FMAIA 58 Pucara

IA 50 Gil, IA 58 and Astafan Trainer

Origin: FMA (Military Aircraft Factory), Argentina,

Type: IA 58, tactical attack and counter-insurgency: IA 50, utility transport and survey; Trainer, trainer and light attack.

Engines: (IA 58) two 1,022ehp ТигЬотёса Astazou XVIG single-shaft turboprops; (IA 50) two 1,000ehp Turbomeca Bastan VIC single-shaft turboprops; (Trainer) two 2,7101b (1230kg) thrust ТигЬотёса Astafan geared turbofans.

Dimensions: Span (IA 58 and Trainer) 47ft 6gin (14 5m); (IA 50) 64ft 3iin (19’59m); length (IA 50 and Trainer) 46ft 3in (14-1m); (IA 50) 50ft 2iin (15’3m); height (IA 58 and Trainer) 17ft 7in (5-36m); (IA 50) 18ft 5in (5 ■ 61 m).

Weights: Empty (IA 58) 8,9001b (4037kg), (IA 50) 8,6501b (3924kg); (Trainer) 8,3771b (3800kg); loaded (IA 58) 14,3001b (6486kg); (IA 50) 17.0851b (7750kg); (Trainer) 14.3301b (6500kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (IA 58) 323mph (520km/h); (IA 50) 310mph (500km/h); (Trainer) about 400mph (643km/h); initial climb (IA 58) 3,543ft (1080m)/min; (IA 50) 2,640ft (805m)/min; service ceiling (IA 58) 27,165ft (8280m); (IA 50) 41,000ft (12,500m); range with maxi­mum fuel (IA 58) 1,890 miles (3042km); (IA 50) 1,600 miles (2575km). Armament: IA 58, and optional for Trainer, two 20mm Hispano cannon and four 7-62mm FN machine guns in forward fuselage; pylons under fuselage and outer wings for up to 3.307lb (1 500kg) of stores or tanks. History: First flight (IA 50) 23 April 1963; (IA 58) 20 August 1969; (service delivery of I A-58) November 1974.

Users: Argentina, Bolivia (?).

FMAIA 58 Pucara

Development: The unusual but effective Pucara was derived from the larger IA 50 Gil (Guarani II) multi-role transport, noted for its slender unswept wings but sharply swept fin and rudder. The first production batch of Gil’s comprised 18 to the Argentine Air Force for communications and seating for up to 15 passengers, four as photo survey aircraft with the

FMAIA 58 Pucara

Military Geographic Institute and one as a VIP transport for the President of Argentina. Many others were ordered later, some having ski gear for use in the Antarctic. The smaller IA 58 seats pilot and observer in tandem Martin – Baker ejection seats and is well equipped for all-weather tactical Co-In operations. Deliveries began in 1975 on the first batch of 30 for the Argentine Air Force, with further batches up to a predicted total of 100 being discussed. Interest has been expressed by several other nations in this versatile and cost/ effective aircraft, which can operate from rough strips down to about 2,000ft in length. The Trainer uses the IA 58 airframe restressed to have two turbofan engines on the sides of the fuselage, the twin-wheel main gears retracting forwards into wing pods in the same locations as the engine nacelles on the IA 58. It was expected that this project would lead to a tactical Со-In version, but development has been delayed by inflation.

FMAIA 58 Pucara
Below: The first production Pucara, which flew in November 1974; about 30 had been delivered by the summer of 1979.

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

A-4A to A-4S and TA-4 series

Origin: Douglas Aircraft Co. El Segundo (now division of McDonnell Douglas, Long Beach). USA.

Type: Single-seat attack bomber: ТА, dual-control trainer.

Engine: (В, C. L, P. Q. S) one 7,7001b (3493kg) thrust Wright J65-16A single-shaft turbojet (US Sapphire): (E, J) 8.5001b (3856kg) Pratt & Whitney J52-6 two-shaft turbojet: (F, G, H, K) 9.3001b (4218kg) J52-8A: (M, N) 11,2001b (5080kg) J52-408A.

Dimensions: Span 27ft 6in (8 38m): length (A) 39ft 1 in; (B) 39ft 6in (42ft 10Jin over FR probe); (E, F. G. H. K, L, P, Q. S) 40ft 1 iin (12-22m); (M, N) 40ft 3Jin (1227m); (ТА series, excluding probe) 42ft 7^in (1 2-98m); height 1 5ft (4 57m); (early single-seaters 1 5ft 2in, ТА series 1 5ft 3in). Weights: Empty (A) 7.700lb; (E) 9,284lb; (typical modern single-seat, eg M) 10.4651b (4747kg); (TA-4F) 10,602 (4809kg); maximum loaded (A) 17,0001b; (B) 22,0001b; (all others, shipboard) 24,5001b (11,113kg); (land-based) 27.420lb (12,437kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) (B) 676mph; (E) 685mph; (M) 670mph (1078km/h): (TA-4F) 675mph; maximum speed (4.000lb, 1814kg bomb load) (F) 593mph; (M) 645mph; initial climb (F) 5,620ft (1713m)/ min; (M) 8,440ft (2572m)/min; service ceiling (all, clean) about 49,000ft (14,935m); range (clean, or with 4,000lb weapons and max fuel, all late versions) about 920 miles (1480km); maximum range (M) 2,055 miles (3307km).

Armament: Standard on most versions, two 20mm Mk 12 cannon, each with 200 rounds; (FI, N, and optional on other export versions) two 30mm DEFA 553, each with 150 rounds. Pylons under fuselage and wings for total ordnance load of (А, В, C) 5,000lb (2268kg); (E, F, G, FI, K, L. P, Q, S) 8,200lb (3720kg); (M, N) 9,1551b (4153kg).

Flistory: First flight (XA4D-1) 22 June 1954; (A-4A) 14 August 1954, squadron delivery October 1956; (A-4C) August 1959; (A-4E) July 1961; (A-4F) August 1966; (A-4M) April 1970; (A-4N) June 1972; first of ТА series (TA-4E) June 1965.

Users: Argentina, Australia, Israel, Kuwait, New Zealand, Singapore, USA (Air Force in SE Asia, Navy, Marine Corps).

Development: Most expert opinion in the US Navy refused to believe the claim of Ed Fleinemann. chief engineer of what was then Douglas El Segundo, that he could build a jet attack bomber weighing half the 30,0001b

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

Above: Three-view of McDonnell Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II.


specified by the Navy. The first Skyhawk, nicknamed "Heinemann’s Hot Rod", not only flew but gained a world record by flying a 500km circuit at over 695mph. Today, more than 23 years later, greatly developed versions are still in production, setting an unrivalled record for sustained manufacture. These late versions do weigh close to 30.0001b, but only because the basic design has been improved with more powerful engines, increased fuel capacity and much heavier weapon load. The wing was made in a single unit, forming an integral fuel tank and so small it did not need to fold. Hundreds of Skyhawks have served aboard carriers, but in the US involve­ment in SE Asia "The Scooter" (as it was affectionately known) flew many kinds of mission from land bases. In early versions the emphasis was on improving range and load and the addition of all-weather avionics. The F model introduced the dorsal hump containing additional avionics, and the M. the so-called Skyhawk II, marked a major increase in mission effectiveness. Most of the TA-4 trainers closely resembled the corresponding single – seater, but the TA-4J and certain other models have simplified avionics and the TA-4S (Singapore) is a rebuild by Lockheed Aircraft Service with two separate humped cockpits and an integral-tank fuselage. Production of the M for the US Marine Corps continued in production to the 2,960th Skyhawk in February 1 979,

McDonnell Douglas A-4 SkyhawkLeft: In no country has the Skyhawk seen more combat duty, nor suffered such heavy losses, as Israel. This A-4H (H for Hebrew) is typical of the large force which even today equip six combat – ready Heyl Ha’Avir squadrons.

McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
Below: Launching a Shrike anti-radar missile from a ‘Camel’ (hump-backed A-4) from US Navy attack squadron VA-55 at the Pacific Missile Range.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

OV-ЮА to -10E

Origin: Rockwell International Corp, USA.

Type: (Except B) two-seat multi-role counter-insurgency: (B) target tug. Engines: (Except B(Z)) two 715ehp AiResearch T76-410/411 single­shaft centrifugal turboprops: (B(Z) ) as other versions plus General Electric J85-4 turbojet of 2,950lb (1338kg) thrust above fuselage.

Dimensions: Span 40ft (12-19m); length (except D) 41ft 7in (12-67m); (D) 44ft (1 3-4m); height 1 5ft 2in (462m).

Weights: Empty (A) 6,969lb (3161kg): maximum loaded (A) 14,4661b (6563kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (A, sea level, clean) 281 mph (452km/h): initial climb 2,300ft (700m)/min: (B(Z) ) 6,800ft/min: service ceiling 30,000ft (91 50m): range with maximum weapon load, about 600 miles (960km): ferry range at 12,0001b gross, 1,428 miles (2300km). Armament: Four 7-62mm M60C machine guns in sponsons; 1,2001b (544kg) hardpoint on centreline and four 6001b (272kg) points under sponsons: one Sidewinder missile rail under each wing; (OV-10D) as other versions plus three-barrel 20mm cannon in remotely aimed ventral power turret.

History: First flight 16 July 1965; (production OV-10A) 6 August 1967; (YOV-10D) 9 June 1970.

Users: W Germany, Indonesia, S Korea, Thailand, USA (Air Force, Marine Corps), Venezuela.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

Development: Recognising that no US aircraft was tailored to the urgent task of fighting Со-In (counter-insurgency) operations, or "brush-fire wars", the US Department of Defense in 1960 began study of the problem and in 1962 issued a joint USAF/Navy/Marine Corps specification for a Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LARA). The winner, in 1964, was

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco

Above: Three-view of OV-IOA with side view (bottom) of OV-10B(Z).

the Bronco. Designed to operate from short rough strips (or on floats or skis) it can carry a wide range of tactical equipment and weapons, including doppler radar, TV reconnaissance, five paratroops or two casualties. The OV-ЮА was ordered in October 1966 and by 1969 the Marine Corps had 114, while the USAF were using 1 57 for Forward Air Control (FAC) duties in Vietnam. In 1969 Pave Nail Conversion of 15 aircraft fitted them with laser rangers, stabilized night sighting system, Loran and other devices for night FAC, attack or target illumination for other aircraft. The В and jet – boosted B(Z) are used by the Luftwaffe. The OV-1OD has Night Observation Gunship (NOGS) equipment, with long-nosed IR sensor, cannon turret and, as a conversion, 1 .OOOehp T76 engines.

Rockwell International OV-IO Bronco
Below: Almost identical to the basic American OV-1 OA is the OV-10F, 16 of which were supplied to Indonesia. They equip one squadron dedicated to counter-insurgent duties, though the aircraft is also equipped for the carriage of 3,200lb (1452kg) of cargo, five parachute troops or two stretcher casualties.

General Dynamics F-16

Model 401, YF-16, F-16A, F-16B

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth, USA, with widespread sub­contract manufacture in Europe and European assembly of aircraft for European customers (see text).

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber; (B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.000lb (10,885kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 two-shaft afterburning turbofan.

Dimensions: Span (no Sidewinders) 31ft Oin (9-45m), (with Sidewinders) 32ft 10in (10 01m); length (excl probe) (YF-16) 46ft 6in, (F-16A) 47ft7-7in (14-52m); height (F-16) 16ft 5-2in (5 01m).

Weights: Empty (YF) about 12,0001b (5443kg); (F) about 14,8001b (6733kg); maximum gross (YF) 27,0001b (12,245kg); (F) 33,0001b (14,969kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, Mach 1 -95, equivalent to about 1,300mph (2090km/h); initial climb (YF) 40,000ft (12.200m)/min; service ceiling about 60,000ft (18,300m); range on internal fuel in interception mission, about 1.300 miles (2100km): attack radius at low level with maximum weapon load, 120 miles (193km); attack radius with six Mk 82 bombs, 339 miles (546km).

Armament: One 20mm M61 multi-barrel cannon on left side of fuselage; nine pylons for total external load of up to 15,2001b (6895kg) (YF, seven pylons for total of 11,500lb. 5217kg).

History: First flight (YF) 20 January 1974; service delivery, scheduled for mid-1 978.

Users: Belgium, Denmark, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, US Air Force.

Development: One of the most important combat aircraft of the rest of the century was started merely as a technology demonstrator to see to what degree it would be possible to build a useful fighter that was significantly smaller and cheaper than the F-1 5. The US Air Force Lightweight Fighter (LWF) programme was not intended to lead to a production aircraft but merely to establish what was possible, at what cost. Contracts for two prototypes of each of the two best submissions were awarded in April 1972, the aircraft being the General Dynamics 401 and a simplified Northrop P.530. As the YF-16 and YF-17 these aircraft completed a programme of competitive evaluation, as planned, in 1974. By this time the wish of four European members of NATO – Belgium, Holland, Denmark and Norway – to replace their F-104Gs with an aircraft in this class had spurred a total revision of the LWF programme. In April 1974 it was changed into the Air Combat Fighter (ACF) programme and the Defense Secretary, James►

General Dynamics F-16

Three-view drawing of production F-16A (nozzle open).


General Dynamics F-16

Above: This picture of an F-16 prototype tangling with an RF-4 Phantom emphasizes the contrast in sizes of these classic aircraft, both fighters’ which became multi-role platforms. As this book went to press there was no RF-16 dedicated recon type.

Below: One of the eight development F-16s is seen here formating at low speed on a photo aircraft, having to fly at a large nose-up attitude in consequence. The wingtip AIM-9J (to be AIM-9L in production machines) missile is mounted nose-down.


General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

This splendid photograph, taken from the front seat of a TF-104G, shows (left) an F-16A with centreline tank and wingtip AIM-9L Advanced Sidewinder missiles, and (right) a two-seat F-16B with two 308-gal (1400 litre) underwing tanks and AIM-9J missiles on the tips. The photograph was secured in the summer of 1979 during multinational operations with the RNorAF in Norway.

General Dynamics F-16

Schlesinger, announced that 650 of the winning design would be bought for the USAF, a number later raised to 1.388. In December 1974 the YF-16 was chosen as the future ACF (announced the following month) and in June 1975, after protracted and tortuous discussions, it was chosen by the four European countries. As an aircraft the F-16 is exciting. It has a flashing performance on the power of the single fully developed engine (the same as the F-15) fed by a simple fixed-geometry inlet. Structure and systems are modern, with control-configured vehicle (CCV) flight dynamics, quad-redundant electrically signalled controls (fly-by-wire), graphite – epoxy structures and a flared wing/body shape. Pilot view is outstanding and he lies back in a reclining Escapac seat and flies the aircraft through a sidestick controller. In the nose is an advanced pulse-doppler radar suitable for attack or interception missions and armament can be carried for both roles, though the basic design was biased strongly in favour of air-to-air missions in good weather at close range. It remains to be seen to what degree the F-16 can be modified to make it a better ground attack, recon­naissance or all-weather interceptor aircraft. Main contractors include Westinghouse (radar), M arcon і – El I iott (HUD-sight and portions of flight – control system), Westinghouse and Delco (computers), Kaiser (radar and electro-optical display) and Singer-Kearfott (inertial system). In 1977 the USAF still intends to purchase 650 aircraft, mainly for use in Europe; in 1976 it set up a European System Programme Office to manage the project.

Above; Takeoff of the first Belgian F-16B assembled by SABCA. Below: A grey-painted development (pre-production) F-16A.

General Dynamics F-161 I


and began work on the support depot. Orders are still subject to change, but the planned totals are: Belgium, 90 F-16A and 12 F-16B, with 14 aircraft on option; Denmark 48 (probably 40+8). and 10 on option; the Netherlands, 84, plus 18 on option; Norway, 72 (no options). In July 1976 General Dynamics finally signed co-production contracts with major companies in Belgium and Holland, specifying schedules and output rates, of parts for 564 aircraft, a total that would increase with further F-16 sales. Aircraft will be assembled by General Dynamics (USAF), Fairey/SABCA (Belgium and Denmark) and Fokker-VFW (Netherlands and Norway); Kongsberg in Norway has a $1 63m co-production deal with Pratt & Whitney on more than 400 engines (all engines will be assembled by P & WA). Since early 1976 Turkey has been negotiating to join the European consortium (which has no formal title) and to buy up to 100 aircraft. In September 1976 Congress announced the sale to Iran of 160, costing $3-8 billion; it is doubtful that Iran can participate in manufacture. In December 1976 the first of eight development aircraft flew at Fort Worth, and delivery to the USAF is to begin in August 1978. Up to October 1976 $286 million had paid for basic development and flight test; Fiscal Year 1977 voted $620 million for the first 16 production aircraft, and FY78 is expected to provide $1,128 million. USAF buy in the next four years (1978-81) is planned to be 89, 145. 175 and 180, a total to that date of 605. First flight in Europe is planned to be at Schiphol (Fokker-VFW, Amsterdam) in July 1 979.

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16
Above: An F-16A development aircraft (curiously, without tail number visible) with nose-mounted instrumentation and tandem triple-ejector racks each carrying two pairs of bombs only.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

F-4A to F-4S, RF-4, QF-4, EF-4

Origin: McDonnell Aircraft, division of McDonnell Douglas Corp, St Louis, USA: licence production by Mitsubishi, Japan (F-4EJ) and substantial subcontracting by W German industry.

Type: Originally carrier-based all-weather interceptor: now all-weather multi-role fighter for ship or land operation: (RF) all-weather multisensor reconnaissance: (QF) RPV: (EF) defence-suppression aircraft.

Engines: (B, G) two 17,0001b (7711 kg)’thrust General Electric J79-8 single-shaft turbojets with afterburner: (C, D) 17,0001b J79-15: (E, EJ, F) 17,9001b (8120kg) J79-17; (J, N, S) 17,9001b J79-10: (К, M) 20,5151b (9305kg) Rolls-Royce Spey 202/203 two-shaft augmented turbofans. Dimensions: Span 38ft 5in (11 -7m): length (В, C, D, G, J, N, S) 58ft 3in (17-76m): (E. EJ, F and all RF versions) 62ft 11 in or 63ft (19 2m): (К, M) 57ft 7in (17-55m): height (all) 1 6ft 3in (4-96m).

Weights: Empty (B, C,.D, G, J, N) 28,000lb (12,700kg): (E, EJ, F and RF) 29,000lb (13,150kg); (К, M).31,0001b (14,060kg); maximum loaded (B) 54,600lb; (C, D, G, J, К, M, N. RF) 58,000lb (26,308kg); (E, EJ, F) 60,6301b (27,502kg).

Performance: Maximum speed with Sparrow missiles only (low) 91 Omph (1464km/h, Mach 1-19) with J79 engines, 920mph with Spey, (high) 1,500mph (2414km/h, Mach 2• 27) with J79 engines, 1,386mph with Spey; initial climb, typically 28,000ft (8534m)/min with J79 engines, 32,OOOft/min with Spey: service ceiling, over 60,000ft (19,685m) with J79 engines. 60,000ft with Spey; range on internal fuel (no weapons) about 1,750 miles (2817km); ferry range with external fuel, typically 2,300 miles (3700km) (E and variants, 2.600 miles (4184km).

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIMcDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Armament: (All versions except EF, RF. QF which have no armament) four AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles recessed under fuselage; inner wing pylons can carry two more AIM-7 or four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles; in

addition all E versions except RF have internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun, and virtually all versions can carry the same gun in external centreline pod; all except RF, QF have centreline and four wing pylons for tanks, bombs or other stores to total weight of 16,0001b (7257kg).

History: First flight (XF4H-1) 27 May 1958; service delivery (F-4A) February 1960 (carrier trials), February 1961 (inventory); first flight (Air Force F-4C) 27 May 1963; (YF-4K) 27 June 1966; (F-4E) 30 June 1967; (EF-4E) 1976.

Users: W Germany, Greece, Iran, Israel, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore (no contract announced), S Korea, Spain, Turkey, UK (RAF, Royal Navy), USA (Air Force, ANG, Navy, Marine Corps).

Development: McDonnell designed the greatest. fighter of the postwar era as a company venture to meet anticipated future needs. Planned as an attack aircraft with four 20mm guns, it was changed into a very advanced gunless all-weather interceptor with advanced radar and missile armament.

In this form it entered service as the F-4A, soon followed by the F-4B used^

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Подпись: г
McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Left: An F-4B (since remanufactured as an F-4N) serving with US Navy fighter squadron VF-84 ‘Skull and Crossbones’ aboard USS Independence during the Vietnam conflict.

Below left: The only Phantom Ms not built at St Louis were the 127 F-4EJ series assembled in Japan, mainly by Mitsubishi.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Below: This F-4E is equipped with the advanced AVQ-26 Pave Tack all-weather sighting and weapon-aiming system on a centreline pylon.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Above: In 1980 the Phantom II was still one of the most important tactical aircraft in the US inventory. This flight line full of F-4Ds could be at any of a dozen TAC or USAFE airbases; they are starting engines ready to move off on a training mission. This was the first purpose-designed version for operation from land bases. Some of this sub-type lack the prominent infra-red detector in the fairing under the radar.

in large numbers (635) by the US Navy and Marine Corps, with Westing – house APQ-72 radar, IR detector in a small fairing under the nose, and many weapon options. Pilot and radar intercept officer sit in tandem and the aircraft has blown flaps and extremely comprehensive combat equipment. A Ipvel Mach number of 2-6 was achieved and many world records were set for speed, altitude and rate of climb. Not replaced by the abandoned F-111 B, the carrier-based Phantom continued in production for 19 years through the F-4G with digital communications. F-4J with AWG-10 pulse-doppler radar, drooping ailerons, slatted tail and increased power, and the N (rebuilt B). In 1961 the F-4B was formally compared with all US Air Force fighters and found to outperform all by a wide margin, especially in weapon load and radar performance. As a result it was ordered in modified form as the F-110, soon redesignated F-4C, for 16 of the 23 Tactical Air Command Wings. The camera/radar/IR linescan RF-4C followed in 1965. In 1964 the Royal Navy adopted the Anglicised F-4K, with wider fuselage housing Spey fan engines and, of 48 delivered to Britain as Phantom FG.1, 28 served with the. Royal

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

Navy. The other 20 went to RAF Strike Command, which has also received 120 F-4M (UK designation Phantom FGR.2) which combine the British features with those of the F-4C plus the option of a multi-sensor centreline reconnaissance pod whilst retaining full weapons capability. In the US Air Force the C was followed by the much-improved D with APQ-100 radar replaced by APQ-109, inertial navigation added and many added or improved equipment items. This in turn was followed by the dramatically improved F-4E with slatted wing, internal gun and increased power, the EJ being the version built in Japan and the F being a Luftwaffe version. The Luftwaffe also operate the multi-sensor RF-4E. Australia leased F-4Es from the US government pending delivery of the F-111C. In 1979 deliveries of new aircraft, all assembled at St Louis except for the EJ, i

were completed at 5,057, a record for any supersonic aircraft of any type in the Western world. In addition several large rebuild pro­grammes were in hand including rebuilding 300 F-4J into F-4S with long­life slatted airframes, rebuilding Marine Corps RF-4Bs with new structure and sensors, rebuilding or refitting over 600 Air Force machines (for example with Pave Tack FLIR/laser pods or Pave Spike TV/laser pods) and com­plete rebuild of 116 F-4D or E Phantoms into the EF-4E Wild Weasel defence-suppression platform with weapons replaced by special electronics (especially the APR-38 system, with large pod on the fin) to detect, locate and classify hostile electromagnetic emissions, and assist other aircraft to destroy them. Some EF aircraft may do their own killing, with Standard ARM, Shrike and Flarm missiles.

Saab 35 Draken

J35A, В, D and F, Sk35C, S35E and export versions

Origin: Saab-Scania AB, Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (J35) single-seat all-weather fighter-bomber: (Sk35) dual trainer; (S35) single-seat all-weather reconnaissance.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM6 (licence-built Rolls-Royce Avon with SFA afterburner): (А, В, C) 15.0001b (6804kg) RM6B; (D, E, F and export) 17,1101b (7761kg) RM6C.

Dimensions: Span 30ft 10in (9 4m); length 50ft 4in (15 4m) (S35E, 52ft); height 12ft 9in (39m).

Weights: Empty (D) 16,0171b; (F) 18,1801b (8250kg), maximum loaded (A) 18,2001b; (D) 22.6631b; (F) 27,0501b (12,270kg); (F-35) 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (D onwards, clean) 1,320mph (21 25km/h, Mach 2-0), (with two drop tanks and two 1,0001b bombs) 924mph (1487 km/h, Mach 1 -4); initial climb (D onwards, clean) 34.450ft (10,500m)/min; service ceiling (D onwards, clean) about 65,000ft (20,000m); range (internal fuel plus external weapons, typical) 800 miles (1300km), (maximum fuel) 2,020 miles (3250km).

Armament: (A) two 30mm Aden M/55 in wings, four Rb 324 (Side­winder) missiles; (B) as A plus attack ordnance to maximum of 2,200lb (1000kg); (C) none; (D) as В; (E) usually none but provision as A; (F) one 30mm Aden plus two Rb27 Falcon (radar) and two Rb28 Falcon (infra-red) missiles, plus two or four Rb324; (F-35) two 30mm Aden plus nine stores pylons each rated at 1,0001b (454kg) all usable simultaneously, plus four Rb324.

History: First flight 25 October 1 955; (production J35A) 15 February 1958; final delivery (35XS) 1975, (Danish TF-35) 1976.

Users: Denmark, Finland, Sweden (RSAF).

Development: Again in advance of any other country in Western Europe, the Saab 35 was designed in 1949-51 as an all-weather supersonic fighter able to use small airfields. Erik Bratt and his team arrived at the unique "double delta" shape after studying different ways of packaging the fuel and equipment, the best arrangement being with items one behind the other

Saab 35 Draken

Saab 35 DrakenRight: One of the last of more than 600 Drakens was this TF – 35XD, one of six of this versatile two-seat dual-control version to be supplied to the Danish air force in 1968-73 along with 20 of the formidable 35XD single-seat version.

Saab 35 Draken

Above: Three-view of the Falcon-armed J35F ("Filip” to the Swedish Air Force).

giving a long aircraft of very small frontal area. In 1960 attack wing F13 found the A (Adam) simple to fly and maintain, sensitive in pitch and yet virtually unbreakable. В (Bertil) was more complex, with S7 collision-course fire control integrated with the Swedish Stril 60 air defence environment. Most Sk35C trainers were converted Adams. D (David) was first to reach Mach 2, despite continual increases in weight mainly due to fuel capacity raised from 493 to 680 gallons. E (Erik) carries French OMERA cameras and in 1973 was updated with external British Vinten night/low-level pods. F (Filip) is an automatic interceptor with Ericsson (Hughes basis) radar of pulse-doppler type. Production was closed at 606 with 40 multi-role F-35/RF-35/TF-35 aircraft for Denmark and 12 XS for Finland assembled by Valmet Oy.

Saab 35 DrakenSaab 35 Draken
Left: The first version to enter service was the J35A, popularly called ‘Adam’ in the Swedish air force. This example, one of the first to be delivered to F13 (the Bravalla Flygflottilj) at Norrkoping in March 1960, is seen with Rb 324 Sidewinders in place.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

F-106A and F-106B

Origin: General Dynamics/Convair. USA.

Type: (F-106A) single-seat all-weather interceptor; (F-106B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.500lb (11,130kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney J75-17 two – shaft afterburning turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 3J1n (11 -67m); length (both) 70ft 8j|in (21 -55m); height 20ft 3Jin (6-1 5m).

Weights: (A) empty 23,646lb (10,725kg); maximum loaded 38,2501 b (17,350kg).

Performance: (Both) maximum speed 1,525mph (2455km/h, Mach 2-31); initial climb about 30,000ft (9144m)/min; service ceiling 57,000ft (17,375m); range with drop tanks (A) 1,700 miles (2735km); combat radius, about 600 miles (966km).

Armament: One internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel cannon; internal weapon bay for air-to-air guided missiles, with typical load comprising one AIR-2A and one AIR-2G Genie rockets and two each of AIM-4E, -4F or 4G Falcons.

History: First flight (aerodynamic prototype) 26 December 1956; (F-106В) 9 April 1958, production delivery July 1 959 to July 1 960.

User: USA (ANG, USAF).

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Development: Originally designated F-102B, the 106 was a natural development of the F-102A with new engine and avionics. By redesigning from scratch to the supersonic Area Rule the fuselage was made much neater and more efficient than that of the earlier aircraft and the more power­ful engine resulted in a peak speed approximately twice as fast. The Hughes MA-1 fire control, though no bulkier or heavier than that of the 102, was far more capable and integrated with the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defence system covering the continental United States in an

automatic manner, the pilot acting as a supervisory manager. Though bought in modest numbers, the 106 has had an exceptionally long life­span in the USAF Aerospace Defense Command front-line inventory. At several times the Improved Manned Interceptor program (IMI) has pointed the need for a replacement with longer-range look-down radar and long – range missiles, and much research has been done with the Lockheed YF-12 (described later). At present no replacement, other than the multi­role F-1 5, is in sight and the F-106 and tandem-seat F-106B force (respec­tively numbering originally 277 and 63) will continue until at least 1980. They have been repeatedly updated, with improved avionics, infra-red sensors, drop tanks, flight refuelling and a Gatling gun.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

Left: An F-106A Delta Dart of the 460th FIS, a unit later withdrawn from the Aerospace Defense Command active inventory. Despite repeated updating these well-liked interceptors are beginning to show their age, and plans dating back to the late 1960s for their replacement involved special versions of F-15 and F-14.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Left: A recent photograph of one of the remaining F-106A all- weather interceptors, which equip six home-based Air Divisions each comprising a single 18-aircraft squadron.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

F-15A, F-15B, F-15C, F-15D

Origin: McDonnell Aircraft, division of McDonnell Douglas Corp, St Louis, USA.

Type: Single-seat all-weather air-superiority fighter: (TF) dual-control trainer.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney F100-100 two-shaft augmented turbo­fans, each rated at 14,8711b (6744kg) thrust dry and 23,8101b (10,800kg) with maximum augmentation.

Dimensions: Span 42ft 9|in (13-05m); length 63ft 9jin (19-46m): height 18ft 7iin (5-68m).

Weights: Empty, about 28,000lb (12,700kg): loaded (F or TF, clean) 39,500lb: (F with four Sparrows) about 40,500lb, (three 600gal drop tanks) 54,000lb, (three tanks and two FAST packs) 66,000lb (29,937kg) Performance: Maximum speed (low) over 921 mph (1482km/h, Mach 1-22), (high) over 1.650mph (2660km/h. Mach 2-5): initial climb, over 50,000ft (1 5,240m)/min: service ceiling, over 70,000ft (21,000m): range on internal fuel, about 1,200 miles (1930km): ferry range with maximum fuel, over 3,700 miles (5955km).

Armament: One 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun with 960 rounds: four AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles on corners of fuselage and four AIM-9 ■Sidewinder air-to-air missiles on lateral rails at upper level of wing pylons: centreline pylon stressed for 4,5001b (2041kg) for 600 gal tank, recon­naissance pod or any tactical weapon: inner wing pylons stressed for 5,1001b (2313kg) for any tanks or weapon: outer wing pylons stressed for 1,0001b (454kg) for ECM pods or equivalent ordnance load. Normal external load limit, with or without FAST packs, 12,0001b (5443kg).

History: First flight 27 July 1972: (TF) 7 July 1973: service delivery March 1974 (Cat. II test), November 1974 (inventory).

Users: Israel, Japan, Saudi Arabia, USA (Air Force).

Development: Emergence of the MiG-23 and -25 in 1 967 accentuated the belief of the US Air Force that it was falling behind in true fighter aircraft. Studies for an FX (a new air-superiority fighter) were hastened and, after a^

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Above: Examining the flat-plate antenna of the APG-63 radar.

Left: Landing gears begin to extend from an F-15A of the Heyl Ha’Avir (Israeli air force) carrying neither missiles nor tanks.

Below: Peel-off for landing by Eagles of the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing USAF at Langley AFB, Virginia (note TAC tail badges).

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
These USAF Eagles on detachment to an Arctic base were among the first to be seen with the painted radome which, after prolonged research, is now becoming standard. Low-visibility paint is now used over almost the entire aircraft, the problems with the radome including resistance to erosion by rain and hail, proper adhesion to a slightly flexible surface and avoidance of any degradation of radar performance. It is probable that similar coatings will become standard on other interceptors including RAF Phantoms.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

major competition. McDonnell’s team at St Louis was selected to build the new aircraft. The Air Force funded a new engine, won by Pratt & Whitney, and a new 25mm gun using caseless ammunition (abandoned after difficult development). The Eagle has emerged as probably the best fighter in the world, with thrust at low levels considerably greater than clean gross weight, a fixed wing of no less than 530 sq ft area, a single seat and an advanced Hughes X-band pulse-doppler radar. Though planned as an uncompromised machine for interception and air combat the Eagle also has formidable attack capability over intercontinental ranges. Undoubtedly its chief attributes are its combat manoeuvrability (it can outfly almost any other US machine without using afterburner) and the advanced automaticity of its radar, head-up display, weapon selectors and quick-fire capability. Internal fuel capacity of 11,2001b can be almost trebled by adding a FAST (fuel and sensor, tactical) pack on each side, a "conformal pallet" housing 10,0001b of fuel and target designators or weapons. Very extensive electronic systems for attack and defence, far beyond any standard previously seen in a fighter, are carried. A total USAF buy of 729 aircraft is planned, and though this has not changed since early in the programme the benefits of the "learning curve" (which reduces costs as production continues) are being much more than nullified by cost-inflation. The unit price of $7-5 million of 1975 had been more than doubled by late 1976 to over $1 6-7 million, with a figure in excess of $18 million predicted by Congress. Thus the 729 aircraft will now cost at least $12-2 billion, a figure rising by $500-700m each quarter. Nevertheless the outstanding qualities of this superbly capable fighter com­mend it to many governments; Israel has bought 21 new Eagles plus four reworked development aircraft, costing with support $600 million, and in mid-1976 the F-15 was chosen by Japan as the FX for the Air Self-Defence Force. The F-15B is a dual trainer, and the F-15C and D have increased internal fuel. FAST packs and new programmable radars with much – augmented capability

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Above: Two F-15As of the USAF Tactical Air Command on a ferry mission with centreline but no wing drop tanks.


Below left: An F-15A of the 1st TFW at Langley: other USAF units include the 57th (Nellis), 58th (Luke), 36th (Bitburg), 49th (Holloman), 33rd (Eglin) and 32nd TFS at Soersterburg.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 EagleAbove: Start of a training sortie at a TAC base in the USA. Before takeoff the pilot will pivot the engine inlets downwards as seen in the photograph at left to match their shape to the angle of attack.

Saab 37 Viggen

AJ37, JA37, SF37, SH37 and Sk37

Origin: Saab-Scania AB. Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (AJ) single-seat all-weather attack: (JA) all-Weather fighter: (SF) armed photo-reconnaissance: (SH) armed sea surveillance: (SK) dual trainer.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM8 (licence-built Pratt & Whitney JT8D two-shaft turbofan redesigned in Sweden for Mach 2 and fitted with SFA afterburner): (AJ. SF, SH and Sk) 25,9701b (11,790kg) RM8A: (JA) 28,086lb (12,750kg) RM8B.

Dimensions: Span of main wing 34ft 9^in (10’6m): length (AJ) 53ft 5jin (1 6-3m): (JA37 with probe) 53ft 11 in: height 18ft 4J-in (5-6m).

Weights: Not disclosed, except AJ37 "normal armament" gross weight of 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) about 1,320mph (2135km/h, Mach 2), or Mach 1 -1 at sea level: initial climb, about 40,000ft (12,200m)/ min (time from start of take-off run to 32,800ft—10,000m. = 100sec): service ceiling, over 60,000ft (18,300m): tactical radius with external stores (not drop tanks), hi-lo-hi profile, over 620 miles (1000km).

Armament: Seven pylons (option: nine) for aggregate external load of 13,2001b (6000kg), including Rb04E or Rb05A missiles for attack, and Rb27, Rb28 and Rb324 missiles for defence. In addition the JA37 has a 30mm Oerlikon KCA gun and will carry "new long – and short-range missiles for air-to-air interception": Skyflash is being evaluated.

History: First flight 8 February 1967: (production AJ) 23 February 1971: service delivery (AJ) June 1971.

User: Sweden (RSAF).

Saab 37 Viggen
Development: Yet again blazing a trail ahead of other nations, the Royal Swedish Air Board planned System 37 in 1958—61 as a standardized weapon system to be integrated with the Stril 60 air-defence environment of radars, computers and displays. Included in the system is a standard platform (in this case a supersonic manned aircraft) produced in five

Saab 37 Viggen

Three-view of JA37, with side view (centre) of SK37 trainer.

versions each tailored to a specific task. Thanks to a unique configuration with a 400 sq ft wing preceded by a canard foreplane with trailing-edge flaps, the Viggen (Thunderbolt) has outstanding STOL (short take-off and landing) performance and excellent turn radius at all speeds. Efficient and prolonged operations are possible from narrow strips 500m (1,640ft) in length, such as stretches of highway. Equipment in all versions includes headup display, autothrottle/speed control on approach, no-flare landing autopilot and thrust reverser. The AJ operates camouflaged in attack wings F7, F15 and F6. with production continuing in 1 977 on a mix of AJ, SF. SH ►

Now in service with the Flygvapen FI 3 wing at Norrkoping, the JA37 is an outstanding all-weather fighter, seen here with belly gun pod, instrumentation pod, two BAe Dynamics Sky Flash missiles and three Swedish-made RB24 Sidewinder missiles.

Saab 37 Viggen

Подпись: and Sk models. At the beginning of the year about 145 had been delivered of the total orders for 1 80 of these versions. During 1 976 Viggens in RSAF service were grounded until the cause of inflight structural (wing) failures had been fully explained and aircraft rectified. Apart from this the Viggen hasSaab 37 Viggenproved as outstanding as it looked on paper in the 1960s, and even today no other Western European aircraft can rival it for radar performance, flight performance and short field length in all weathers. The latest Viggen variant, the JA37, is considerably different, with a new engine, very powerful gun. UAP 1023 pulse-doppler radar, digital automatic flight control system and extremely advanced inertial measurement and central computer systems. The development effort for the JA37 rivals that for the complete original aircraft, but with the help of a fleet of special-purpose test aircraft (some new and most rebuilds of early AJ and other models) the JA was cleared for production in 1976. By the start of 1 977 most of the initial batch of 30 were on the line, and service delivery is due in 1978. Eventually 200 are to equip eight squadrons.

Saab 37 Viggen

Above: Afterburning takeoff of one of the original AJ37 attack aircraft.


Left: A display of weapons in front of an AJ37, with RB04E missiles on the aircraft.


Below: The SK37 is the tandem-seat dual­control trainer, able to carry AJ37 weapons.


Saab 37 ViggenSaab 37 Viggen

General Dynamics F-111

"TFX ", F-111 A to F-111F, EF-111A and FB-111A

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth (EF-111A, Grumman Aerospace), USA.

Type: Two-seat all-weather attack bomber: (EF) two-seat electronic warfare: (FB) two-seat strategic bomber.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney TF30 two-shaft afterburning turbofans, at following ratings: (F-111 A, C) TF30-3 at 18,5001b (8390kg): (D, E) TF30-9 at 19,6001b (8891 kg): (F) RF30-100 at 25,1001b (1 1,385kg): (FB) TF30-7 at 20,350lb (9230kg).

Dimensions: Span, 72-5° sweep (A, D, E, F) 31ft 11-yin (9-74m); (C, FB) 33ft 11 in (10-34m): span, 16° sweep (A, D, E. F) 63ft (19-2m); (C, FB) 70ft (21 -34m): length 73ft 6in (22 4m): height 17ft 1£in (5-22m). Weights: Empty (A, C) 46,1721b (20,943kg): (D, E, F) about 49,0001b (22,226kg): (FB) about 50,0001b (22,680kg): maximum loaded (A, 3) 91,5001b (41,500kg): (D, E, F) 99,000lb (44,906kg): (FB) 119,0001b (54,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean), Mach 2-2 at 35,000ft or above, or about 1,450mph (2335km/h): maximum speed at low level (clean) Mach 1 -2 or 800mph (1287km/h): maximum speed at maximum weight, subsonic at low level: service ceiling (clean) (A) 51,000ft (15,500m): (F) 60,000ft (18,290m): range on internal fuel (A, C) 3,1 65 miles (5093km). Armament: Internal bay for two 750lb (341kg) bombs or 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun: eight underwing pylons for total of 31,5001b (14,290kg) of stores, inner pylons swivelling with wing sweep and outer four being fixed and loaded only with wing at 1 6°.

History: First flight 21 December 1 964: service delivery June 1967: first F-111 F with -100 engine, May 1973: EF-111A (Grumman ECM conversion) 1977.

Users: Australia, US Air Force. continued►

General Dynamics F-111

Below: An unusual view of an F-111 E, an interim version basically similar to the original F-111A but with enlarged engine inlet ducts (for a more powerful version of the TF30 afterburning turbofan which was never fitted). The main unit equipped with this sub – type is the 20th TFW based at RAF Upper Heyford, in England. Aircraft in normal operational service have a black radome, unlike that of this aircraft which was on test missions in the United States. Even today the F-111 is the only true all-weather tactical aircraft in service, apart from the US Navy A-6.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: Three-view of the FB-111A strategic bomber version.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: A gaily-painted development prototype of the EF-111A all – weather electronic-warfare aircraft, with canoe (belly) and fin aerials for the ALQ-99 EW (Electronic Warfare) installation. The EF-111A programme is being handled chiefly by Grumman.

Below: Considerably more powerful than any other type of F-111, the F-111 F is an excellent aircraft in all respects. All the examples of this sub-type in combat duty are serving with the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Lakenheath. England, where this photograph was taken in 1979 during training missions.

General Dynamics F-111

General Dynamics F-111

Development: Developed to meet a bold Department of Defense edict that a common type of "fighter" called TFX should be developed to meet all future tactical needs of all US services, the F-111A proved both a world – beater and a great disappointment. Thrown into the public eye by acrimo­nious disagreement over which bidder should get the production contract, it then stayed in the news through being grosslyoverweight, up in drag and suffering from severe problems with propulsion, structure and systems. Eventually almost superhuman efforts cleared the F-111A for service, overcoming part of the range deficiency by a considerable increase in internal fuel. The RAAF bought 24 F-111C with long-span wings and stronger landing gear and took delivery after they had been nine years in storage. The RAF ordered 50 similar to the C but with updated avionics, but this deal was cancelled. Only 141 low-powered А-models were built, the US Navy F-111 В fighter was cancelled, and the next batch was 94 of the E type with Improved intakes and engines (20th Tac Ftr Wing at Upper Fleyford, England). Then came the 96 F-111D with improved avionics (27th TFW in New Mexico) and finally the superb F-11’1 F with redesigned P-100 engine of greatly increased thrust and cheaper avionics (366 TFW, in Idaho). The heavier FB-111A, with the ability to carry six AGM-69A SRAM missiles externally, was bought to replace the ES-58 and early B-52 models in Strategic Air Command. Cost-inflation cut the FB order from 210 back to 76. With several RF and ECM conversions the total programme amounted to 539 plus 23 development prototypes. To keep the line open a further 12 were authorised in 1974 to be built at a low rate until 1976. 1

In 1979 the only work on F-111s was structural improvement of aircraft in service and Grumman’s conversion of surplus F-111 As to EF-111A standard with the ALO tac-jamming system of the EA-6B Prowler but without extra crew. Despite lack of funds it is hoped to rebuild 40 aircraft of this type to equip two USAF squadrons. The EF will not carry weapons, and will direct other aircraft. No aircraft has ever had worse luck or a worse press, and in combat in South East Asia the sudden loss of three of the first six aircraft was eventually found to be due to a faulty weld in the tailplane power unit. In fact all models of the F-111 are valuable machines with great range and endurance, excellent reliability and great ability to hit a point target in a first-pass strike, even in blind conditions. These aircraft are bombers, with much greater power and weight than four-engined bombers of World War II. It was un­fortunate they were loosely launched as "fighters".

Left: Apart from the much older and probably more vulnerable B-52 the only American strategic bomber is the FB-111A, one of which is seen here about to take fuel from a KC-135 tanker. It is carrying its usual armament of four SRAM missiles on the external pylons; if necessary a further two can be accommodated in an internal bay plus two (rarely, four) more on additional wing pylons.

General Dynamics F-111General Dynamics F-111
Below : Since the early 1970s General Dynamics has been proposing ‘stretched’ versions of the FB-111A as a new strategic bomber for USAF Strategic Air Command. This artist’s impression shows the FB-111 H, with longer fuselage, much greater fuel capacity, bogie main landing gears and two General Electric F101 engines (the same as used in the cancelled B-1 bomber). It would have been an extremely formidable aircraft with much greater radius of action than the somewhat limited FB-111A but was never built.