Dassault Super Mirage 4000

Type: Multi-role combat aircraft.

Engines: (prototype) two SNECMA M53-5 single-shaft afterburning by-pass turbojets each with maximum thrust of 19,8401b (9000kg). Armament: Not fitted to prototype.

History: Company launch January 1976: first flight 9 March 1979. User: None announced (August 1979).

In January 1976 Marcel Dassault announced that, as a private venture, he was launching the Delta Super Mirage as a long-range multi-role aircraft for export. One hesitates to doubt the credibility of either the man or the com­pany, but to fund such a programme would need many times the net worth of the company, and no consortium of overseas buyers (South Africans? Arabs? Black Africans?) appears to be conceivable. It would not be im­possible for the company to finish the defunct tailed Super Mirage prototype, which was to have flown in July 1976, as an empty shell to show possible customers what the proposed Delta Super Mirage would look like. To develop it as an operational aircraft does not by any stretch of the imagination appear possible. One is left to conclude that M Dassault either expects the French government to find the money, which is extremely unlikely, or he hopes to organise a programme involving a large number of nations pre­pared to share the costs and risks.

Aerodynamically the 4000 closely resembles a scale-up (about *1-25) of the 2000, but with a proportionately larger fin and the important addition of electrically signalled powered canards on the inlets in place of the smaller fighter’s fixed strakes. The radar is the completely new RDM (Radar Doppler Multifonction) Cyrano 500, tested in a Vautour and also intended for export models of Mirage 2000. An l-band track-while-scan set, it is a frequency-agile pulse-Dopplor with several functions unavailable in the RDI (Radar Doppler Impulsions) of the regular 2000.

Dassault Super Mirage 4000
Below: This formation of the Super Mirage 4000 with two prototype Mirage 2000s shows the relative sizes of the two designs, and the slightly different aerodynamics (with controllable foreplanes) of the later twin-engined aircraft.

IAI Kfir

Kfir and Kf ir-C2

Origin: Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel.

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber.

Engine: One 17,900lb (81 20kg) thrust General Electric J79-17 single-shaft turbojet with afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 26ft 11-Jin (822m): length approximately 54ft (16-5m): height 1 3ft 11-jin (4-25m).

Weights: Empty 14,9601b (6785kg): loaded (fighter mission, half internal fuel, two Shafrir) 20,4701b (9305kg): maximum loaded 32,1 20lb (14,600kg). Performance: (Fighter configuration): maximum speed 850mph

(1370km/h, Mach 112) at sea level, 1,550mph (2495km/h, Mach 2-35) at altitude: initial climb 40,000ft (1 2.200m)/min: service ceiling, 55,000ft (16,765m): range on internal fuel 700 miles (1125km).

Armament: Two 30mm DEFA 553 cannon, each with 150 rounds: external weapon load up to 8,500lb (3855kg), normally including one ECM pod and two Shafrir air/air missiles.

History: First flight, prior to 1 974: service delivery, prior to 1 975.

Users: Argentina (Atar-powered Dagger version), Israel.

IAI Kfir

Development: In the 1950s the beleaguered state of Israel looked prin­cipally to France for its combat aircraft and it was mainly with Israeli partner­ship that Dassault was able to develop the original Mirage NIC as a combat type. In the fantastic Six-Day War of 5-10 June 1967 the Israeli Mirage IIICJ starred as the most brilliantly flown combat aircraft of modern times: but Dassault was angrily told by Gen de Gaulle not to deliver the improved Mirage 5 attack aircraft which had been developed for Israel and already paid for. With this history it was a foregone conclusion that Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) at Lod Airport should be directed to apply their great technical expertise to making Israel more self-sufficient in combat aircraft and, in particular, to devising an improved IAI development of the Mirage which could be built in Israel. By 1 971 there were reports of a Mirage powered by the J79 engine, supposedly named Barak (Lightning), and such aircraft were even said to have participated in quantity in the 1973 Yom Kippur war. On 14 April 1975 the truth (some of it) escaped when tight Israeli security relented briefly at the public unveiling of the Kfir (Lion Cub). Described as one of the cheapest modern combat aircraft, the Kfir is not a remanufactured IIICJ – though the prototypes were – but a new multi-role fighter bomber making a significant advance over previous delta Mirages. The engine is considerably more powerful and necessitated redesign of the fuselage and addition of a ram-cooling inlet ahead of the fin. The shorter engine results in a shorter rear fuselage, but the nose is much lengthened and .equipped with

Подпись: Above: Three-view of IAI Kfir C2.

comprehensive avionics. The entire flight-control and weapon delivery system is by IAI companies and a generation later than that even of the Mirage F1. Though the Kfir did not mature in time to participate in the 1973 war, IAI did clear a number of locally built Atar-powered machines called Neshers which took part in that conflict. The Kfir has continued to develop considerably since entering service in early 1975, and by mid-1976 – when about one-third of the planned force of over 100 were in service — details were released of the Kfir-C2. This incorporates a sharply swept fixed fore­plane above the wing-root leading edge, dogtooth extensions to the outer wings and small fences on each side of the nose. The C2 has improved takeoff and landing and considerably better flight manoeuvrability. All Kfirs are believed to have one autopilot channel with electric "fly by wire" signalling. Production rate is about four per month, and in 1976 IAI an­nounced that it would welcome export orders, at a unit price (without support or spares) of only about $4 5 million. Discussions were then in progress with Austria and certain S. American countries.

Mitsubishi F-l and T-2

F-1 and T-2A

Origin: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Japan.

Type: (T-2A) two-seat supersonic trainer; (F-1) single-seat close-support fighter-bomber.

Engines: Two Ishikawajima-Harima TF40-801A (licence-built Rolls – Royce/Turbomeca Adour 102) two-shaft augmented turbofans with maximum rating of 7,1401b (3238kg): (F-1) may later have more powerful version.

Dimensions: Span 25ft 10in (7-87m); length 58ft 7in (17-86m): height (T-2) 14ft 7in (4 445m), (F-1) 14ft 9in.

Weights: Empty (T-2) 13,6681b (6200kg): (F-1) 14,3301b (6500kg): loaded (T-2, clean) 21,2741b (9650kg): (T-2 maximum) 24,7501b (11,200 kg): (F-1 maximum) 30,200lb (13,700kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (at clean gross weight) 1,056mph (1700km/h, Mach 1-6): initial climb 19,680ft (6000m)/min: service ceiling 50,025ft (15,250m): range (T-2 with external tanks) 1,785 miles (2870km): (F-1 with eight 500lb bombs) 700 miles (1126km).

Armament: One 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun under left side of cockpit floor: pylon hardpoints under centreline and inboard and outboard on wings, with light stores attachments at tips. Total weapon load (T-2) normally

Mitsubishi F-l and T-2

2,0001b (907kg); (FI) 6,0001b (2722kg) comprising 12,5001b bombs, eight 5001b plus two tanks of 18 3g a I, or two 1,3001b (590kg) ASM-1 anti-ship missiles, and four Sidewinders.

History: First flight (XT-2) 20 July 1971; (T-2A) January 1975; (FST-2) June 1975; service delivery (T-2A) March 1975; (F-1) 1977.

User: Japanese Air Self-Defence Force.

Development: Japan’s first post-war military aircraft was the Fuji T-1 tandem-seat intermediate trainer, looking like an F-86 Sabre and powered by a licence-built Bristol Orpheus.’First flown in 1958, 42 were delivered as the T-1 A, followed by 22 T-1 В with the Japanese J3 engine. To replace the T-1 and other trainers such as the T-33 a design team led by Dr Kenji Ikeda designed the I – 2. Japan’s first supersonic aircraft, using the Anglo – French Jaguar as a basis. After flight trials had shown the validity of the design a single-seat version, the FST-2-Kai, was ordered to replace the F-86 as a close-support fighter. By mid-1 975 orders had been placed for 46 T-2A trainers and the first 4th Air Wing unit had formed at Matsushima Air Base. The T-2A has proved efficient and popular in service, and is incidentally the first properly supersonic aircraft to be designed in Asia. Though a trainer, it carries Mitsubishi Electric radar, with air search, mapping, lock-on and ranging modes, as well as a J/AWG-11 (Thomson-CSF) HUD. Production is at the rate of two per month; by the start of 1 977 orders stood at the planned level of 59, to be completed in 1 980, and deliveries at 37. The first 18 FST-2 fighters (since redesignated F-1) had also been bought, with four flown in 1975. Total F-1 procurement is to be 68, all delivered by the end of 1 979. The F-1 has a Ferranti inertial nav/attack system and Mitsubishi Electric weapon-aiming computer, radar altimeter and radar homing and warning system, most of the added boxes being installed in the bay occupied by the rear cockpit in the T-2A. Production began in 1977, with the letter of intent for a force of 68, all to be delivered by March 1 980. Planned total is 110.

Left: From this angle only an expert could tell that this is not an F-1 but a dual T-2A trainer, 71 of which are to be used at the 4th Air Wing base at Matsushima. Of these, 31 are of the basic T-2 type, while the other 40 are T-2A combat trainers with internal ‘Gatling gun’ and various other changes. A further two aircraft were converted into prototypes of the F-1 single-seat combat aircraft, 36 of which had been delivered by 1980.

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Vought A-7A to К and TA-7C and H

Origin: Vought Systems Division of LTV. Dallas. USA.

Type: Single-seat attack bomber (carrier – or land-based): (ТА) dual trainer.

Engine: (A) one 11,350lb (51 50kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney TF30-6 two – shaft turbofan: (В. C) 12,2001b (5534kg) TF30-8: (D) 14.2501b (6465kg) Allison TF41-1 (Rolls-Royce Spey derivative) of same layout: (E) 15.0001b (6804kg) TF41 -2.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 9in (1T80m): length 46ft 1Jin (14-06m): (ТА) 48ft 2in (14-68m): height 16ft Ofin (4-90m); (ТА) 1 6ft 5in (5m).

Weights: Empty (A) 1 5,904!b (7214kg): (D) 19,781 lb (8972kg): maximum loaded (A) 32,500lb (14,750kg): (D) 42.000lb (19.050kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (all single-seat versions, clean) 698mph (1123km/h) at low level: climb and ceiling, not reported (seldom relevant): tactical radius with weapon load, typically 715 miles (1150km): ferry range with four external tanks, typically 4,100 miles (6600km).

Armament: (A, B) two 20mm Colt Mk 12 in nose: six wing and two fuselage pylons for weapon load of 15,0001b (6804kg). (D, E) one 20mm M61 Vulcan cannon on left side of fuselage with 1,000-round drum: external load up to theoretical 20,000lb (9072kg).

History: First flight 27 September 1965: service delivery October 1966: first flight of D. 26 September 1968.

Users: Greece, Pakistan, USA (Air Force, Navy).

Development: Though derived from the Crusader, the Corsair II is a totally ►

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Left: An A-7A Corsair II serving during the Vietnam conflict with VA-195 Navy attack squadron embarked aboard USS Kitty Hawk. No longer in service.

Below left: A-7Es of the Carrier Air Group embarked aboard USS America. The A-7E is the most numerous type in Fleet Attack Squadrons.


Vought A-7 Corsair II


Vought A-7 Corsair II
different aircraft. By restricting performance to high subsonic speed, structure weight was reduced, range dramatically increased and weapon load multiplied by about 4. Development was outstandingly quick, as was production. Vought built 1 99 A-7A, used in action in the Gulf of Tonkin on 3 December 1967, followed by 196 В models. The C designation was used for the first 67 E models which retained the TF30 engine. In 1966 the Corsair II was adopted by the US Air Force, the A-7D having the superior TF41 engine, Gatling gun and more complete avionics for blind or automatic weapon delivery under all conditions, with head-up display and inertial/

Vought A-7 Corsair IIVought A-7 Corsair II
Above: A-7E Corsair lls from USS Enterprise (nearest camera) and Coral Sea an older carrier now stripped of her wing and replaced in the Atlantic Fleet by Carl Vinson. Today nearly all the E-models are being equipped with pods under the right wing containing a FUR (forward-looking infra-red) with a new Marconi raster/HUD (head-up display) in the cockpit. This is greatly augmenting their capability to attack at night.

Left: By far the greatest number of A-7 Corsair lls are those in service with the US Air Force, nearly all of them being of the A-7D type (the first to have the TF41 engine). These examples were serving with TAC (Tactical Air Command) but most have now been passed on to the Air National Guard. In 1980 Vought began building the new two-seat A-7K combat – capable trainer for ANG units.

doppler navigation. By late 1976 over 480 had been delivered, with reduced production continuing. The Navy adopted the same model, with an even more powerful TF41. and by late 1976 about 540 E models had been built, bringing output to well over 1,400 within a decade. Vought funded develop­ment of a tandem-seat YA-7H, and is converting 81 В and C into the dual TA-7C. Greece is receiving 60 A-7H, similar to the D but without the on­board starter or flight-refuelling receptacle, at a price of $259-2 million. Pakistan accepted sale of 110. on condition (it was reported) it did not buy a nuclear reactor offered by France!

Dassault Super Etendard

Super Etendard

Origin: Avions Marcel Dassault/Breguet Aviation, France.

Type: Single-seat carrier strike fighter.

Engine: 11,2651b (5110kg) thrust SNECMA Atar 8K-50 single-shaft turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 31ft 5Jin (9-6m); length 46ft 11 Jin (14-31m); height 12ft 8in (3-85m).

Weights: Empty 1 3.889lb (6300kg): loaded 25,350lb (11,500kg). Performance: Maximum speed 745mph (1200km/h) at sea level, Mach 1 at altitude: initial climb 24,600ft (7500m)/min: service ceiling 52,495ft (16,Q00m): range (clean) at altitude, over 1,243 miles (2000km). Armament: Two 30mm DEFA cannon: mission load up to 9,9211b (4500kg) carried on five pylons.

History: First flight (converted Etendard) 28 October 1974: first delivery, late 1 977.

User: France (Aeronavale).

Dassault Super EtendardDevelopment: During the late 1 960s it had been expected that the original force of Etendards would be replaced, in about 1971, by a specially de­veloped version of the Jaguar, the M version with single main wheels, full carrier equipment and specially fitted for the naval strike role. A Jaguar M completed flight development and carrier compatability. but for various reasons, mainly concerned with politics and cost, this was rejected by the Aeronavale and a search began for an alternative. After studying the A-4 Skyhawk and A-7 Corsair, the Aeronavale chose Dassaub Breguet’s proposal for an improved Etendard. This has a substantially redesigned structure, for operation at higher indicated airspeeds and higher weights: a nevv and more efficient engine, obtained by removing the afterburner from the Atar 9K-50 of the Mirage F1 ,C: completely new inertial navigation

Dassault Super Etendard

Three-view of the Super Etendard (centreline pylon not shown).

system, produced mainly by SAGEM with American help; new multi-mode nose radar, produced jointly by Thomson-CSF and Electronique Marcel Dassault, with especially good performance in surface vessel detection and attack; and much greater and more varied mission load. Flight development was completed in 1974-77 with three converted Etendard IVs, the first testing the engine, the second the avionics and weapons, and the third the new wing with slats and double-slotted flaps like the Jaguar. In 1973 the Aeronavale announced it would buy 100, but this has now been cut back to 30, and service delivery delayed until late 1978.

Below; Unlike Britain, which has no conventional aircraft carriers, the French Navy has no plans to withdraw either Foch or Clemenceau from operational commission. Here a Dassault Super Etendard (No 7) is seen aboard the former vessel, though the first dozen aircraft to be delivered went to the land airfield of Landivisiau, where they replaced the obsolescent Etendard IVM. Super Etendards are also replacing Crusader F-8(FN) fighters.

Dassault Super Etendard

Nesher (Eagle)

Nesher (Eagle)
When General De Gaulle instructed Dassault not to deliver the Mirage 5 aircraft ordered and paid for by Israel, and developed by Dassault specifically for the Israeli Air Force, IAI was assigned the task of making Israel in­dependent of French help. The ultimate result was the Kfir (see above ),but as an interim measure IAI produced a copy of the Mirage 5 with Atar 9C engine. The prototype is reported to have flown in October 1969. Deliveries began in 1972, and about 40 Neshers are said to have participated in the October 1973 war.

North American (Rockwell) F-100 Super Sabre

F-100A to F-100F and DF-100F

Origin: North American Aviation Inc. Inglewood, USA.

Type: Single-seat fighter-bomber: (F-100F) two-seat operational trainer: (DF) missile or RPV director aircraft.

Engine: One Pratt & Whitney J57 two-shaft turbojet with afterburner, (most blocks of A) 14,5001b (6576kg) J57-7: (late A, all C) 16,0001b (7257kg) J57-29: (D, F) 16,9501b (7690kg) J57-21A (all ratings with afterburner).

Dimensions: Span (original A) 36ft 7in: (remainder) 38ft 9iin (11 81m): length (except F, excluding pitot boom) 49ft 6in (15 09m), (fuselage, 47ft exactly): (F) 52ft 6in (16 0m), (boom adds about 6ft to all models); height (original A) 13ft 4in; (remainder) 16ft 2Jin (4-96m).

Weights: Empty (original A) 19,7001b; (C) 20,4501b; (D) 21,0001b (9525kg); (F) 22,3001b (10,11 5kg); maximum loaded (original A) 28.935lb; (C, D) 34,832lb (15,800kg); (F, two tanks but no weapons) 30.700lb (13,925kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (typical of all) 864mph at height (1390 km/h, Mach 1-31); initial climb (clean) 16.000ft (4900m)/min; service ceiling (typical) 45.000ft (13.720m); range (high, two 375gal tanks) 1,500 miles (2415km).

Armament: Usually four (F, only two) 20mm M-39E cannon each with 200 rounds; (A) pylons for two 375gal supersonic tanks and four additional hardpoints (seldom used) for 4,0001b ordnance; (C, D) two tanks and six pylons for 7,5001b (3402kg) ordnance: (F) two tanks and maximum of 6,0001b (2722kg) ordnance.

History: First flight (YF-100) 25 May 1953; production (A) 29 October 1953; final delivery October 1959.

Users: Denmark, Taiwan, Turkey.

North American (Rockwell) F-100 Super Sabre

Development: The success of the Sabre made it natural to attempt a successor, and in February 1949 this was planned as a larger and much more powerful machine able to exceed the speed of sound in level flight (had it been started two years later it might have been smaller, in view of the Korean pressure for simple fighters with the highest possible climb and performance at extreme altitudes). Unusual features were the 6 per cent wing with 45“ sweep, no flaps, inboard ailerons, full-span slats a. nd a slab

tailplane mounted as low as possible. Level supersonic speed was achieved, for the first time with a combat aircraft, but after very rapid development, with the first (479th) wing fully equipped, the F-100A was grounded in November 1954. Trouble due to inertia coupling between the roll and yaw axes necessitated urgent modification, the wings and fin being lengthened. Subsequently the career of the "Hun" was wholly successful, the 203 A fighters being followed by the stronger C fighter-bomber, the D with flaps and autopilot and the tandem-seat F. Total production was lower than expected at 2,294, many being built by NAA’s newly occupied factory at Columbus, Ohio. In their early years the later versions pioneered global deployment of tactical aircraft by means of probe/drogue refuelling, and in Vietnam they proved outstandingly good at both low attack and top cover, flying more missions than over 15,000 Mustangs flew in World War II. In 1977 the survivors of what two decades earlier had been among the world’s elite warplanes were in their final months of combat duty after countless inspection, repair and modification programmes.

Подпись: /Подпись:North American (Rockwell) F-100 Super SabreПодпись: %North American (Rockwell) F-100 Super SabreLeft: Turkey is one of the last nations to retain a force of F-100 Super Sabres: this is an F-100D-15 single-seat ground-attack aircraft.

Below: At one time the USAF operated the GAM-83 (later restyled AGM-12) Bullpup command-guided air-to-surface missile from the F-100, though it was withdrawn before the aircraft itself (which remained in service after the war in Vietnam).

Vought F-8 Crusader

Vought F-8A to F-8J, RF-8,

DF-8 and QF-8

Origin: Vought Systems Division of LTV, Dallas, USA.

Type: Originally single-seat carrier-based day fighter (see text).

Engine: One Pratt & Whitney J57 two-shaft turbojet with afterburner; (A, B, F. L) 16,2001b (7327kg) J57-12; (С, K) 16,9001b (7665kg) J57-16; others, 18,0001b (8165kg) J57-20A. About 100 F-8J re-engined with P&W TF30-420 afterburning turbofan, rated at 19,6001b (8891kg). Dimensions: Span 35ft 8in (10-87m); (E, J) 35ft 2in; length 54ft 3in (16-54m); (E, J) 54ft 6in; height 1 5ft 9in (4-80m).

Weights: Empty (C) about 17,0001b (7710kg); (J) 19,7001b (8935kg); maximum loaded (C) 27,5501b (12,500kg); (J) 34,0001b (15,420kg). Performance: Maximum speed, clean, at altitude (A, B, L, FI) 1,01 3mph, (RF-8A) 982mph; (RF-8G) 1,002mph; (С, K. J) 1.105mph (1780km/h. Mach 1Q8); (E) 1,135mph; (D) 1,230mph; initial climb (typical) 21,000ft (6400m)/min; service ceiling, from 38.400ft for J to 42,900ft (1 3,100m) for D; combat radius, from 368 miles for С, К to 440 miles (708km) for J and 455 miles (732km) for D.

Armament: (А, В, C) four 20mm Colt Mk 12 cannon each with 84 rounds; one Sidewinder on each side and 32 folding-fin rockets in belly pack; (D) four 20mm plus four Sidewinder; (E, H, J) four 20mm plus four Sidewinder plus 12 Mk 81 bombs, or two Bullpups or eight Zuni rockets; (K. L) as J but 144 rounds per gun; RF versions, none.

History: First flight (XF8U-1) 25 March 1955: (production F-8A) Novem­ber 1956; service delivery 25 March 1957; final delivery 1965.

Users: France, Philippines, USA (Naval Reserve).

Vought F-8 Crusader

Development: This outstanding carrier-based fighter, notable for its variable-incidence wing, outperformed the F-100 on the same engine, besides having 1,1 65gal internal fuel! Exceeding Mach 1 on the level on the first flight the F8U (as it then was) was rapidly developed for carrier service, and for 12 years was a popular combat aircraft of the US Navy and Marines.

Three-view of F-8J, a remanufactured F-8E now in use with the US Naval Reserve.

Altogether 1,259 were built, plus two prototypes, and in 1966—71 446 were rebuilt to a later standard (B to L, C to К. E to J and D to H). The continual process of improvement added all-weather radar, improved autopilot and weapon-delivery systems. air/groUnd weapons and, in the 42 F-8E(FN) for the French Navy, slower approach for small carriers. Variants include RF reconnaissance, DF drone RPV and QF RPV-control aircraft; a single dual trainer was also built. Many rebuilt versions remain in combat service, with long life ahead; total Crusader flight time exceeds 3,000,000hr.

Vought F-8 CrusaderVought F-8 Crusader
Left: An F-8L, one of the long­life remanufactured versions, formerly serving with the USMC (squadron VMF-321).

Below. Rebuilt Crusader, probably an F-8J, serving with VF-201 US Navy fighter squadron. In 1980 French F-8E(FN) fighters were being replaced by the Super Etendard attack aircraft, and the only remaining user is the 7th Tactical Fighter Squadron of the Philippines Air Force.

Vought F-8 Crusader

Dassault/Breguet Dornier Alpha Jet

Alpha Jet

Origin: Jointly Dassault/Breguet, France, and Dornier GmbH, W Germany, with assembly at each company.

Type: Two-seat trainer and light strike/reconnaissance aircraft.

Engines: Two 2.9761b (1350kg) thrust SNECMA/Turbomeca Larzac 04 two-shaft turbofans.

Dimensions: Span 29ft 11 in (9-12m): length (excluding any probe) 40ft 3Jin (1 2-29m); height 1 3ft 9in (4 2m).

Weights: Empty 6,944lb (3150kg): loaded (clean) 9.920lb (4500kg), (maximum) 15,4321b (7000kg).

Performance: (clean) maximum speed 576mph (927km/h) at sea level, 560mph (900km/h) (Mach 0-85) at altitude; climb to 39,370ft (12,000m), less than 10 minutes: service ceiling 45,930ft (14,000m); typical mission endurance 2hr 30min; ferry range with two external tanks 1,510 miles (2430km).

Armament: Optional for weapon training or combat missions, detachable belly fairing housing one 30mm DEFA or 27mm Mauser cannon, with 125 rounds, or two 0 50in Brownings, each with 250 rounds; same centreline hardpoint and either one or two under each wing (to maximum of five) can be provided with pylons for maximum external load of 4,8501b (2200kg), made up of tanks, weapons, reconnaissance pod, ECM or other devices. History: First flight 26 October 1973; first production delivery originaljy to be early 1 976, actually late 1978.

Users: Belgium, Cameroun, France, W Germany, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Togo.

Dassault/Breguet Dornier Alpha Jet

Development: Realisation that the Jaguar was too capable and costly to be a standard basic trainer led to the Armee de I’Air issuing a requirement for a new trainer in 1967. The chosen design was to be capable of use in the light ground attack role, in which the Luftwaffe had a parallel need for an aircraft. On 22 July 1969 the two governments agreed to a common specifi-

Dassault/Breguet Dornier Alpha Jet

Above: Three-view of Alpha Jet prototype with armament.

cation and to adopt a common type of aircraft produced jointly by the two national industries. After evaluation against the Aerospatiale (Nord)/MBB E650 Eurotrainer, the Alpha Jet was selected on 24 July 1970. Aircraft for the two partners are nearly identical. France makes the fuselage and centre section and Germany the rear fuselage, tail and outer wings. SABCA of Belgium makes minor portions. Engines, originally shared by two French companies (see above), are being produced in partnership with MTU and KHD of Germany, plus a small share by FN of Belgium. Trainer aircraft are assembled at Toulouse (France) and attack versions at Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Decision to go ahead with production was reached on 26 March 1975. It was expected at that time that France and Germany would each buy 200, and that Belgium would buy 33. but the programme has slipped by more than two years, resulting in increased costs. In 1979 full production was achieved.

Below: After prolonged delays the Alpha Jet finally got into full service in late 1978, with the specially equipped light attack version for the Luftwaffe following in late 1979.

Dassault/Breguet Dornier Alpha Jet


JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

VTI-CIAR 93 Orao

Origin: Joint programme by Centrala Industriala Aeronautica Romana, Bucharest, Romania, and Vazduhoplovno-Techniki Institut, Zarkovo, Yugoslavia.

Type: Single-seat tactical attack.

Engines: Two 4,0001b (1814kg) thrust Rolls-Royce/Fiat Viper 632 single-shaft turbojets.

Dimensions: (Estimated) span 24ft 10in (7-56m); length 42ft 4in (12-9m): height 12ft 5in (3-78m).

Weights: (Estimated) empty 9,480lb (4300kg): loaded (fighter mission) 15,8751b (7200kg): maximum loaded 19,8501b (9000kg).

Performance: (Estimated) maximum speed, equivalent to about Mach 0-95 over wide height band (thus, about 700—720mph, 11 50km/h, clean at sea level): maximum speed with weapons, about 550mph (885km/h) at sea level: initial climb (clean) at least 15,000ft (4600m)/min: range on internal fuel (clean, high altitude) about 900 miles (1450km).

Armament: Two Nudelmann-Richter NR-30 30mm cannon, each with 125 rounds: centreline and underwing hardpoints, each reported to be rated at 500kg (maximum total external load, 4,840lb. 2200kg) for wide range of Yugoslav cluster bombs, frag bombs, h. e. and napalm (some retarded), rocket pods (12* 57mm) or photoflashes.

History: Start of design 1971: first flight believed August 1974: official demonstration 15 April 1975: service delivery, probably December 1976. Users: Romania, Yugoslavia.

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

Development: In 1971 the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia agreed to attempt to meet a common requirement of their air forces for a new tactical combat aircraft by building their own. The decision was speci­fically aimed to help the two countries become more independent of what had previously been a unique source of military equipment. It is significant that the necessary technical help to carry out what was a most challenging project for the two countries came from the West, especially from the UK (which provides engines and most of the airborne system-hardware, and has probably also assisted with the design and development phases). As no bilateral management organization has been announced observers call the project the "Jurom" (Jugoslavia/Romania), but its correct designation is given above (Orao means eagle).

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

Above: Three-view of Orao prototype as at first showing in 1975.

The aircraft is intended to fulfil several important roles, especially tactical interdiction, close-air support (with laser ranger) and multi-sensor recon­naissance, A two-seat version is among the development batch of 11 aircraft, and several of these roles are judged to need a second crew­member (despite the payload/range limitation with aircraft of modest power). The two-seater will also fulfil the need for a trainer more advanced than the Soko Galeb. Later it is hoped to produce a fighter version, with afterburning engines and a lightweight multimode radar. From the start the Orao has been planned to operate from unpaved and relatively short airstrips, though the early pre-production machines did not have the expected slats and double-slotted flaps (but they did have a braking chute and soft-field tyres). By 1977 it was reported that all 11 development aircraft had flown (apparently some assembled in each country, but all bearing the joint VTI – CIAR designation) and that production deliveries were about to begin. If the partners achieve their objective of export sales it may enable work to go ahead on a modern air-combat fighter version with a restressed airframe, and possibly canards, twin vertical tails and double-shock variable inlets. There appears to be the potential in this joint effort for long-term competition for both East and West.

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao
Below: The first Orao prototype, which flew in 1974. Since then development has been rather slow, though in 1980 it was believed that two further prototypes and nine pre-production machines (including a dual two-seater) were in the air. No announcement has been made by Rolls-Royce regarding a planned afterburning version of the Viper 632 for production Oraos.