ВАС (ВАе) Lightning

Lightning F.1 to 6 and export versions (data for F.6)

Origin: English Electric Aviation (now British Aerospace), UK.

Type: Single-seat all-weather interceptor.

Engines: Two 1 5,680lb (711 2kg) thrust Rolls-Royce Avon 302 augmented turbojets.

Dimensions: span 34ft 10in (10 6m): length 53ft 3in (16-25m); height 19ft 7in (595m).

Weights: Empty about 28,000lb (12,700kg); loaded 50,000lb (22,680kg). Performance: Maximum speed 1,500mph (2415km/h) at 40,000ft (12,200m): initial climb 50,000ft (15,240m)/min; service ceiling over 60,000ft (18,290m); range without overwing tanks 800 miles (1290km). Armament: Interchangeable packs for two all-attitude Red Top or stern – chase Firestreak guided missiles; option of two 30mm Aden cannon in forward part of belly tank; export versions up to 6,0001b (2722kg) bombs or other offensive stores above and below wings.

History: First flight (P.1 B) 4 April 1957; (first production F.1) 30 October 1959; (first F.6) 17 April 1964.

Users: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UK.

Development: As he had been with the Canberra, "Teddy" Petter was again moving spirit behind the award, in 1947, of a study contract for a supersonic research aircraft. Later this was built and flown as the P.1 of August 1954, exceeding Mach 1 on two crude unaugmented Sapphire engines mounted one above and behind the other and fed by a plain nose inlet. In mid-1949 specification F.23/49 was issued for a supersonic fighter, and after com­plete redesign the P.1 В was produced and flown in 1 957. This had a new fuselage with a two-shock intake, the central cone being intended to house Ferranti Airpass radar. The Avon engines were fitted with primitive after­burning, allowing a speed of Mach 2 to be attained on 25 November 1958.

Helped by 20 pre-production aircraft, the Lightning F.1 was cleared for service in 1960. Though relatively complicated, so that the flying rate and maintenance burden were terrible in comparison with more modern aircraft, these supersonic all-weather interceptors at last gave the RAF a modern fighter with radar, guided missiles (heat-homing Firestreaks) and supersonic performance. Production was held back by the belief that all manned fighters |a

ВАС (ВАе) Lightning

ВАС (ВАе) Lightning

Above: Lightning F.6, with upper side elevation showing F.1.


were obsolete (as clearly set forth in the Defence White Paper of April 1 957), but the Treasury were persuaded to allow the improved F.2 to be built in 1961 with fully variable afterburner and all-weather navigation. Eventually, as the error of the 1 957 doctrine became apparent, the Mk 3 was allowed in 1964, with more powerful engines, more fuel, bigger fin, collision-course fire-control and allattitude Red Top missiles: but it was decided to fit no guns, earlier marks having had two 30mm Aden cannon. Finally, in 1965, the belated decision was taken to follow the advice of ВАС and almost double the fuel capacity and also fit the kinked and cambered wing (first flown in 1956) to improve operation at much increased weights. The T.4 and T.5 are dual conversion trainers equivalent to the F.2 and F.3. For Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, ВАС paid for development of the Lightning as a multi-role fighter and attack aircraft, adding 57 to the production total to Dring it up to 338.

ВАС (ВАе) LightningLeft: One of the Lightning F.2A interceptors of 92 Sqn, RAF Germany (a unit since re-equipped with Phantoms) in the one-colour green applied over all upper surfaces to render them less conspicuous when viewed from above.

ВАС (ВАе) Lightning
Below: This Lightning is an F.6, the final standard to which the F.2A (a complete rebuild of a much earlier type) was a near approximation. It is shown unpainted serving with 23 Sqn, and was photographed whilst formating on a Soviet ‘Bear’ reconnaissance and electronic-warfare aircraft. Today IMo 23 also flies Phantoms.

HSA (BAe) Buccaneer

Buccaneer S.1,2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D and 50

Origin: Hawker Siddeley Aviation (formerly Blackburn Aircraft, now British Aerospace), UK.

Type: Two-seat attack and reconnaissance.

Engines: (S.1) two 7,1001b (3220kg) thrust Bristol Siddeley (previously de Havilland) Gyron Junior 101 single-shaft turbojets; (all later marks) two 11,0301b (5003kg) Rolls-Royce Spey 101 two-shaft turbofans. Dimensions: Span (1) 42ft 4in (1 2-9m); (2 and subsequent) 44ft (1 341 m); length 63ft 5:n (19-33m); height 16ft 3in (4 95m).

Weights: Empty (1) 26,000lb (2) about 30,0001b (13,610kg); maximum loaded (1) 46,000lb (20,865kg); (2) 62,000lb (28,123kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (all) 645mph (1038km/h, Mach 0-85) at sea level; initial climb (2, at 46,0001 b) 7,000ft (2134m)/min; service ceiling not disclosed but over 40,000ft (9144m); range on typical hi-lo-hi strike mission with weapon load (2) 2,300 miles (3700km).

Armament: Rotating bomb door carries four 1,0001b (454kg) bombs or multi-sensor reconnaissance pack or 440gal tank; (S.2 and later) four wing pylons each stressed to 3,0001b (1 361 kg), compatible with very wide range of guided and/or free-fall missiles. Total internal and external stores load 16,0001b (7257kg).

History: First flight (NA.39) 30 April 1958; (production S.1) 23 January 1962; (prototype S.2) 17 May 1963; (production S.2) 5 June 1964; final delivery late 1 975.

Users: S Africa, UK (RAF, Royal’Navy).

Development: After the notorious "Defence White Paper" of April 1957, which proclaimed manned combat aircraft obsolete, the Blackburn B.103, built to meet the naval attack specification NA.39, was the only new British military aircraft that was not cancelled. Development was grudgingly permitted, and this modest-sized subsonic machine was gradually re­cognised as a world-beater. Designed for carrier operation, its wing and tail were dramatically reduced in size as a result of very powerful tip-to-tip supercirculation (BLC, boundary-layer control) achieved by blasting hot compressed air bled from the engines from narrow slits. The S.1 (strike Mk 1) was marginal on power, but the greatly improved S.2 was a reliable and formidable aircraft. The first 84 were ordered by the Royal Navy and most of these have been transferred to RAF Strike Command, designated S.2B when converted to’launch Martel missiles. Those remaining with the Navy are S.2Ds (2C if they are not Martel-compatible), In January 1963 the South African Air Force bought 16 S.50s with BS.605 boost rocket built into a retractable pack in the rear fuselage to facilitate use from hot and high air­strips. Finally – perhaps rather surprisingly, considering the scorn vented on Buccaneer during the TSR.2 era — the RAF signed in 1 968 for 43 new S.2Bs with adequate equipment, including a refuelling probe which is never used in front-line service in Germany. Within the limits of crippling budgets the RAF Buccaneers have been updated by improved avionics and ECM, and all

HSA (BAe) Buccaneer

Below: A Buccaneer S.2B of RAF No 16 Sqn which, with No 15, forms the attack/strike force of RAF Germany based at Laarbruch.

HSA (BAe) Buccaneer

Three-view of Buccaneer S.2 with FR probe and bomb-door tank.

HSA (BAe) Buccaneer
models have the advantage of an unbreakable long-life airframe and the ability to carry weapons internally In 1977 they were getting Pave Spike laser-guided bomb systems. Altogether the Mk 2 Buccaneer is one of the most cost/effective aircraft ever designed for tactical use.

HSA (BAe) BuccaneerAbove: This Buccaneer is seen with its rotary weapon-bay door open, revealing the internal bay which enables it to attack in the clean condition at speeds higher than the maximum speed at sea level of many so-called supersonic attack aircraft (which can reach super­sonic speed only at high altitude and carry their weapons outside).

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-17

MiG-17, -17P, -17F (Lim-5P and -5M,

S-104, F-4), -17PF and -17PFU (NATO name "Fresco")

Origin: The design bureau of Mikoyan and Gurevich, Soviet Union: licence-production as described in the text.

Type: Single-seat fighter; (PF, PFU) limited all-weather interceptor. Engine: (-17. -17P) one 5.952lb (2700kg) thrust Klimov VK-1 single­shaft centrifugal turbojet: (later versions) one 4,732/7,452lb (3380kg) VK-1F with afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 31ft (9-45m); length (all) 36ft 3in (11’05m); height 11ft (3’35m).

Weights: Empty (all) about 9.040lb (4100kg); loaded (F. clean) 11,7731b (5340kg): maximum (all) 14,7701b (6700kg)

Performance: Maximum speed (F, clean at best height of 9,840ft) 711mph (1145km/h); initial climb 12,795ft (3900m)/min; service ceiling 54,460ft (16,600m); range (high, two drop tanks) 913 miles (1470km). Armament: (-17) as MiG-15, one 37mm and two 23mm NS-23; (all later versions) three 23mm Nudelmann-Rikter NR-23 cannon, one under right side of nose and two under left; four wing hardpoints for tanks, total of 1,1021b (500kg) of bombs, packs of eight 55mm air-to-air rockets or various air-to-ground missiles.

History: First flight (prototype) January 1950; service delivery, 1952; service delivery (F-4) January 1956; final delivery (Soviet Union) probably 1959.

Users: Afghanistan. Albania, Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, E Germany, Guinea. Hungary, Indonesia (in storage), Iraq, Kampuchea, N Korea, Mali, Morocco (in storage), Nigeria. Poland, Romania, Somalia. S Yemen. Soviet Union, Sri Lanka, Sudan. Syria, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen Arab.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-17Development: Only gradually did Western observers recognise the MiG-17 as not merely a slightly modified MiG-15 but a completely different aircraft. Even then it was generally believed it had been hastily designed to rectify deficiencies shown in the MiG-1 5’s performance in Korea, but in fact the design began in about January 1949, long before the Korean war. This was because from the first the MiG-1 5 had shown bad behaviour at high speeds, and though the earlier fighter was eventually made completely safe (partly by arranging for the air brakes to open automatically at Mach 0-92) it was still a difficult gun platform due to its tendency to snake and pitch. The MiG-17 – which was probably the last fighter in which Gurevich played a direct personal role — had a new wing with thickness reduced from 11 per cent to about 9 pet cent, a different section and planform and no fewer

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-17

Above: Three-view of typical MiG-17F (NATO name, "Fresco C").

three fences. Without taper and with inboard sweep of 47° this made a big difference to high-Mach behaviour, and in fact there are reasons to believe the MiG-17 can be dived to make a sonic bang. With a new tail on a longer rear fuselage the transformation was completed by considerable revision of systems and equipment, though at first the VK-1 engine was unchanged. In 1958 the first limited all-weather version, the -17P, went into modest production with longer nose housing the same Izumrud (”Scan Odd") Al radar and ranging avionics as was also in production for the MiG-19. With the introduction of an afterburning engine the airbrakes were moved aft of the wing, away from the hot back end, but this was not a good position and they were returned (in enlarged rectangular form) to the tail in the most important sub-type the -17F. This was made in Poland as the Lim-5P (the -5M being a rough-field close-support version with larger tyres and drag chute), in Czechoslovakia as the S-104 and in China as the F-4. The PF was the afterburning all-weather version, and the final model was the PFU with guns removed and wing pylons for four beam-riding "Alkali" air-to-air missiles. Total production for at least 22 air forces must have considerably exceeded 5.000, exports from China alone exceeding 1,000. Many 17F remained in use in the mid-1970s.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-17Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-17
Left: This MiG-17F is one of about 50 which in 1980 were still serving with the Syrian Air Force. Used in the low-level attack role, it is now obsolescent but may continue as a weapon trainer.

Sukhoi Su-7

Su-7B, -7BIN/I, -7BMK and -7U; NATO name "Fitter"

Origin: The design bureau of Pavel A. Sukhoi. Soviet Union.

Type: Single-seat close-support and interdiction: (-7U) dual-control trainer.

Engine: One Lyulka AL-7F turbojet rated at 15.4301b (7000kg) dry or 22.0461b (10,000kg) with maximum afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 29ft 3Jin (8-93m). length (all. incl probe) 57ft (17’37m); height (all) 15ft 5in (4-70m).

Weights: Empty (typical -7) 19,0001b (8620kg). maximum loaded (typical -7) 30.0001b (13.610kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, clean, at altitude, (all) 1.055mph (1700km/h. Mach 1 6). initial climb (-7BM) 29.000ft (9120m)/min; service ceiling (-7BM) 49,700ft (15.150m): range with twin drop tanks (all) 900 miles (1450km).

Armament: /-7) two 30mm NR-30 cannon, each with 70 rounds, in wing roots: four wing pylons, inners rated at 1.6531b (750kg) and outers at 1,1021b (500kg), but when two tanks are carried on fuselage pylons total external weapon load is reduced to 2.2051b (1000kg).

History: First flight (-7 prototype) not later than 1955: service delivery (-7B) 1959.

Users: (-7) Afghanistan. Algeria. Czechoslovakia, Egypt, ffungary, India. Iraq. N Korea. Poland. Romania. Soviet Union. Syria. Vietnam.

Sukhoi Su-7

Development: Two of the wealth of previously unknown Soviet aircraft revealed at the 1956 Aviation Day at Tushino were large Sukhoi fighters, one with a swept wing (called "Fitter" by NATO) and the other a tailed delta (called "Fishpot"). Both were refined into operational types, losing some of their commonality in the process. The delta entered service as the Su-9 and -11, described separately. The highly-swept Su-7 was likewise built in very large numbers, optimised not for air superiority but for ground

Sukhoi Su-7

Above: Three-view of Su-7BMK, with side view (bottom) of -7U "Moujik".

attack. As such it has found a worldwide market, and despite severe short­comings has been exported in numbers which exceed 700. All Sukhoi combat aircraft have been made within the Soviet Union The good points of the Su-7 family are robust structure, reasonable reliability and low cost: drawbacks are vulnerability to small-calibre fire and the impossibility of getting adequate field length, weapon load and radius of action all together There are many variants. The original -7B was quickly superseded by the more powerful -7BM. with twin ribbon tail chutes. The most common export model is the -7BMK with low-pressure tyres and other changes to improve behaviour from short unpaved strips. The -7U is the tandem dual trainer. Since 1964 many BMK have been seen with take-off rockets and four wing pylons.

Sukhoi Su-7Left: An Su-7BM of the Egyptian Air Force. Some 120 survive, despite heavy losses from many causes.

Below: A frame from a Soviet propaganda film showing Su-7B type attack aircraft making passes on surface targets. The fundamental fault of this family is ability to carry fuel or weapons but not both.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145

ВАС 145 and Strikemaster

Origin: Hunting/BAC (now British Aerospace), UK.

Type: Two-seat light tactical aircraft and trainer.

Engine: 3,4101b (1547kg) thrust Rolls-Royce Viper 535 turbojet. Dimensions: Span 36ft 10in (11 -23m); length 33ft 8iin (10-27m); height 10ft 11£in (3-34m).

Weights: Empty 6,270lb (2840kg): loaded (clean) 9,200lb (4170kg): maximum 11,5001b (5210kg).

Performance: Maximum speed 481 mph (774km/h): maximum speed at sea level 450mph (726km/h); initial climb (max fuel, clean) 5,250ft (1600m)/min: service ceiling 44,000ft (13,410m): ferry range 1,615 miles (2600km): combat radius with 3,3001b weapon load 145 miles (233km). Armament: Two 7-62mm FN machine guns fixed firing forwards with 550 rounds each: wide range of stores to maximum of 3,0001b (1 360kg) on four underwing strongpoints.

History: First flight (Jet Provost) 16 June 1954: (Strikemaster) 26 October 1 967: first delivery 1968.

Users: (Jet Provost) Iraq, Kuwait, Rhodesia, S Yemen, Sri Lanka, Sudan, UK, Venezuela: (Strikemaster) Ecuador, Kenya, Kuwait, New Zealand, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sudan, S Yemen.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145
Development: The Percival Provost basic trainer flew in February 1950. Hunting then produced a jet version, and flew this in June 1954. Subse­quently the Hunting (later ВАС) Jet Provost became a successful basic trainer made in great numbers for the RAF and many overseas countries, and more powerful pressurised versions are still one of BAC’s current products. From this was developed the ВАС.145 multi-role trainer/attack aircraft, which in turn was developed into the highly refined Strikemaster. With a

more powerful Viper engine, the Strikemaster proved to be a great world­wide success. It has side-by-side ejection seats, and the ability to operate from the roughest airstrip whilst carrying a combat load three times a typical bomber’s load in the 1930s and any desired equipment fit. The Strikemaster has set a world record for the number of repeat orders placed by its export customers. In early 1977 there were no plans to install the most powerful Viper, the Mk 632, because this would reduce time between overhauls and increase cost without meeting any requirement expressed by a customer. In 1973-76 ВАС refurbished 177 RAF Jet Provosts, in the course of which VOR, DME and ILS were installed.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145
Left: One of the 16 Strikemaster Mk 88s serving in a light strike and training role with RNZAF No 14 Sqn based at Ohakea.

Below left: Kuwait is one of the several states whose Strikemasters — in this case designated Mk 83 – have seen real action.

Below: Another air force whose Strikemasters have been fully used is the Sultan of Oman’s; note bomb and Sura rockets on this Mk 82.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145



ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

Harrier GR.3 and T.4, AV-8A, TAV-8A and Sea Harrier FRS.1

Origin: Hawker Siddeley Aviation (now British Aerospace), UK,

Type: Single-seat tactical attack and reconnaissance: (T.4, TAV) dual trainer or special missions: (Sea Harrier) single-seat ship-based multi-role. Engine: One 21,500lb (9752kg) thrust Rolls-Royce Pegasus 103 two-shaft vectored-thrust turbofan (US designation F402): (Sea H, Pegasus 104). Dimensions: Span 25ft 3in (7-7m), (with bolt-on tips, 29ft 8in): length 45ft 6in (13’87m), (laser nose, 47ft 2in: two-seat trainers. 55ft 9iin; Sea Harrier, 48ft): height 11ft 3in (3’43m) (two-seat, 13ft 8in),

Weights: Empty (GR.1) 1 2.2001b (5533kg): (Sea H) 13,0001b (5897kg): (T) 13,6001b (6168kg): maximum (non-VTOL) 26,000lb (11,793kg), Performance: Maximum speed,737mph (1186km/h, Mach 0 972) at low level: maximum dive Mach number, T3: initial climb (VTQL weight) 50,000ft (1 5,240m)/min: service ceiling, over 50,000ft (15,240m): tactical radius on strike mission without drop tanks (hi-lo-hi) 260 miles (418km): ferry range 2,070 miles (3330km).

Armament: All external, with many options. Under-fuselage strakes both replaceable by pod containing one 30mm Aden or similar gun, with 150 rounds. Five or seven stores pylons, centre and two inboard each rated at 2,000lb (907kg), outers at 650lb (295kg) and tips (if used) at 220lb (100kg) for Sidewinder or similar. Normal load 5,3001b (2400kg), but 8,0001b (3630kg) has been flown.

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

Below: Unlike every other combat aeroplane in Western Europe the Harrier could escape the devastating missile attack on airfields that would begin any future war in Europe. Unfortunately most Harriers are usually at risk on airfields, instead of being safely dispersed into the countryside as are these Harrier FGA.3 single – seaters pictured during a special exercise in off-base operation.

Above: Three-view drawing of Harrier GR.3 with FR probe, laser nose and (dotted) ferry tips.

History: First hover (P.1127) 21 October 1960: first flight (P.1127) 13 March 1961: first flight (Kestrel) 13 February 1964: (development Harrier) 31 August 1966: (Harrier GR.1) 28 December 1967: (T.2) 24 April 1969: (Sea Harrier FRS.1) 20 August 1 978: squadron service (GR.1) 1 April 1969: (Sea Harrier) late 1979.

Users: Spain (Navy, AV-8A). UK (RAF, Royal Navy), USA (Marine Corps). Development: In the 1950s the realisation that the thrust/weight ratio of the gas turbine made possible a new class of high-speed jets having VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) capability led to a rash of unconventional

continued ►

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

Left: Though they are basic attack platforms without most of the sophisticated systems carried by RAF Harriers, the AV-8A Harrier of the US Marine Corps had the important effect of showing an insular Washington that foreign equipment could offer new capabilities. In turn, the Marines explored Harriers as fighters.

Below: A Harrier GR.3 of the RAF salvoes rockets in a firing pass against a ground target. This particular example is armed with four Matra 155 pods, each containing 19 SIMEB rockets of 68mm calibre. They are reasonably effective against hardened targets such as armour, though probably not as lethal as the BL.755 cluster bomb which is an alternative now available.

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier
By using an upward-curving ‘ski jump’ a Sea Harrier (or any other STOL aircraft) can carry much heavier loads with complete pilot safety, especially in operations from surface ships. This ski jump was built by Fairey Engineering from existing Medium Girder Bridge components and used at the 1978 Farnborough Air Show for Harriers and (as shown here) the first Sea Harrier FRS.1. Today the Sea Harrier is in service with the Royal IMavy and will be deployed aboard the lnvincible-cass light multi-role carriers. Invincible has a 7° ramp, while her two sisters. Illustrious and Ark Royal, have 15° ramps and a relocated Sea Dart launcher.

prototypes and research machines. Only one has led to a useful combat aircraft. It was the P.1127, designed by Camm’s team in 1957-59 around a unique engine, planned at Bristol by Stanley Hooker, in which the fan and core flows are discharged through four nozzles which, by means of chain drives from a single pneumatic motor, can be swivelled to point downwards, to lift the aircraft, or point to the rear, for propulsion. Gradually the P.1127 was transformed into the Kestrel, which equipped a UK/USA/German evaluation squadron in 1965. This was further developed into the Harrier (the much bigger, Mach 2, P.1154 for the RAF and RN having been can­celled in 1 965). Powered by a Pegasus 101 rated at 1 9,000lb, the GR.1 was capable of flying useful combinations of fuel and stores out of any hastily prepared site and did more than any other aircraft to explore the advantages and problems of operational deployment of combat aircraft well away from any airfield. Numerous flights were made from a wide variety of naval vessels and record flights were made from the centre of London to the centre of New York and vice versa. The GR.1 A had the 20,000lb Mk 102 engine and at this thrust the Harrier was adopted as the AV-8A by the US Marine Corps in both beach assault and defensive roles. All RAF and USMC aircraft have been re-engined with the Pegasus 103,.giving a payload/range performance adequate for a wide spectrum of missions, many of which cannot be flown by any other aircraft. Using VIFF (vectoring in forward flight) the Harrier can fly "impossible" manoeuvres and has proved itself an extremely tricky customer in a dogfight. This is not its main mission, however, and the RAF Harrier GR.3 (92 built) is primarily a tactical attack platform with Ferranti INAS (inertial nav/attack system) and laser ranger. The USMC AV-8A (112, plus six for Spain named Matador) does not have either of these equipments but carries Sidewinder air/air missiles. Including two-seaters, production by 1 977 amounted to 231. In Britain the main effort is completing development of the redesigned Sea Harrier, which should fly in 1977. The Royal Navy will deploy 24 from throughdeck cruisers and possibly other ships, and several other navies are discussing possible orders. The Sea Harrier has a completely new nose, with raised cockpit. Blue Fox’ radar, much enhanced systems and equipment and weapons for surface attack, reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare and air combat. Since 1975 talks have been held with China, which is interested in buying a large number of Harriers. The next-generation AV-8B is discussed under McDonnell Douglas.

HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

Below: A fine portrait of a British Aerospace TAV-8A Harrier dual-control trainer (with full combat capability) of the US Marine Corps, serving with VMAT-203, which handles the important task of converting pilots forVMA-231, -513 and -542.

Below: A British Aerospace Sea Harrier FRS.1, which entered service in autumn 1979 with 700A Sqn, the RN Intensive Flying Trials Unit at RNAS Yeovilton. In 1980 these extremely versatile multi-role aircraft embarked aboard HMS Invincible.


HSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea HarrierHSA (BAe) Harrier and Sea Harrier

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19

MiG-19, -19S, -19SF (Lim-7, S-105, F-6), -19PF and -19PM; NATO name "Farmer"

Origin: The design bureau named for Mikoyan and Gurevich, Soviet Union: licence-production as described in the text.

Type: Single-seat fighter (PF, PM, all-weather interceptor).

Engines: (-19, -19S) two 6,700lb (3,040kg) thrust (afterburner rating) Mikulin AM-5 single-shaft afterburning turbojets: (-19SF, PF, PM) two 7,1651b (3250kg) thrust (afterburner) Klimov RD-9B afterburning turbojets. Dimensions: Span 29ft 6Jin (9m): length (S, SF, excluding pitot boom) 42ft 11 iin (13-08m): (-19PF, PM) 44ft 7in; height 13ft 2Jin (4-02m). Weights: Empty (SF) 12,6981b (5760kg): loaded (SF, clean) 1 6,7551b (7600kg): (maximum, SF) 19,1801b (8700kg): (PM) 20,9441b (9500kg). Performance: Maximum speed (typical) 920mph at 20,000ft (1480km/h, Mach 1-3): initial climb (SF) 22,640ft (6900m)/min; service ceiling’(SF) 58.725ft (17,900m): maximum range (high, with two drop tanks) 1,367 miles (2200km).

Armament: See text

History: First flight, September 1953: service delivery early 1955: first flight (F-6) December 1 961.

Users: Afghanistan, Albania, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, E Germany (not operational), Flungary, Indonesia (in storage), Iraq, N Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Tanzania (F6), Vietnam, Zambia (F6).

Development: With the MiG-19 the Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau established itself right in the front rank of the world’s fighter design teams. The new fighter was on the drawing board as the I-350 before even the MiG-15 had been encountered in Korea, the five prototypes being ordered on 30 July 1 951, Maj. Grigori Sedov flew the first aircraft on 18 September 1953 on the power of two non-afterburning AM-5 engines giving only 4,4101b thrust each. Nevertheless, despite the high wing loading and bold sweep angle of 55° (at 25% chord), the MiG-19 handled well, large fences and Fowler flaps giving satisfactory low-speed control. With afterburning engines the MiG-19 became the first Russian supersonic fighter and it was put into production on a very large scale, rivalling that of the MiG-15 and -17, despite a 100 per cent increase in price. After about 500 had been delivered the MiG-1 9S (stabilizator) supplanted the early model with the fixed tail – plane and manual elevators replaced by a fully powered slab. At the same time the old armament (unchanged since MiG-15 and -17) was replaced by three of the new 30mm NR-30 guns, one in each wing root and one under the right side of the nose. A large ventral airbrake was also added. In 1956 the AM-5 engine was replaced by the newer and more powerful RD-9.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19
Right: Few of this specialized missile­armed interceptor version (the MiG – 19PM, which unlike earlier MiG fighters was not made in Poland) remain in service with the PWL (Polish Air Force).

increasing peak Mach number from 1-1 to 1 -3. The new fighter was desig­nated MiG-19SF (forsirovanni. increased power), and has been built in very large numbers. Total production possibly exceeds 10,000. including licence-manufacture as the Lim-7 in Poland. S-105 in Czechoslovakia and F-6 in China. The corresponding MiG-19PF (perekhvatchik. interceptor) has an Izumrud Al radar (called "Scan Odd" by NATO) in a bullet carried on the inlet duct splitter, with the ranging unit in the upper inlet lip, changing the nose shape and adding 22in to the aircraft length. The final production version was the MiG-19PM (modifikatsirovanni), with guns removed and pylons for four early beam-rider air-to-air missiles (called "Alkali" by NATO). All MiG-19s can carry the simple K-1 ЗА missile (the copy of Side­winder. called "Atoll" by NATO) and underwing pylons can carry two 176 gal drop tanks plus two 5511b weapons or dispensers. Perhaps sur­prisingly. there has been no evidence of a two-seat trainer version of this fine fighter, which in 1960 was judged obsolescent and in 1970 was fast being reappraised as an extremely potent dogfighter. Part of the understand­ing of the MiG-19’s qualities has resulted from its purchase in large numbers by Pakistan as the F-6 from the Chinese factory at Shenyang. The notable features of the F-6 were its superb finish, outstanding dogfight man­oeuvrability and tremendous hitting power of the NR-30 guns, each projectile having more than twice the kinetic energy of those of the Aden or DEFA of similar calibre. Though China soon ceased making the MiG-21 the F-6 remains in production, and has been developed into the F-6bis.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19

Left: Very large numbers of many versions of F-6 (Chinese-built MiG-19) are used by the air force of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. This is a regular F-6 single-seat tactical machine, but some versions — notably the TF-6 dual-control trainer — are wholly of Chinese design and have no counterpart in the Soviet Union. The F-6 was also the basis for the much heavier and more powerful F-6bis, called ‘Fantan-A’ by NATO.

Sukhoi Su-9 and Su-11

Su-9 "Fishpot B", Su-9U "Maiden" and Su-11 "Fishpot C".

Origin: The design bureau named for Pavel 0. Sukhoi. Soviet Union. Type: Single-seat all-weather interceptor (Su-9U, two-seat trainer). Engine: One Lyulka single-shaft turbojet with afterburner: (Su-9 and -9U) AL-7F rated at 1 9,8401 b (9000kg) thrust with maximum afterburner, (Su-11) AL-7F-1 rated at 22,046lb (10,000kg).

Dimensions: Span 27ft 8in (8-43m); length (-9, -9U) about 54ft (16-5m). (-11) 57ft (17-4m); height 16ft (4-9m).

Weights: (All, estimated) empty 20.000lb (9070kg): loaded (typical mission) 27,000lb (12.250kg), (maximum) 30,0001b (13,610kg). Performance: (-11, estimated) maximum speed (clean, sea level) 720mph (1160km/h, Mach 0-95), (clean, optimum height) 1,190mph (1910km/h, Mach 1-8), (two missiles and two tanks at optimum height) 790mph (1270km/h, Mach 1-2): initial climb 27,000ft (8230m)/min: service ceiling (clean) 55,700ft (17,000m): range (two missiles, two tanks) about 700 miles (11 25km).

Armament: (-9) four AA-1 "Alkali" air-to-air missiles: (r9U) same as -9, or not fitted: (-11) two AA-3 "Anab" air-to-air missiles, one radar and the other I Ft.

History: First flight (-9) before 1956: (-11) probably 1966: service delivery (-9) probably 1959, (-11) 1967.

User: Soviet Union (IA-PVO).

Development: When first seen, at the 1 956 Tushino display, one prototype delta-winged Sukhoi fighter had a small conical radome above the plain

Sukhoi Su-9 and Su-11

Above: Three-view of Su-11, with "Anab" missiles.

nose inlet, while a second had a conical centrebody. The latter arrangement was chosen for production as the Su-9. though development was rather protracted. At first sharing the same engine installation, rear fuselage and tail as the original Su-7, the Su-9 eventually came to have no parts exactly common. No gun was ever seen on an Su-9 by Western intelligence, the primitive missiles being the only armament. At least 2,000 were built, an additional number, probably supplemented by conversions, being tandem – seat dual trainers with a cockpit slightly different from that of the Su-7U. The Su-11 is cleaned up in every part of the airframe, has a longer and less – tapered nose with larger radar centrebody, completely different armament (still without guns) and a fuselage similar to the Su-7B with external duct fairings along the top on each side. Though much larger and more powerful than the MiG-21, these interceptors have an almost identical tailed-delta configuration. Unlike the MiG-21 they have all-weather capability (in­terpreted as "night and rain" rather than true all-weather), but are still limited in radius, endurance and armament. In 1976 they were together judged to equip one-quarter of the 2,500-strong interceptor force of the IA-PVO, but were being replaced by the Su-T5 and MiG-23S.

Left: A frame from a film showing both inner ‘Alkali’ missiles being fired from an Su-9 of the PVO.

Sukhoi Su-9 and Su-11
Below: Large numbers of Su-11 interceptors still operate with the IA-PVO, though probably no longer in the most sensitive spots.

Cessna A-37 Dragonfly

A-37, -37A and -37B ( Model 318E)

(data for -37B)

Origin: Cessna Aircraft Co, USA,

Type: Two-seat light strike aircraft.

Engines: Two 2.850lb (1293kg) thrust General Electric J85-17A single­shaft turbojets.

Dimensions: Span (over tip tanks) 35ft Ю^іп (1093m); length (not including refuelling probe) 29ft Зіп (8-92m); height 8ft 10Jin (2-7m). Weights: Empty 6,2111b (2817kg): loaded 14,0001b (6350kg). Performance: Maximum speed 507mph (816km/h) at 16,000ft (4875m): initial climb at gross weight 6,990ft (2130m)/min: service ceiling 41,765ft (12,730m): range (maximum weapons) 460 miles (740km), (maximum fuel) 1,012 miles (1628km).

Armament: One 7-62mm GAU-2B/A six-barrel Minigun in nose: eight wing pylon stations, two inners for up to 870lb (394kg), intermediate for 600lb (272kg) and outers for 500lb (227kg): maximum ordnance load 5,6801 b (2576kg).

History: First flight (XT-37) 12 October 1954: (YAT-37D) 22 October 1963: (A-37B) September 1967.

Users: (T-37) Brazil, Burma, Cambodia. Chile, Colombia, W Germany, Greece. Jordan, Pakistan, Peru, Portugal, Thailand, Turkey, US Air Force, Vietnam; (A-37) Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia (delivery embargoed at time of writing), Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Uruguay, US Air Force and National Guard, Vietnam (left by US forces).

Development: The Cessna Model 318 was the first American jet trainer. It entered production for the US Air Force as the T-37A, powered by two 920lb (417kg) thrust Continental J69 (licence-built Turbomeca Marbore) engines and with side-by-side ejection seats. All A models were subse-

Below: The A-37B Dragonfly has been sold to numerous air forces, especially those of South America. These are aircraft of (left) the Fuerza Аёгеа Ecuatoriana, (upper right) the Fuerza Aerea de Chile and (lower right) the Fuerza Aerea Uruguayana.

Cessna A-37 Dragonfly



Cessna A-37 DragonflyCessna A-37 Dragonfly

Three-view of A-37B Dragonfly, showing the almost grotesque array of possible stores.

Cessna A-37 Dragonfly

quently converted to the standard of the main production type, the T-37B, with J69-25 engines of 1,0251b (465kg) thrust. Export versions were designated T-37C, with provision for underwing armament. Production of the T-37 was completed in 1975 with more than 1,300 delivered to the USAF and 14 other air forces. It was logical to fit the much more powerful J85 engine and restress the airframe to carry greater loads in arduous combat duties. The work began in 1960 at the time of the upsurge of interest in Со-In (counter-insurgency) aircraft to fight "brushfire wars". Deliveries of A-37A aircraft converted from T-37 trainers began in May 1967 and a squadron of 25 had flown 10,000 combat missions in Vietnam in an exten­sive evaluation by early 1 968. The slightly more powerful A-37B is the definitive production version and by 1977 deliveries had exceeded 600. The A-37B is not pressurised, nor does it have ejection seats, but the dual pilots are protected by layered nylon flak curtains. The wealth of nav/com avionics and possible underwing stores is impressive and nearly all В models have a fixed nose refuelling probe.

Above: Yet another of the Latin American air arms to rely on the warlike Cessna is the Fuerza Aerea del Peru. A total of 36 are in service, all flown by Grupos 13 and 21 from the major FAP base at Chiclayo. Peru’s difficulties in procuring later attack aircraft from Western sources caused it to select the Sukhoi Su-22, which when delivered lacked adequate nav/attack avionics.

HSA (BAe) Hawk

P.1182 Hawk T.1

Origin: British Aerospace, UK.

Type: Two-seat trainer and tactical multi-role.

Engine: One 5,340lb (2422kg) Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour 151 two-shaft turbofan.

Dimensions: Span 30ft 10in (9-4m); length (over probe) 39ft 23,In (11 -95m); height 1 3ft 5in (4-09m).

Weights: Empty 7,450!b (3379kg): loaded (trainer, clean) 12,0001b (5443kg), (attack mission) 16,2601b (7375kg).

Performance: Maximum speed 630mph (1014km/h) at low level; Mach number in shallow dive, 1-1; initial climb 6,000ft (1830m)/min; service ceiling 50,000ft (15,240m): range on internal fuel 750 miles (1207km); endurance with external fuel 3 hr.

Armament: Three or five hard-points (two outboard being optional) each rated at 1,0001b (454kg); centreline point normally equipped with 30mm gun pod and ammunition.

History: First flight 21 August 1 974; service delivery 1976.

Users: Finland, Indonesia, Kenya, UK (RAF).

HSA (BAe) Hawk

Development: The only new all-British military aircraft for 15 years, the Flawk serves as a model of the speed and success that can be achieved when an experienced team is allowed to get on with the job. To some degree it owes its existence to the escalation of the Jaguar to a power and weight category well above that economic for use as a pure trainer. Britain never participated in the Franco-German Alpha Jet programme and instead played off the two British airframe builders, finally making a choice between the Adour without afterburner and the less powerful Viper 632. With the Adour, the Flawk had a chance to be a world-beater, and backed by an immediate RAF order for 175 the Hawker Siddeley plants rapidly completed design, tooled for fast manufacture with assembly at Dunsfold and com­pleted development of the RAF T.1 version all within the first two years of the programme. By October 1976 a dozen aircraft had flown and deliveries had begun to the RAF to replace the Gnat, Hunter and, eventually, Jet Provost, in roles ranging from basic flying to advanced weapon training. Thanks to very rapid development the Hawk was kept to the original budget and price and by late 1979 nearly all the 175 aircraft for the RAF had been delivered. So pleased is the RAF that a repeat-order has been requested, though funds are awaited. A proportion of Hawks may be single­seat dedicated close-support machines.

HSA (BAe) Hawk

Above: One of approximately 100 Hawk T.1 multi-role advanced trainers serving with 4 Flying Training School at RAF Valley.

HSA (BAe) Hawk
Below: In this configuration about 50 Hawks are flying with No 234 Sqn, part of No 1 Tactical Weapons Unit, at RAF Brawdy.