, J) 8.5001b (3856kg) Pratt & Whitney J52-6 two-shaft turbojet: (F, G, H, K) 9.3001b (4218kg) J52-8A: (M, N) 11,2001b (5080kg) J52-408A.

Dimensions: Span 27ft 6in (8 38m): length (A) 39ft 1 in; (B) 39ft 6in (42ft 10Jin over FR probe); (E, F. G. H. K, L, P, Q. S) 40ft 1 iin (12-22m); (M, N) 40ft 3Jin (1227m); (ТА series, excluding probe) 42ft 7^in (1 2-98m); height 1 5ft (4 57m); (early single-seaters 1 5ft 2in, ТА series 1 5ft 3in). Weights: Empty (A) 7.700lb; (E) 9,284lb; (typical modern single-seat, eg M) 10.4651b (4747kg); (TA-4F) 10,602 (4809kg); maximum loaded (A) 17,0001b; (B) 22,0001b; (all others, shipboard) 24,5001b (11,113kg); (land-based) 27.420lb (12,437kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) (B) 676mph; (E) 685mph; (M) 670mph (1078km/h): (TA-4F) 675mph; maximum speed (4.000lb, 1814kg bomb load) (F) 593mph; (M) 645mph; initial climb (F) 5,620ft (1713m)/ min; (M) 8,440ft (2572m)/min; service ceiling (all, clean) about 49,000ft (14,935m); range (clean, or with 4,000lb weapons and max fuel, all late versions) about 920 miles (1480km); maximum range (M) 2,055 miles (3307km).

Armament: Standard on most versions, two 20mm Mk 12 cannon, each with 200 rounds; (FI, N, and optional on other export versions) two 30mm DEFA 553, each with 150 rounds. Pylons under fuselage and wings for total ordnance load of (А, В, C) 5,000lb (2268kg); (E, F, G, FI, K, L. P, Q, S) 8,200lb (3720kg); (M, N) 9,1551b (4153kg).

Flistory: First flight (XA4D-1) 22 June 1954; (A-4A) 14 August 1954, squadron delivery October 1956; (A-4C) August 1959; (A-4E) July 1961; (A-4F) August 1966; (A-4M) April 1970; (A-4N) June 1972; first of ТА series (TA-4E) June 1965.

Users: Argentina, Australia, Israel, Kuwait, New Zealand, Singapore, USA (Air Force in SE Asia, Navy, Marine Corps).

Development: Most expert opinion in the US Navy refused to believe the claim of Ed Fleinemann. chief engineer of what was then Douglas El Segundo, that he could build a jet attack bomber weighing half the 30,0001b

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

Above: Three-view of McDonnell Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II.


specified by the Navy. The first Skyhawk, nicknamed "Heinemann’s Hot Rod", not only flew but gained a world record by flying a 500km circuit at over 695mph. Today, more than 23 years later, greatly developed versions are still in production, setting an unrivalled record for sustained manufacture. These late versions do weigh close to 30.0001b, but only because the basic design has been improved with more powerful engines, increased fuel capacity and much heavier weapon load. The wing was made in a single unit, forming an integral fuel tank and so small it did not need to fold. Hundreds of Skyhawks have served aboard carriers, but in the US involve­ment in SE Asia "The Scooter" (as it was affectionately known) flew many kinds of mission from land bases. In early versions the emphasis was on improving range and load and the addition of all-weather avionics. The F model introduced the dorsal hump containing additional avionics, and the M. the so-called Skyhawk II, marked a major increase in mission effectiveness. Most of the TA-4 trainers closely resembled the corresponding single – seater, but the TA-4J and certain other models have simplified avionics and the TA-4S (Singapore) is a rebuild by Lockheed Aircraft Service with two separate humped cockpits and an integral-tank fuselage. Production of the M for the US Marine Corps continued in production to the 2,960th Skyhawk in February 1 979,

McDonnell Douglas A-4 SkyhawkLeft: In no country has the Skyhawk seen more combat duty, nor suffered such heavy losses, as Israel. This A-4H (H for Hebrew) is typical of the large force which even today equip six combat – ready Heyl Ha’Avir squadrons.

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
Below: Launching a Shrike anti-radar missile from a ‘Camel’ (hump-backed A-4) from US Navy attack squadron VA-55 at the Pacific Missile Range.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

OV-ЮА to -10E

Origin: Rockwell International Corp, USA.

Type: (Except B) two-seat multi-role counter-insurgency: (B) target tug. Engines: (Except B(Z)) two 715ehp AiResearch T76-410/411 single­shaft centrifugal turboprops: (B(Z) ) as other versions plus General Electric J85-4 turbojet of 2,950lb (1338kg) thrust above fuselage.

Dimensions: Span 40ft (12-19m); length (except D) 41ft 7in (12-67m); (D) 44ft (1 3-4m); height 1 5ft 2in (462m).

Weights: Empty (A) 6,969lb (3161kg): maximum loaded (A) 14,4661b (6563kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (A, sea level, clean) 281 mph (452km/h): initial climb 2,300ft (700m)/min: (B(Z) ) 6,800ft/min: service ceiling 30,000ft (91 50m): range with maximum weapon load, about 600 miles (960km): ferry range at 12,0001b gross, 1,428 miles (2300km). Armament: Four 7-62mm M60C machine guns in sponsons; 1,2001b (544kg) hardpoint on centreline and four 6001b (272kg) points under sponsons: one Sidewinder missile rail under each wing; (OV-10D) as other versions plus three-barrel 20mm cannon in remotely aimed ventral power turret.

History: First flight 16 July 1965; (production OV-10A) 6 August 1967; (YOV-10D) 9 June 1970.

Users: W Germany, Indonesia, S Korea, Thailand, USA (Air Force, Marine Corps), Venezuela.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

Development: Recognising that no US aircraft was tailored to the urgent task of fighting Со-In (counter-insurgency) operations, or "brush-fire wars", the US Department of Defense in 1960 began study of the problem and in 1962 issued a joint USAF/Navy/Marine Corps specification for a Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LARA). The winner, in 1964, was

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

Above: Three-view of OV-IOA with side view (bottom) of OV-10B(Z).

the Bronco. Designed to operate from short rough strips (or on floats or skis) it can carry a wide range of tactical equipment and weapons, including doppler radar, TV reconnaissance, five paratroops or two casualties. The OV-ЮА was ordered in October 1966 and by 1969 the Marine Corps had 114, while the USAF were using 1 57 for Forward Air Control (FAC) duties in Vietnam. In 1969 Pave Nail Conversion of 15 aircraft fitted them with laser rangers, stabilized night sighting system, Loran and other devices for night FAC, attack or target illumination for other aircraft. The В and jet – boosted B(Z) are used by the Luftwaffe. The OV-1OD has Night Observation Gunship (NOGS) equipment, with long-nosed IR sensor, cannon turret and, as a conversion, 1 .OOOehp T76 engines.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco
Below: Almost identical to the basic American OV-1 OA is the OV-10F, 16 of which were supplied to Indonesia. They equip one squadron dedicated to counter-insurgent duties, though the aircraft is also equipped for the carriage of 3,200lb (1452kg) of cargo, five parachute troops or two stretcher casualties.

General Dynamics F-16

Model 401, YF-16, F-16A, F-16B

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth, USA, with widespread sub­contract manufacture in Europe and European assembly of aircraft for European customers (see text).

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber; (B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.000lb (10,885kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 two-shaft afterburning turbofan.

Dimensions: Span (no Sidewinders) 31ft Oin (9-45m), (with Sidewinders) 32ft 10in (10 01m); length (excl probe) (YF-16) 46ft 6in, (F-16A) 47ft7-7in (14-52m); height (F-16) 16ft 5-2in (5 01m).

Weights: Empty (YF) about 12,0001b (5443kg); (F) about 14,8001b (6733kg); maximum gross (YF) 27,0001b (12,245kg); (F) 33,0001b (14,969kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, Mach 1 -95, equivalent to about 1,300mph (2090km/h); initial climb (YF) 40,000ft (12.200m)/min; service ceiling about 60,000ft (18,300m); range on internal fuel in interception mission, about 1.300 miles (2100km): attack radius at low level with maximum weapon load, 120 miles (193km); attack radius with six Mk 82 bombs, 339 miles (546km).

Armament: One 20mm M61 multi-barrel cannon on left side of fuselage; nine pylons for total external load of up to 15,2001b (6895kg) (YF, seven pylons for total of 11,500lb. 5217kg).

History: First flight (YF) 20 January 1974; service delivery, scheduled for mid-1 978.

Users: Belgium, Denmark, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, US Air Force.

Development: One of the most important combat aircraft of the rest of the century was started merely as a technology demonstrator to see to what degree it would be possible to build a useful fighter that was significantly smaller and cheaper than the F-1 5. The US Air Force Lightweight Fighter (LWF) programme was not intended to lead to a production aircraft but merely to establish what was possible, at what cost. Contracts for two prototypes of each of the two best submissions were awarded in April 1972, the aircraft being the General Dynamics 401 and a simplified Northrop P.530. As the YF-16 and YF-17 these aircraft completed a programme of competitive evaluation, as planned, in 1974. By this time the wish of four European members of NATO – Belgium, Holland, Denmark and Norway – to replace their F-104Gs with an aircraft in this class had spurred a total revision of the LWF programme. In April 1974 it was changed into the Air Combat Fighter (ACF) programme and the Defense Secretary, James►

General Dynamics F-16

Three-view drawing of production F-16A (nozzle open).


General Dynamics F-16

Above: This picture of an F-16 prototype tangling with an RF-4 Phantom emphasizes the contrast in sizes of these classic aircraft, both fighters’ which became multi-role platforms. As this book went to press there was no RF-16 dedicated recon type.

Below: One of the eight development F-16s is seen here formating at low speed on a photo aircraft, having to fly at a large nose-up attitude in consequence. The wingtip AIM-9J (to be AIM-9L in production machines) missile is mounted nose-down.


General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

This splendid photograph, taken from the front seat of a TF-104G, shows (left) an F-16A with centreline tank and wingtip AIM-9L Advanced Sidewinder missiles, and (right) a two-seat F-16B with two 308-gal (1400 litre) underwing tanks and AIM-9J missiles on the tips. The photograph was secured in the summer of 1979 during multinational operations with the RNorAF in Norway.

General Dynamics F-16

Schlesinger, announced that 650 of the winning design would be bought for the USAF, a number later raised to 1.388. In December 1974 the YF-16 was chosen as the future ACF (announced the following month) and in June 1975, after protracted and tortuous discussions, it was chosen by the four European countries. As an aircraft the F-16 is exciting. It has a flashing performance on the power of the single fully developed engine (the same as the F-15) fed by a simple fixed-geometry inlet. Structure and systems are modern, with control-configured vehicle (CCV) flight dynamics, quad-redundant electrically signalled controls (fly-by-wire), graphite – epoxy structures and a flared wing/body shape. Pilot view is outstanding and he lies back in a reclining Escapac seat and flies the aircraft through a sidestick controller. In the nose is an advanced pulse-doppler radar suitable for attack or interception missions and armament can be carried for both roles, though the basic design was biased strongly in favour of air-to-air missions in good weather at close range. It remains to be seen to what degree the F-16 can be modified to make it a better ground attack, recon­naissance or all-weather interceptor aircraft. Main contractors include Westinghouse (radar), M arcon і – El I iott (HUD-sight and portions of flight – control system), Westinghouse and Delco (computers), Kaiser (radar and electro-optical display) and Singer-Kearfott (inertial system). In 1977 the USAF still intends to purchase 650 aircraft, mainly for use in Europe; in 1976 it set up a European System Programme Office to manage the project.

Above; Takeoff of the first Belgian F-16B assembled by SABCA. Below: A grey-painted development (pre-production) F-16A.

General Dynamics F-161 I


and began work on the support depot. Orders are still subject to change, but the planned totals are: Belgium, 90 F-16A and 12 F-16B, with 14 aircraft on option; Denmark 48 (probably 40+8). and 10 on option; the Netherlands, 84, plus 18 on option; Norway, 72 (no options). In July 1976 General Dynamics finally signed co-production contracts with major companies in Belgium and Holland, specifying schedules and output rates, of parts for 564 aircraft, a total that would increase with further F-16 sales. Aircraft will be assembled by General Dynamics (USAF), Fairey/SABCA (Belgium and Denmark) and Fokker-VFW (Netherlands and Norway); Kongsberg in Norway has a $1 63m co-production deal with Pratt & Whitney on more than 400 engines (all engines will be assembled by P & WA). Since early 1976 Turkey has been negotiating to join the European consortium (which has no formal title) and to buy up to 100 aircraft. In September 1976 Congress announced the sale to Iran of 160, costing $3-8 billion; it is doubtful that Iran can participate in manufacture. In December 1976 the first of eight development aircraft flew at Fort Worth, and delivery to the USAF is to begin in August 1978. Up to October 1976 $286 million had paid for basic development and flight test; Fiscal Year 1977 voted $620 million for the first 16 production aircraft, and FY78 is expected to provide $1,128 million. USAF buy in the next four years (1978-81) is planned to be 89, 145. 175 and 180, a total to that date of 605. First flight in Europe is planned to be at Schiphol (Fokker-VFW, Amsterdam) in July 1 979.

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16
Above: An F-16A development aircraft (curiously, without tail number visible) with nose-mounted instrumentation and tandem triple-ejector racks each carrying two pairs of bombs only.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

F-4A to F-4S, RF-4, QF-4, EF-4

Origin: McDonnell Aircraft, division of McDonnell Douglas Corp, St Louis, USA: licence production by Mitsubishi, Japan (F-4EJ) and substantial subcontracting by W German industry.

Type: Originally carrier-based all-weather interceptor: now all-weather multi-role fighter for ship or land operation: (RF) all-weather multisensor reconnaissance: (QF) RPV: (EF) defence-suppression aircraft.

Engines: (B, G) two 17,0001b (7711 kg)’thrust General Electric J79-8 single-shaft turbojets with afterburner: (C, D) 17,0001b J79-15: (E, EJ, F) 17,9001b (8120kg) J79-17; (J, N, S) 17,9001b J79-10: (К, M) 20,5151b (9305kg) Rolls-Royce Spey 202/203 two-shaft augmented turbofans. Dimensions: Span 38ft 5in (11 -7m): length (В, C, D, G, J, N, S) 58ft 3in (17-76m): (E. EJ, F and all RF versions) 62ft 11 in or 63ft (19 2m): (К, M) 57ft 7in (17-55m): height (all) 1 6ft 3in (4-96m).

Weights: Empty (B, C,.D, G, J, N) 28,000lb (12,700kg): (E, EJ, F and RF) 29,000lb (13,150kg); (К, M).31,0001b (14,060kg); maximum loaded (B) 54,600lb; (C, D, G, J, К, M, N. RF) 58,000lb (26,308kg); (E, EJ, F) 60,6301b (27,502kg).

Performance: Maximum speed with Sparrow missiles only (low) 91 Omph (1464km/h, Mach 1-19) with J79 engines, 920mph with Spey, (high) 1,500mph (2414km/h, Mach 2• 27) with J79 engines, 1,386mph with Spey; initial climb, typically 28,000ft (8534m)/min with J79 engines, 32,OOOft/min with Spey: service ceiling, over 60,000ft (19,685m) with J79 engines. 60,000ft with Spey; range on internal fuel (no weapons) about 1,750 miles (2817km); ferry range with external fuel, typically 2,300 miles (3700km) (E and variants, 2.600 miles (4184km).

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIMcDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Armament: (All versions except EF, RF. QF which have no armament) four AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles recessed under fuselage; inner wing pylons can carry two more AIM-7 or four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles; in

addition all E versions except RF have internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun, and virtually all versions can carry the same gun in external centreline pod; all except RF, QF have centreline and four wing pylons for tanks, bombs or other stores to total weight of 16,0001b (7257kg).

History: First flight (XF4H-1) 27 May 1958; service delivery (F-4A) February 1960 (carrier trials), February 1961 (inventory); first flight (Air Force F-4C) 27 May 1963; (YF-4K) 27 June 1966; (F-4E) 30 June 1967; (EF-4E) 1976.

Users: W Germany, Greece, Iran, Israel, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore (no contract announced), S Korea, Spain, Turkey, UK (RAF, Royal Navy), USA (Air Force, ANG, Navy, Marine Corps).

Development: McDonnell designed the greatest. fighter of the postwar era as a company venture to meet anticipated future needs. Planned as an attack aircraft with four 20mm guns, it was changed into a very advanced gunless all-weather interceptor with advanced radar and missile armament.

In this form it entered service as the F-4A, soon followed by the F-4B used^

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

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McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Left: An F-4B (since remanufactured as an F-4N) serving with US Navy fighter squadron VF-84 ‘Skull and Crossbones’ aboard USS Independence during the Vietnam conflict.

Below left: The only Phantom Ms not built at St Louis were the 127 F-4EJ series assembled in Japan, mainly by Mitsubishi.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Below: This F-4E is equipped with the advanced AVQ-26 Pave Tack all-weather sighting and weapon-aiming system on a centreline pylon.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Above: In 1980 the Phantom II was still one of the most important tactical aircraft in the US inventory. This flight line full of F-4Ds could be at any of a dozen TAC or USAFE airbases; they are starting engines ready to move off on a training mission. This was the first purpose-designed version for operation from land bases. Some of this sub-type lack the prominent infra-red detector in the fairing under the radar.

in large numbers (635) by the US Navy and Marine Corps, with Westing – house APQ-72 radar, IR detector in a small fairing under the nose, and many weapon options. Pilot and radar intercept officer sit in tandem and the aircraft has blown flaps and extremely comprehensive combat equipment. A Ipvel Mach number of 2-6 was achieved and many world records were set for speed, altitude and rate of climb. Not replaced by the abandoned F-111 B, the carrier-based Phantom continued in production for 19 years through the F-4G with digital communications. F-4J with AWG-10 pulse-doppler radar, drooping ailerons, slatted tail and increased power, and the N (rebuilt B). In 1961 the F-4B was formally compared with all US Air Force fighters and found to outperform all by a wide margin, especially in weapon load and radar performance. As a result it was ordered in modified form as the F-110, soon redesignated F-4C, for 16 of the 23 Tactical Air Command Wings. The camera/radar/IR linescan RF-4C followed in 1965. In 1964 the Royal Navy adopted the Anglicised F-4K, with wider fuselage housing Spey fan engines and, of 48 delivered to Britain as Phantom FG.1, 28 served with the. Royal

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Navy. The other 20 went to RAF Strike Command, which has also received 120 F-4M (UK designation Phantom FGR.2) which combine the British features with those of the F-4C plus the option of a multi-sensor centreline reconnaissance pod whilst retaining full weapons capability. In the US Air Force the C was followed by the much-improved D with APQ-100 radar replaced by APQ-109, inertial navigation added and many added or improved equipment items. This in turn was followed by the dramatically improved F-4E with slatted wing, internal gun and increased power, the EJ being the version built in Japan and the F being a Luftwaffe version. The Luftwaffe also operate the multi-sensor RF-4E. Australia leased F-4Es from the US government pending delivery of the F-111C. In 1979 deliveries of new aircraft, all assembled at St Louis except for the EJ, i

were completed at 5,057, a record for any supersonic aircraft of any type in the Western world. In addition several large rebuild pro­grammes were in hand including rebuilding 300 F-4J into F-4S with long­life slatted airframes, rebuilding Marine Corps RF-4Bs with new structure and sensors, rebuilding or refitting over 600 Air Force machines (for example with Pave Tack FLIR/laser pods or Pave Spike TV/laser pods) and com­plete rebuild of 116 F-4D or E Phantoms into the EF-4E Wild Weasel defence-suppression platform with weapons replaced by special electronics (especially the APR-38 system, with large pod on the fin) to detect, locate and classify hostile electromagnetic emissions, and assist other aircraft to destroy them. Some EF aircraft may do their own killing, with Standard ARM, Shrike and Flarm missiles.

Saab 35 Draken

J35A, В, D and F, Sk35C, S35E and export versions

Origin: Saab-Scania AB, Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (J35) single-seat all-weather fighter-bomber: (Sk35) dual trainer; (S35) single-seat all-weather reconnaissance.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM6 (licence-built Rolls-Royce Avon with SFA afterburner): (А, В, C) 15.0001b (6804kg) RM6B; (D, E, F and export) 17,1101b (7761kg) RM6C.

Dimensions: Span 30ft 10in (9 4m); length 50ft 4in (15 4m) (S35E, 52ft); height 12ft 9in (39m).

Weights: Empty (D) 16,0171b; (F) 18,1801b (8250kg), maximum loaded (A) 18,2001b; (D) 22.6631b; (F) 27,0501b (12,270kg); (F-35) 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (D onwards, clean) 1,320mph (21 25km/h, Mach 2-0), (with two drop tanks and two 1,0001b bombs) 924mph (1487 km/h, Mach 1 -4); initial climb (D onwards, clean) 34.450ft (10,500m)/min; service ceiling (D onwards, clean) about 65,000ft (20,000m); range (internal fuel plus external weapons, typical) 800 miles (1300km), (maximum fuel) 2,020 miles (3250km).

Armament: (A) two 30mm Aden M/55 in wings, four Rb 324 (Side­winder) missiles; (B) as A plus attack ordnance to maximum of 2,200lb (1000kg); (C) none; (D) as В; (E) usually none but provision as A; (F) one 30mm Aden plus two Rb27 Falcon (radar) and two Rb28 Falcon (infra-red) missiles, plus two or four Rb324; (F-35) two 30mm Aden plus nine stores pylons each rated at 1,0001b (454kg) all usable simultaneously, plus four Rb324.

History: First flight 25 October 1 955; (production J35A) 15 February 1958; final delivery (35XS) 1975, (Danish TF-35) 1976.

Users: Denmark, Finland, Sweden (RSAF).

Development: Again in advance of any other country in Western Europe, the Saab 35 was designed in 1949-51 as an all-weather supersonic fighter able to use small airfields. Erik Bratt and his team arrived at the unique "double delta" shape after studying different ways of packaging the fuel and equipment, the best arrangement being with items one behind the other

Saab 35 Draken

Saab 35 DrakenRight: One of the last of more than 600 Drakens was this TF – 35XD, one of six of this versatile two-seat dual-control version to be supplied to the Danish air force in 1968-73 along with 20 of the formidable 35XD single-seat version.

Saab 35 Draken

Above: Three-view of the Falcon-armed J35F ("Filip” to the Swedish Air Force).

giving a long aircraft of very small frontal area. In 1960 attack wing F13 found the A (Adam) simple to fly and maintain, sensitive in pitch and yet virtually unbreakable. В (Bertil) was more complex, with S7 collision-course fire control integrated with the Swedish Stril 60 air defence environment. Most Sk35C trainers were converted Adams. D (David) was first to reach Mach 2, despite continual increases in weight mainly due to fuel capacity raised from 493 to 680 gallons. E (Erik) carries French OMERA cameras and in 1973 was updated with external British Vinten night/low-level pods. F (Filip) is an automatic interceptor with Ericsson (Hughes basis) radar of pulse-doppler type. Production was closed at 606 with 40 multi-role F-35/RF-35/TF-35 aircraft for Denmark and 12 XS for Finland assembled by Valmet Oy.

Saab 35 DrakenSaab 35 Draken
Left: The first version to enter service was the J35A, popularly called ‘Adam’ in the Swedish air force. This example, one of the first to be delivered to F13 (the Bravalla Flygflottilj) at Norrkoping in March 1960, is seen with Rb 324 Sidewinders in place.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

F-106A and F-106B

Origin: General Dynamics/Convair. USA.

Type: (F-106A) single-seat all-weather interceptor; (F-106B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.500lb (11,130kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney J75-17 two – shaft afterburning turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 3J1n (11 -67m); length (both) 70ft 8j|in (21 -55m); height 20ft 3Jin (6-1 5m).

Weights: (A) empty 23,646lb (10,725kg); maximum loaded 38,2501 b (17,350kg).

Performance: (Both) maximum speed 1,525mph (2455km/h, Mach 2-31); initial climb about 30,000ft (9144m)/min; service ceiling 57,000ft (17,375m); range with drop tanks (A) 1,700 miles (2735km); combat radius, about 600 miles (966km).

Armament: One internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel cannon; internal weapon bay for air-to-air guided missiles, with typical load comprising one AIR-2A and one AIR-2G Genie rockets and two each of AIM-4E, -4F or 4G Falcons.

History: First flight (aerodynamic prototype) 26 December 1956; (F-106В) 9 April 1958, production delivery July 1 959 to July 1 960.

User: USA (ANG, USAF).

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Development: Originally designated F-102B, the 106 was a natural development of the F-102A with new engine and avionics. By redesigning from scratch to the supersonic Area Rule the fuselage was made much neater and more efficient than that of the earlier aircraft and the more power­ful engine resulted in a peak speed approximately twice as fast. The Hughes MA-1 fire control, though no bulkier or heavier than that of the 102, was far more capable and integrated with the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defence system covering the continental United States in an

automatic manner, the pilot acting as a supervisory manager. Though bought in modest numbers, the 106 has had an exceptionally long life­span in the USAF Aerospace Defense Command front-line inventory. At several times the Improved Manned Interceptor program (IMI) has pointed the need for a replacement with longer-range look-down radar and long – range missiles, and much research has been done with the Lockheed YF-12 (described later). At present no replacement, other than the multi­role F-1 5, is in sight and the F-106 and tandem-seat F-106B force (respec­tively numbering originally 277 and 63) will continue until at least 1980. They have been repeatedly updated, with improved avionics, infra-red sensors, drop tanks, flight refuelling and a Gatling gun.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

Left: An F-106A Delta Dart of the 460th FIS, a unit later withdrawn from the Aerospace Defense Command active inventory. Despite repeated updating these well-liked interceptors are beginning to show their age, and plans dating back to the late 1960s for their replacement involved special versions of F-15 and F-14.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Left: A recent photograph of one of the remaining F-106A all- weather interceptors, which equip six home-based Air Divisions each comprising a single 18-aircraft squadron.