Dassault Mirage III and 5

Mirage III and 5

Origin: Avions Marcel Dassault/Breguet Aviation, France (actual manu­facture dispersed through European industry and certain models assembled in Belgium, Switzerland and Australia).

Type: Single-seat or two-seat interceptor, tactical strike, trainer or recon­naissance aircraft (depending on sub-type).

Engine: (MIC) 13,2251b (6000kg) thrust (maximum afterburner) SNECMA Atar 9B single-shaft turbojet; (most other III and some 5) 1 3,670lb (6200kg) Atar 9C; (some III and 50) 1 5,8731b (7200kg) Atar 9K-50; (Kfir see separate entry).

Dimensions: Span 27ft (8 22m); length (INC) 50ft Юі’іп (1 5-5m); (IIIB) 50ft 63ІП (1 5-4m), (5) 51 ft (1 5-55m); height 1 3ft 11 Jin (4-25m). Weights: Empty (IIIC) 13,5701b (6156kg); (IIIE) 15,5401b (7050kg); (IIIR) 14,5501b (6600kg); (NIB) 13,8201b (6270kg); (5) 14,5501b (6600kg); loaded (IIIC) 19,7001b (8936kg); (IIIE, MIR, 5) 29,7601b (13,500kg), (NIB) 26,455lb (12,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (all models, clean) 863mph (1390km/h) (Mach 1-14) at sea level, 1,460mph (2350km/h) (Mach 2 2) at altitude; initial climb, over 16,400ft (5000m)/min (time to 36,090ft 11,000m, 3 min); service ceiling (Mach 1-8) 55,775ft (17,000m); range (clean) at altitude about 1,000 miles (1610km): combat radius in attack mission with bombs and tanks (mix not specified) 745 miles (1200km); ferry range with three external tanks 2,485 miles (4000km).

Armament: Two 30mm DEFA 5-52 cannon, each with 125 rounds (normally fitted to all versions except when IIIC carries rocket-boost pack); three 1,000lb (454kg) external pylons for bombs, missiles or tanks (Mirage 5, seven external pylons with maximum capacity of 9,260lb, 4200kg). History: First flight (MD.550 Mirage I) 25 June 1955; (prototype Mirage 111-001) 17-November 1956; (pre-production Mirage IIIA) 12 May 1958; (production IIIC) 9 October 1960; (IIIE) 5 April 1961; (111R) 31 October 1961; (III B) 1 9 July 1 962; (Australian-assembled 1110) 16 November 1963; (Swiss-assembled HIS) 28 October 1965; (prototype 5) 19 May 1967; (Belgian-assembled 5BA) May 1970.

Dassault Mirage III and 5

Users: (III) Abu Dhabi, Argentina,’Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Pakistan, S Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Venezuela; (5) Abu Dhabi, Belgium, Colombia, Egypt, France, Gabon, Libya, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Zaire.

Dassault Mirage III and 5Right: Like the aircraft above this Mirage MIEP, of No 5 Sqn Pakistan Air Force, saw actual combat (against India).

Dassault Mirage III and 5

Development: The Mirage, which has come to symbolise modern aerial combat and to bring additional trade to France and incalculable prestige, especially in defence hardware, began in a most uncertain fashion. It was conceived in parallel with the Etendard II to meet the same Armee de I’Air light interceptor specification of 1952 and was likewise to be powered by two small turbojets (but, in this case, boosted by a liquid-propellant rocket engine in addition). As the small French engines were not ready. Dassault fitted the Mirage I with two British Viper turbojets and before the rocket was fitted this small delta was dived to Mach 1 15. With the rocket it reached Mach 1 -3 in level flight. But Dassault had no faith in the concept of such low-power aircraft and after some work on the twin-Gabizo Mirage II took the plunge and produced a bigger and heavier Mirage III, powered by the 8,820lb thrust Atar 101 G. From this stemmed the pre-production IIIA, with larger but thinner wing and completely redesigned fuselage housing the new Atar 9 engine. On 24 October 1958 Mirage IIIA-01 became the first West European aircraft to attain Mach 2 in level flight.

Dassault Mirage III and 5 Подпись: 1

This clinched the decision of the Armee de I’Air to buy 100 of a slightly developed interceptor called Mirage NIC, fitted either with guns or with a boost rocket for faster climb and better combat performance at heights up to ►

82,000ft. Normally the SEP 844 rocket was fitted to the MIC, the sole armament being air-to-air missiles, such as Sidewinders and the big Matra R.530 used in conjunction with the CSF Cyrano radar, fitted to permit the new fighter to operate in all weather. Altogether 244 C models were delivered, large batches also going to South Africa and Israel (a nation which did much to develop and promote both the III and the 5). From the INC emerged the dual-control 111В trainer, the longer and heavier HIE for ground attack (with Marconi doppler radar for blind low-level navigation, new fire-control and navigation computer, and increased internal fuel) and the 111R family of camera-equipped reconnaissance aircraft. By 1977 about 1,200 of the Mirage III family had been sold, including a fairly standard version made in Australia and an extremely non-standard version made in Switzerland after painful development problems which inflated the price and reduced the numbers bought.

Dassault Mirage III and 5

In 1965 Israel suggested that Dassault should produce a special VFR (clear weather) version for ground attack in the M iddle East, with the radar and fire control avionics removed and replaced by an extra 110 gallons of fuel and more bombs. The result was the Mirage 5 and Israel bought 50 of the first

production batch of 60. It can be distinguished by its longer and much more pointed nose, devoid of radar unless the small Aida II is fitted. For political reasons the French refused to deliver the paid-for Mirages to Israel but more than 500 have been sold to many other countries and 106 were assembled, and partly constructed, in Belgium. Largely as a result of the French action, Israel developed its own improved version of the Mirage (see IAI Kfir, separate entry).

In addition to production aircraft there have been many experimental or unsold variants. One of the latter was the Spey-powered Mirage 111W jointly proposed by Dassault and Boeing as a rival to the F-5 as a standard simple fighter for America’s allies. Another non-starter was the Milan (Kite), fitted with retractable "moustache" foreplanes for shorter field-length and better manoeuvrability (this excellent idea is available on the Mirage 5). By far the biggest development programme concerned the enlarged and more powerful Mirage 11IV V/STOL fighter with a 19,8401b thrust SNECMA TF306 augmented turbofan for propulsion and eight 5,5001b thrust Rolls – Royce RB. 162-31 lift jets. The MIT was a non-VTOL of the same size and the equally large F2 led to the smaller (Atar-size) F1.

Left: Pictured outside the assembly plant near Bordeaux, this Mirage 5DM dual-control trainer was delivered to the air force of Zaire, with two others of this sub-type and 14 single-seaters. Of the total of 17 Mirages no fewer than six were lost in the fighting on the Xhaba battlefront.

Dassault Mirage III and 5Immediately below: The most effective Mirages in the ground-attack role (against enemy radars, at least) are probably the IIIEs of the Armee de I’Air armed with the AS.37 anti-radar Martel. Total production of this extended-range dedicated attack version of the Mirage III was 523.

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Dassault Mirage III and 5
Dassault Mirage III and 5

Foot of page: Nearly all the 27 customers for delta-wing Mirages have bought dual-control trainer versions to accustom pilots to the tricky characteristics of fast-landing deltas which approach ‘on the back of the drag curve’. This is a Mirage 5-DV of the Fuerza Aerea Venezolana, whose Mirages are concentrated at the training and attack base of Barquisimento along with CF-5s.

Hawker Siddeley Gnat/HAL Ajeet

Fo 141 Gnat F.1, HAL Gnat and Ajeet, Hawker Siddeley Gnat T.1

Origin: Folland Aircraft (now British Aerospace), UK: Ajeet, Hindustan Aerospace Ltd, India.

Type: (Gnat 1 and Ajeet) single-seat fighter: (Gnat T.1) advanced trainer. Engine: (Gnat 1) 4.520lb (2050kg) thrust Rolls-Royce (previously Bristol, then Bristol Siddeley) Orpheus 701 single-shaft turbojet: (Gnat ll/Ajeet) 4.670lb (2118kg) HAL-built Orpheus 701E: Gnat T.1, 4.230lb (1920kg) Orpheus 101.

Dimensions: Span (1) 22ft 2in (6-75m); (Ajeet) 22ft 1 in (6 73m), (T.1) 24ft (7-32m): length (1) 29ft 9in (9 06m), (Ajeet) 29ft 8in (9 04m), (T.1) 31ft 9in (9 65m): height (1, Ajeet) 8ft 10in (2-69m). (T.1) 10ft 6in (3-2m). Weights: Empty, (1, Ajeet) typically 4.850lb (2200kg): (T.1) 5,6131b (2546kg): loaded (1, Ajeet, clean) 6,650lb (3016kg): (1, Ajeet, with external stores) 8,885lb (4030kg): (T.1, clean) 8.250lb (3742kg): (T.1. maximum) 9,350lb (4240kg).

Performance: Maximum spee_, (F.1) 714mph (1150km/h): (T.1) 636mph (1026km/h): initial climb, (F.1) 20,000ft (6096m)/min: (T.1) 9,850ft (3000m)/min; service ceiling, (F.1) over 50,000ft (15,250m): (T.1) 48,000ft (14,600m): range, all versions, maximum fuel, 1,180 miles (1900km).

Armament: (F.1, Ajeet) two 30mm Aden cannon, each with 115 rounds: four underwing hardpoints for 1,1001b (454kg) total load. (T.1) no guns, but same underwing load.

History: First flight (Fo 139 Midge) 11 August 1954: (Fo 141 Gnat) 18 July 1955: (T.1) 31 August 1959: (HAL Gnat) 18 November 1959: final delivery (HAL) early 1973: Ajeet, continuing.

Users: Finland (not operational’, India, UK (T.1).

Development: British designer Teddy Better planned the Gnat to reverse the trend towards larger and more complex combat aircraft, considering a simple lightweight fighter would offer equal performance at much lower cost. Folland Aircraft built the low-powered (1,6401b Viper) Midge as a private venture and eventually gained an order for a development batch of six, the first of which flew in May 1 956. India signed a licence agreement in September 1956 and by early 1973 had built 213 at Hindustan Aerospace (HAL) at Bangalore, as well as receiving 25 Mk 1 Gnats and 25 sets of parts from Folland. HAL also built the Orpheus engine. Finland bought 1 2, three having a three-camera nose for FR duties, and two were supplied to

Below: The first true HAL Ajeet pictured in formation with a Kiran Mk 1 on a visit to Britain in 1975.

Hawker Siddeley Gnat/HAL Ajeet

Hawker Siddeley Gnat/HAL Ajeet

Above: Three-view of the Ajeet, showing four stores pylons.

Jugoslavia. The Gna! was modified into a trainer for the RAF. with tandem cockpits, later wing and many other changes and 105 were supplied by Hawker Siddeley (into which Folland was absorbed) in 1962-65. Smoke­making Gnat T.1s equip the Red Arrows aerobatic team. In 1969 HAL began to study an improved Gnat which was finally agreed in 1974. Named Gnat II or Ajeet (Unconquerable), it has integral-tank wings housing the same quantity of fuel as was formerly carried in underwing tanks, thus allowing full weapon load to be carried for undiminished range: it also has improved avionics and many minor changes. HAL Gnats are progressively being brought up to this standard. In prolonged combat duty the HAL Gnats have acquitted themselves well and proved most effective in close combat.

Below: Nose of a Gnat on the flight line at HAL’s Bangalore factory. The fuel in the drop tank is carried inside the Ajeet wing.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-25

Mig-25 ("Foxbat A"), -25R and -25U

Origin: The design bureau named for Mikoyan and Gurevich, Soviet Union. Type: "Foxbat A" (believed to be MiG-25S), all-weather long-range interceptor: MiG-25R, reconnaissance: MiG-25U, tandem-seat dual

trainer with stepped cockpits.

Engines: Two Tumansky R-31 afterburning turbojets each rated at 27,000lb (12,250kg) with full augmentation.

Dimensions: Span 46ft (14-0m): length ("A”) 73ft 2in (22-3m). (R)

74ft 6in (22-7m), (U) about 76ft (23■ 1 6m): height 18ft 6in (5 63m). Weights: (Fighter) empty 44,000lb (19,960kg): normal loaded 68,350lb (31,000kg): maximum loaded with external missiles or tanks 79,800lb (36,200kg).

Performance: (Estimated) maximum speed at altitude 2,1 OOmph

(3380km/h. Mach 3-2): initial climb, about 50,000ft (15,240m)/min: service ceiling 73,000ft (22,250m): high-altitude combat radius without external fuel, 700 miles (1130km).

Armament: (" A") four underwing pylons each carrying one AA-6 air-to – air missile (two radar, two infra-red) or other store: no guns: ("-B") none. History: First flight (E-266 prototype) probably 1964: (production reconnaissance version) before 1969: (production interceptor) probably 1969: service delivery (both) 1970 or earlier.

Users: Algeria. Libya, Soviet Union.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-25

Development: This large and powerful aircraft set a totally new level in combat-aircraft performance. The prototypes blazed a trail of world records in 1965-67 including closed-circuit speeds, payload-to-height and rate of climb records. The impact of what NATO quickly christened "Foxbat" was unprecedented. Especially in the Pentagon, Western policymakers recog­nised that here was a combat aircraft that outclassed everything else, and urgent studies were put in hand for a new US Air Force fighter (F-15 Eagle) to counter it. By 1971 at least two pairs of reconnaissance aircraft were flying with impunity over Israel, too high and fast for Phantoms to catch, while others have made overflights deep into Iran. This version is different in many respects, the nose having cameras instead of a "Fox Fire" radar, and other sensors being carried under the large body. Both versions have twin outward-sloping vertical tails, single mainwheels and a flush canopy

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-25Above: Night takeoff by a section of MiG – 25 ‘Foxbat-A’ all – weather inter­ceptors.

Above: Three-view of MiG-25 ("Foxbat A") with side view (bottom) of -25U.

shaped for speed rather than pilot view. From the start the main development effort has been applied to the basic MiG-25 (so-called "Foxbat A") inter­ceptor, which has been developed in structure, systems and armament since first entering service with the PVO. In 1 975 the original AA-5 missiles were supplemented, and later replaced, by the monster AA-6 "Acrid”, which is easily the biggest air/air missile in service in the world. The radar-homing version has a length of about 20ft 2in (6-1 5m) and effective range of 28 miles (45km): the infra-red missiles have a length of just over "19ft (5-8m) and range of some 12-5 miles (20km). Another major improvement since entering service is flight-refuelling capability, not yet fitted to all MiG-25 versions. The detailed inspection of an interceptor version landed at Hakodate AB, Japan, on 6 September 1976, showed that in service pilots are forbidden to use the limits of the available flight performance, presum­ably to avoid thermal fatigue of the airframe: it also showed this particular machine to have early "Fox Fire" radar comparable in basic technology with the AWG-10 Phantom radar (as would be expected). Radars in current production are unquestionably solid-state pulse-doppler types able to look down and track low-flying aircraft against ground clutter. Several MiG-25s. most of them MiG-25R models on ELINT missions, have been plotted by Western radars at Mach 2-8. It should be emphasized that at this speed the MiG-25 – and any other aircraft – flies in a straight line. The MiG-25 was not designed for air combat, and if it became involved in a dogfight its speed would – like any other aircraft — soon be subsonic. The MiG-25U trainer carries neither weapons nor sensors, but is needed to convert pilots to what is still, 15 years after design, a very advanced and demanding aircraft.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-25Подпись: 1Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-25
Below: Artist’s impression of the basic ‘Foxbat-A’ inter­ceptor version of MiG-25, essentially similar to the aircraft in which Lt Belenko defected to Japan in 1976.

Sukhoi Su-19

Su-19 versions known to NATO as "Fencer"

Origin: The design bureau of Pavel 0. Sukhoi. Soviet Union.

Type: Two-seat multi-role combat aircraft.

Engines: Two afterburning turbofan or turbojet engines, probably two 24,500lb (11.113kg) Lyulka AL-21F3.

Dimensions: (Estimated) span (spread, about 22°) 56ft 3in (17-5m), swept (about 72°) 31ft 3in (9-53m); length 69ft 10in (21 -29m); height 21ft (6-4m).

Weights: (Estimated) empty 35,000lb (15,875kg): maximum loaded 70.000lb (31.750kg).

Performance: (Estimated) maximum speed, clean, 950mph (1 530km/h, Mach 1-25) at sea level, about 1,650mph (2655km/h, Mach 2-5) at altitude: initial climb, over 40,000ft (12,200m)/min: service ceiling, about 60,000ft (18,290m), combat radius with maximum weapons, about 500 miles (805km): ferry range, over 2,500 miles (4025km).

Armament: One 23mm GSh-23 twin-barrel cannon in lower centreline: at least six pylons on fuselage, fixed and swinging wings, for wide range of stores including guided and unguided air-to-ground or air-to-air missiles. History: First flight, probably about 1970: service delivery. 1974 or earlier. User: Soviet Union (mainly FA).

Development: First identified publicly in the West by the Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, who described the Su-19 as “the first modern Soviet fighter to be developed specifically as a fighter-bomber for the ground-attack mission", this aircraft will probably be the chief tactical attack aircraft of the Soviet V-VS in 1980. Like the rival but much smaller MiG-27, the Su-19 is an extremely clean machine strongly reminiscent of the F-111 and Mirage G, having side-by-side seats and wing and tailplane

Sukhoi Su-19Above: This drawing is believed to be as true to life as any yet published – and certainly much better than most, which among other things fail to show a nose large enough to contain the powerful radar. It is worth noting that in 1980, six years after this type entered service and at least 10 years after prototype completion, not one had been seen outside the Soviet Union or even clearly photographed (see below).

Right: In 1980 this blurred shape was still the only authentic illustration of the Su-19 available. It emphasizes the aspect ratio (slenderness in plan shape) of the extremely efficient swingwings, the size of the sensor-studded nose and the large area of the fixed wing gloves, and the main gears which probably have twin wheels.

Sukhoi Su-19

Three-view of Su-19, showing range of sweep (provisional).

Sukhoi Su-19
at the same level, as in the US machine, yet following the French aircraft in general layout. In general capability the nearest Western equivalent is the F-14 Tomcat, which shows just how formidable this aircraft is. Whereas "Foxbat" was on many Western lips in the 1960s, so is "Fencer" a big scare-word in the 1970s. Features of the first service version include a typical Sukhoi tail, but with ventral fins; double-shock side inlets; full-span slats and double-slotted flaps; and very extensive avionics (thought to include a multi-mode attack radar, doppler. laser ranger and very com­prehensive EW/ECM installations).

Dassault Mirage 2000

Mirage 2000 (single – and two-seat versions)

Origin: Avions Marcel Dassault/Breguet Aviation. France.

Type: Multi-role fighter with emphasis on interception and air superiority combat.

Engine: One SNECMA M53-5 single-shaft afterburning by-pass turbojet (low-ratio turbofan) with maximum thrust of 12,3501b (5602kg) dry and 19.8401b (9000kg) with afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 29ft 6in (9 0m): length 50ft 3^in (15-33m).

Weights: Empty, not released: normal takeoff, air-intercept mission 33,0001b (14,969kg).

Performance: Maximum speed at 36,000ft (11,000m) Mach 2-3, 1,518mph (2440km/h).

Armament: Two 30mm DEFA 5-53 cannon: normal air-intercept load two Matra Super 530 and two Matra 550 Magic air-to-air missiles: intention is to develop ground-attack version with maximum overload of 1 1,0251b (5000kg) of weapons and/or tanks and ECM pods on five external hard – points.

History: Announcement of project December 1975: first flight 10 March 1978: production delivery, probably late 1982.

Users: Egypt (intended licence-production), France.

Development: In December 1975 the French government cancelled the Dassault-Breguet Super Mirage, which had been publicised as the Avion de Combat Futur and mainstay of the Armee de I’Air in the 1 980s. In its place it announced a decision to award a study contract with Marcel Dassault for a smaller and simpler single-engined delta fighter outwardly looking very much like the Mirage III of 20 years earlier. In fact the Mirage 2000 — some-

Dassault Mirage 2000





Dassault Mirage 2000

Dassault Mirage 2000

Above: Three-view of Dassault Mirage 2000.

times called the Delta 2000 – will differ significantly from the old Mirage, in aerodynamics, propulsion, structure and equipment. Aerodynamically it will be designed to incorporate American discoveries in CCV (control – configured vehicle) technology, in which aircraft are deliberately made unstable – for example, by positioning the centre of gravity much further back than usual – and using high-authority fail-safe flight-control systems to keep them under control. The result is either a smaller wing or, as in the Mirage 2000. dramatically higher manoeuvrability. Unlike the earlier Mirage deltas the 2000 will have leading-edge devices, either hinged droops or some form of slats, which will work in conjunction with the trailing-edge elevons to counteract the unstable pitching moment, or, in

Below: The second prototype Dassault Mirage 2000, with two Matra Super 530 air-to-air missiles (which are intended to be a standard weapon on aircraft of this type with the Armes de I’Air).

Dassault Mirage 2000

tight turn, relax their effort or even help the aircraft to pitch nose-up. In the landing configuration the leading-edge devices (the French call it a "variable-camber" wing) will allow the elevons to be deflected down, adding to lift, whereas in earlier tailless deltas they have to be deflected up, effec­tively adding to weight just at the worst time.

Already the Mirage 2000 is being publicised as "being able to outclass combat aircraft presently being developed and produced in the Western world". It will have: "fly-by-wire" multi-channel electrically signalled flight controls: composite materials, carbon fibre being mentioned: large – radius Karman fairings (a reference to area ruling of the fuselage for minimum transonic drag): an elaborate weapon system with "g. p." (general-purpose?) computer and inertial unit; and long-range digital radar. Ratio of thrust to weight is to exceed unity. Such features are what one would expect of such an aircraft, but the problems are clearly enormous, especially in a time of severe inflation and economic pressures. France has since 1975 made attempts to acquire the base of technology, especially in digital avionics, necessary to build the Mirage 2000, but has little capability as yet. Only a single French aircraft, a two-seat Mirage 111В with Sfena system, has flown with a primitive fly-by-wire system. Thomson-CSF estimate it will take "seven to eight years" to develop a 170-km-range digital radar needed to match the developed Super 530 missile. France has little experience of advanced composite structures, and that only in small test pieces and heli­copters. SNECMA has not announced how the M53 engine, with very limited flight-time and no other application, is going to be increased in thrust by 35 per cent. If the aircraft to fly in 1 978 is truly a prototype, and not the first off a production line, it will need everything to go right to meet an in-service date of 1982 with a developed aircraft. Not least, the proposed price of Fr40 to 50 million (£4 5 to 5-5 million) will be extremely difficult to hold, even in December 1 975 Francs, because the magnitude of the system – development problems to France appear to have been grossly under­estimated.

Dassault Mirage 2000

In the original announcement the Mirage 2000 was described as "limited to high-speed and high-level interception and reconnaissance. . . . Attack and penetration at low levels will be undertaken by a different type." (The cancelled Super Mirage had been intended to fulfil all tactical roles.) But in December 1976 the Chief of Staff of the Armee de I’Air said he personally considered it would be necessary to build an interdictor and reconnaissance (he implied at low level) version of the Mirage 2000. It became known at this time that the new delta will apparently have nine weapon stations, which is diametrically opposed to the uncompromised high-altitude dog – finht concent announced in December 1975: and low-level use is dia-

metrically opposed to a large-area delta. The Armee de I ‘Air has from the start hoped to buy 200 Mirage 2000s, twice the number it judged it could afford of the Super Mirage. But future progress of the programme, helped by US industry strictly on an inter-company rather than a government basis, will be instructive to watch.

Hindustan HF-24 Marut

HAL HF-24 Mk I, IT and II

Origin: Hindustan Aeronautics, India.

Type: Single-seat fighter and ground attack (IT, two-seat trainer). Engines: Two 4,8501b (2200kg) thrust Rolls-Royce (originally-Bristol, then Bristol Siddeley) Orpheus 703 single-shaft turbojets, licence-made by HAL.

Dimensions: Span 26ft 63ІП (9m): length 52ft Ofin (15-87m); height 11ft 9Jin (3-6m).

Weights: (Mk I) empty 13,6581b (6195kg): loaded (clean) 19,7341b (8951kg): loaded (maximum) 24,085lb (10,925kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, 691 mph (111 2km/h, Mach 0-91) at sea level, about 675mph (1086km/h, Mach 1-02) at altitude: time to climb to 40,000ft (12,200m) 9min 20sec: range on internal fuel about 620 miles (1000km).

Armament: Four 30mm Aden Mk 2 cannon each with 1 20 rounds, retract­able Matra pack of 50 SNEB 68mm rockets, and four wing pylons each rated at 1.0001b (454kg).

History: First flight 17 June 1961: (pre-production) March 1963: (series production) 15 November 1967; (Mk IT) 30 April 1970.

User: India.

Hindustan HF-24 Marut
Development: After 1950 the Indian government decided to authorise development of an Indian combat aircraft, and the services of Dipl -1 ng Kurt Tank, the renowned Focke-Wulf designer, were secured to lead a new team formed by Hindustan Aircraft at Banglore. Detail design began in 1956, the objective being to create a multi-role aircraft potentially capable of reach­ing Mach 2 with minimal technical risk. The prototype, powered by two of the same engines already being produced for the Gnat, proved generally successful, and two of the 18 pre-production Maruts ("Wind Spirit")-were officially handed over (though as a token delivery) to the IAF in May 1964, the year the company reorganised and expanded into its present form as

Hindustan Aeronautics. By the end of 1 976 about 100 production Mk Is had been delivered, many of them being used (without loss) in the December 1971 war against Pakistan. The Mk IT has a second Martin-Baker seat in place of the rocket pack and has since 1974 also been produced in small numbers as a dual conversion and weapon trainer. In 1967 the German staff left and an Indian design team has since continued the 20-year search for a more powerful engine. HAL has tested afterburning engines and flew the Marut IBX with one Orpheus replaced by an Egyptian Brandner E-300. but the most likely solution will be the HSS-73 (Marut III) with two Turbo – Union RB.1 99 engines in a considerably improved airframe. Despite obvious handicaps HAL has already created a useful multi-role platform which could carry radar, cameras or other equipment and has reached a satis­factory state of operational development. The Mk III could continue the same basic design to the end of the century.

Hindustan HF-24 Marut

Hindustan HF-24 Marut

Left: One of the production HF-24 Marut Mk 1 fighter/ attack aircraft, with four guns and underwing drop tanks.

Hindustan HF-24 Marut
Below: This more recent Mk 1 Marut has noticeably different dielectric (electronics aerial) fairings on the spine and fin, besides having the upper cannon deleted and blanked off.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-27

MiG-27 "Flogger D” and "Flogger F"

Origin: The design bureau named for. Mikoyan and Gurevich,. Soviet Union: no production outside the Soviet Union yet reported.

Type: Single-seat tactical attack, probably with reconnaissance capability. Engine: One Tumansky R-29B afterburning turbofan rated at 17,6401b (8000kg) dry and 25,3501b (11,500kg) with full afterburner. Dimensions: Similar to MiG-23 except fuselage nose is longer but pitot head shorter giving fractionally shorter overall length: height about 1 5ft (4-6m).

Weights (estimated): Empty 17,3001b (7850kg): maximum loaded 44,3101b (20,100kg).

Performance: Maximum speed at low level (clean) about Mach 10, (maximum weight) subsonic: maximum speed at high altitude (clean) about 1,055mph (1700km/h, Mach 1 -6): take-off to 50ft (1 5m) at 34,600lb (15,700kg) 2,625ft (800m): service ceiling (clean) about 50,000ft (15,250m): combat radius with bombs and one tank (hi-lo-hi) 600 miles (960km): ferry range (wings spread with three tanks) over 2,000 miles (3200km).

Armament: One 23mm six-barrel Gatling-type gun in belly fairing: seven external pylons (centreline, fuselage flanks under inlet ducts, fixed wing gloves and swing-wings) for wide range of ordnance including guided missiles (AS-7 "Kerry") and tactical nuclear weapons to total weight of 4,200lb (1900kg). All ECM are internal and all’pylons are thus usable by weapons or tanks. Those on the outer wings are not always fitted: they are piped for drop tanks, but do not pivot and thus may be loaded only when the wings remain unswept.

History: First flight, possibly about 1970: service delivery, before 1974. Users: Cuba, Egypt, E Germany, Iraq, Poland, Soviet Union, Syria.

Development: Derived from the same variable-geometry prototype flown by the MiG bureau at the 1967 Aviation Day. this aircraft was at first called ”MiG-23B" in the West but is now known to have a different Soviet service designation that is almost certainly MiG-27. Bureau numbers are generally unknown for the MiG series: Mikoyan himself died in December 1970 and Gurevich in November 1976. and recent designs are known only by their service numbers. Compared with the MiG-23 this attack version carries heavier loads and is simpler and optimised for low-level operation. The air­frame differs in having a shallower nose with a flat pointed profile housing mapping/terrain-following radar, laser ranger, doppler radar and radio alti­meter, with good pilot view ahead and downward. The cockpit is heavily armoured. The engine is more powerful than that of the MiG-23 but is fed by fixed inlets and has a shorter and simpler nozzle. Main wheels are fitted with large low-pressure tyres, and special provision is made for rough-field opera­tion. Internal ECM equipment is extensive, and pods on the wing-glove leading edges appear to contain an opto-electronic seeker (left) and passive radar receiver (right). Internal fuel capacity is estimated at 1,1 83 Imp gallons

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-27

Above: Three-view of MiG-27 without swing-wing pylons.

(5380lit) including fuel in the fin: no provision for flight refuelling has been noted. The "Flogger F” has the engine installation and gun of the MiG-23, with variable inlets, and lack the comprehensive MiG-27 avionics. These are thought to be development aircraft or an export version. Possible problems with the basic aircraft are suggested by reports that in a few months the Syrian AF has written off 13 out of 50 supplied.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-27

Above: Russian pilots pose for a propaganda picture in front of their extremely well-equipped MiG-27 ‘Flogger-D’ attack aircraft.

Below: Egyptian ‘Flogger-F’ versions have export designation MiG-23.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-27

Tupolev Tu-28P

Tu-28P "Fiddler";

Tupolev bureau, Tu-102 or Tu-128

Origin: The design bureau of Andrei N. Tupolev, Soviet Union.

Type: Long-range all-weather interceptor.

Engines: Originally, two large axial turbojets of unknown type, each with afterburning rating of about 27,000lb (12,250kg), probably similar to those of Tu-22; later versions, afterburning turbofans of about 30,0001b (13,610 kg) each, as in later Tu-22.

Dimensions: (Estimated) span 65ft (20m): length 85ft (26m): height 23ft (7m).

Weights: (Estimated) empty 55,000lb (25,000kg): maximum loaded 100,0001b (45.000kg).

Performance: (Estimated) maximum speed (with missiles, at height) 1,150mph (1850km/h, Mach 1 75): initial climb, 25,OOOft (7500m)/min: service ceiling (not gross weight) about 60,000ft (18,000m): range-on internal fuel (high Patrol) about 1,800 miles (2900km).

Armament: No guns seen in any version; mix of infra-red homing and radar-homing "Ash” air-to-air guided missiles, originally one of each and since 1965 two of each.

History: First flight, believed 1957; service delivery, probably 1961.

User: Soviet Union (PVO).

Tupolev Tu-28P

Development: Largest fighter known to be in service in the world, this formidable machine is essentially conventional yet has the greatest internal fuel capacity of any fighter and the biggest interception radar known to exist. It was one of a number of supersonic types produced by the Tupolev bureau with technology explored with the family of aircraft of the late 1950s known to NATO as "Backfin" (another is the Tu-22), Like the

Tupolev Tu-28PRight: A flight-line of what are in many respects the largest interceptors in regular combat service. The Tupolev bureau has played every kind of tune on this classic basic design, relatives of which are seen in the Tu-22 ‘Blinder’ and the swing-wing ‘Backfire’ long-range multi-role aircraft. It has been reported that the IA – PVO has a missile­armed interceptor version of the Tu-22 in service as a replace­ment for the Tu-28P.

Three-view of the Tu-28P long-range interceptor, with four "Ash" air-to-air missiles.

others the Tu-28P has a distinctive wing with sharply kinked trailing edge, the outer 45° panels being outboard of large fairings extending behind the trailing edge accommodating the four-wheel bogie landing gears. Two crew sit in tandem under upward-hinged canopies, and all armament is carried on wing pylons. Early versions had twin ventral fins and usually large belly fairings, but these features are absent from aircraft in current service. The Tu-28P would be an ideal strategic patrol fighter to operate in conjunction with the ”Moss" AWACS.

Tupolev Tu-28P

Tupolev Tu-28P

Left: A typical Tu-28P of the IA-PVO, with МАТО code-name of ‘Fiddler’. Usually these very large long-range aircraft carry two IR – homing and two radar­homing versions of the ‘Ash’ air-to-air missile.

Dassault Super Mirage 4000

Type: Multi-role combat aircraft.

Engines: (prototype) two SNECMA M53-5 single-shaft afterburning by-pass turbojets each with maximum thrust of 19,8401b (9000kg). Armament: Not fitted to prototype.

History: Company launch January 1976: first flight 9 March 1979. User: None announced (August 1979).

In January 1976 Marcel Dassault announced that, as a private venture, he was launching the Delta Super Mirage as a long-range multi-role aircraft for export. One hesitates to doubt the credibility of either the man or the com­pany, but to fund such a programme would need many times the net worth of the company, and no consortium of overseas buyers (South Africans? Arabs? Black Africans?) appears to be conceivable. It would not be im­possible for the company to finish the defunct tailed Super Mirage prototype, which was to have flown in July 1976, as an empty shell to show possible customers what the proposed Delta Super Mirage would look like. To develop it as an operational aircraft does not by any stretch of the imagination appear possible. One is left to conclude that M Dassault either expects the French government to find the money, which is extremely unlikely, or he hopes to organise a programme involving a large number of nations pre­pared to share the costs and risks.

Aerodynamically the 4000 closely resembles a scale-up (about *1-25) of the 2000, but with a proportionately larger fin and the important addition of electrically signalled powered canards on the inlets in place of the smaller fighter’s fixed strakes. The radar is the completely new RDM (Radar Doppler Multifonction) Cyrano 500, tested in a Vautour and also intended for export models of Mirage 2000. An l-band track-while-scan set, it is a frequency-agile pulse-Dopplor with several functions unavailable in the RDI (Radar Doppler Impulsions) of the regular 2000.

Dassault Super Mirage 4000
Below: This formation of the Super Mirage 4000 with two prototype Mirage 2000s shows the relative sizes of the two designs, and the slightly different aerodynamics (with controllable foreplanes) of the later twin-engined aircraft.

IAI Kfir

Kfir and Kf ir-C2

Origin: Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel.

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber.

Engine: One 17,900lb (81 20kg) thrust General Electric J79-17 single-shaft turbojet with afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 26ft 11-Jin (822m): length approximately 54ft (16-5m): height 1 3ft 11-jin (4-25m).

Weights: Empty 14,9601b (6785kg): loaded (fighter mission, half internal fuel, two Shafrir) 20,4701b (9305kg): maximum loaded 32,1 20lb (14,600kg). Performance: (Fighter configuration): maximum speed 850mph

(1370km/h, Mach 112) at sea level, 1,550mph (2495km/h, Mach 2-35) at altitude: initial climb 40,000ft (1 2.200m)/min: service ceiling, 55,000ft (16,765m): range on internal fuel 700 miles (1125km).

Armament: Two 30mm DEFA 553 cannon, each with 150 rounds: external weapon load up to 8,500lb (3855kg), normally including one ECM pod and two Shafrir air/air missiles.

History: First flight, prior to 1 974: service delivery, prior to 1 975.

Users: Argentina (Atar-powered Dagger version), Israel.

IAI Kfir

Development: In the 1950s the beleaguered state of Israel looked prin­cipally to France for its combat aircraft and it was mainly with Israeli partner­ship that Dassault was able to develop the original Mirage NIC as a combat type. In the fantastic Six-Day War of 5-10 June 1967 the Israeli Mirage IIICJ starred as the most brilliantly flown combat aircraft of modern times: but Dassault was angrily told by Gen de Gaulle not to deliver the improved Mirage 5 attack aircraft which had been developed for Israel and already paid for. With this history it was a foregone conclusion that Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) at Lod Airport should be directed to apply their great technical expertise to making Israel more self-sufficient in combat aircraft and, in particular, to devising an improved IAI development of the Mirage which could be built in Israel. By 1 971 there were reports of a Mirage powered by the J79 engine, supposedly named Barak (Lightning), and such aircraft were even said to have participated in quantity in the 1973 Yom Kippur war. On 14 April 1975 the truth (some of it) escaped when tight Israeli security relented briefly at the public unveiling of the Kfir (Lion Cub). Described as one of the cheapest modern combat aircraft, the Kfir is not a remanufactured IIICJ – though the prototypes were – but a new multi-role fighter bomber making a significant advance over previous delta Mirages. The engine is considerably more powerful and necessitated redesign of the fuselage and addition of a ram-cooling inlet ahead of the fin. The shorter engine results in a shorter rear fuselage, but the nose is much lengthened and .equipped with

Подпись: Above: Three-view of IAI Kfir C2.

comprehensive avionics. The entire flight-control and weapon delivery system is by IAI companies and a generation later than that even of the Mirage F1. Though the Kfir did not mature in time to participate in the 1973 war, IAI did clear a number of locally built Atar-powered machines called Neshers which took part in that conflict. The Kfir has continued to develop considerably since entering service in early 1975, and by mid-1976 – when about one-third of the planned force of over 100 were in service — details were released of the Kfir-C2. This incorporates a sharply swept fixed fore­plane above the wing-root leading edge, dogtooth extensions to the outer wings and small fences on each side of the nose. The C2 has improved takeoff and landing and considerably better flight manoeuvrability. All Kfirs are believed to have one autopilot channel with electric "fly by wire" signalling. Production rate is about four per month, and in 1976 IAI an­nounced that it would welcome export orders, at a unit price (without support or spares) of only about $4 5 million. Discussions were then in progress with Austria and certain S. American countries.