Maddux Air Lines

Подпись: Jack Maddux (nearest the camera) is seen here displaying some of his fleet of cars—including the 1903 Model A that, even then, was already a vintage model—and one of his Ford Tri-Motors, (photo courtesy Bill Larkins) Подпись:

Jack Maddux

Harris Hanshue’s Western Air Express and Jack Frye’s Stan­dard Airlines were not the only airlines of substance among the many which recognized the possible potential for airline operations in the booming California of the late 1920s. Jack L. Maddux, a Los Angeles Lincoln car dealer, took delivery of a Ford 4-AT Tri-Motor and incorporated Maddux Air Lines on 9 September 1927. His activities were overshad­owed by other events, not least by Charles Lindbergh’s his­toric trans-Atlantic flight in May of that year and the Goodwill Tour of the 48 States that followed. Maddux’s con­tribution to the development of the airline business in the West has long been under-recognized, except by historians such as Ed Betts and Bill Larkins, whose research has pre­served the memory of the Maddux operation.

Service Begins

Maddux began airline service on 1 November 1929 from Rogers Field, Los Angeles, to San Diego. He did it in style. For the occasion, Lindbergh was the honorary chief pilot. But like most of the aspirant airlines in California, he had no mail contract to supplement the passenger revenues. Nevertheless, he was very successful and popular. On 15 November, he added service to Agua Caliente, just across the Mexican


Maddux Air Lines

One of Maddux Air-Line’s Ford 4-ATs flying near the Tejon Pass, north of Los Angeles.


Maddux Air Lines

Maddux was one of the earliest airlines to cooperate with United Parcel Sendee (UPS) in carrying goods by air.


Maddux Air Lines

Artwork size does not allow accurate scale representation of the Tri-Motor’s corrugated aluminum skin.


Jack Maddux is seen here with Charles Lindbergh, who flew the inaugural flight, (photo courtesy Bill Larkins)



Wright R-975 Whirlwind (220 hp) x 3


50 feet


10,130 lb


74 feet


500 miles


12 feet


Maddux Air LinesMaddux Air Lines

Maddux Air Lines

Maddux Air LinesПодпись: Dimensions Engine Cruise Pass. No. Original Model Length (ft) Span (ft) Height (ft) Type hp Speed Seats Built Price 4-AT 50 74 12 Wright JR 220 100 10 78 542,000 (later) Wright R975 300 107 5-AT 50 78 14 P&W Wasp 450 115 13 117 $55,000 (Dimensions rounded off to nearest foot.)

border, for thirsty Prohibition sufferers and for clients of the race-track and casinos there. On 14 April 1928, he started a twice-daily service from Los Angeles to San Francisco (Oakland), with optional stops at Bakersfield, Visalia, and Fresno. By the end of the year, his fleet com­prised eight Fords, two Lockheed Vegas, and two Travel Airs.

Ford Promotion

Maddux began 1929 in style, adding a daily service to Phoenix (paralleling Standard), together with some local routes in California. Early in the year, the San Francisco terminus was trans­ferred to Alameda, and the Los Angeles terminus to Glendale. Jack Maddux had assembled the largest fleet of Ford Tri-Motors, eight 4-ATs and eight 5-ATs plus two Lockheed Vegas. The only loss was when an Army pilot, doing some stunt flying, hit a 5-AT in mid-air. Maddux had not apparently sought an air mail contract, but his 16 pilots carried 40,000 passengers in 1929.

Historic Merger

In the summer, he started to negotiate with the new well-capitalized T. A.T., which began its highly-publicized coast-to-coast air-rail service on 7 July. Charles Lindbergh flew the inaugu­ral flights for both airlines. Another important Maddux employee was Vice-president of Oper­ations Lt. D. W. ‘Tommy’ Tomlinson, an ex-Navy pilot, and who was to play a key role in subsequent developments, when on 16 November 1929, Jack Maddux merged with T. A.T. and became president of the combined airline. T. A.T.-Maddux. Through this merger, T. A.T. was able to serve the two big Californian cities. Los Angeles and San Francisco, both growing quickly in population, wealth, and consequent travel potential.

The Ford Tri-Motors Compared

Подпись: The Grand Plan of •..

Maddux Air LinesMaddux Air Lines

Consolidation of a Great Airline

Postmaster General Brown’s analytical planning had pro­duced a fine transcontinental route. The Maddux merger had given T. A.T. direct service to all three of the large urban con­centrations in California. But the formation of T. W.A. had been a complicated affair, because Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corporation (P. A.I. C.) had started service from Pittsburgh to New York, via Philadelphia, with two Travel Airs, in December 1929, and had staked its claim. The threat to Brown’s master plan was neatly solved by dividing the stock of the merged company in the ratio 47.5% T. A.T., 47.5% W. A.E., and 5% P. A.I. C. After a legal delicacy, with the formation of the Eton Corporation on 19 July 1930, Transcontinental & Western Air (T. W.A.) was formed five days later. The coveted mail contract was awarded on 25 August. Although Harris Hanshue was made president of the new company, he quickly became disillusioned. R. W. Rob­bins, of P. A.I. C., took over the presidency in September 1931. Another contender, a group called United Avigation, was disposed of by the offer of a lucrative mail contract on a route sub-leased from American Airways.

End of the Air-Rail

With the completion of the Lighted Airway, and the improve­ment of aircraft reliability, the pioneering air-rail service came to an end. On 25 October 1930, the train connections were dropped and the Fords flew the whole route, coast-to-coast, in 36 hours, with an overnight stop at Kansas City. On 5 Novem­ber 1932, even the overnight stop was dropped and the Fords flew by day and by night. Nevertheless the journey must have been arduous. The Ford’s engines were noisy, and passengers were issued ear plugs and chewing gum. Another development had been the shipment of livestock on 6 August 1931, one of the first examples of air freighting in the United States.

Superb Planning

All this was achieved only by some masterly planning. This is well illustrated by the map on this double-page spread, based on an original blueprint, signed by Jack Frye, but undoubtedly the work of T. W.A.’s technical consultant, Charles Lind­bergh, who carried out the detailed surveys. He had a per­sonal aircraft for the arduous travelling involved, and was paid $10,000 per year (a tidy sum in those days) plus 25,000 shares of T. W.A. stock, sold at well below market value.



Western Air, inc.

America’s First 36-Hour
Transcontinental Passenger Service






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Maddux Air Lines

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

64-88 seats • 340 mph


The final development of the famous Constellation series of airliners was the Model 1649A, introduced by T. W.A. on 1 OJune 1952. At first it was called the Super Star Constellation (by Lockheed). T. W.A. called it the “Jetstream Starliner”, possibly to try to persuade passengers that this aircraft was as good as any of the jets that were about to enter service in 1958, or the long-range turboprop Bristol Britannia that was outpacing the piston-engined airliners in speed, comfort, and low noise level. But this name gave way to the Starliner, which fitted neatly with the names of the individual aircraft in T. W.A.’s fleet. It was a fine performer, able to cross the Atlantic from New York to Paris or London nonstop in both directions. It was the

Lockheed 1649Д Starliner (Model 1649A-98-20 except as noted)_____________________


Engines Wright 998TC (3,400 hp) x 4 Length 116 feet

MGTOW 156,000-160,000 lb. Span 150 feet

Range 4,000 miles Height 25 feet

ultimate piston-engined airline flagship, and, as shown in the following pages, was roomy enough to offer several classes of service, and able to compete with Pan American’s first-class – only Stratocruisers.






Date into Service


Disposal and Remarsk




28 Jun 58

Star of the Tigris

Converted to freighter, Nov. 60. Sold to Alaska Airlines, 31 Dec 62




1 Jul 57

Star of the Clyde

Converted to freighter, Oct 60. Sold to California Airmotive, 11 Aug 67





Star of the Arno

Sold to Bush Aviation, 27 Dec 65




26 Jul57

Star of the Loire

Converted to freighter, Nov 60. Sold to Bush Aviation, 10 May 66.




27 Jul 57

Star of the Avon

Sold to Transatlantica (Argentina), 11 Aug 61. Reclaimed and sold to Bush Aviation, 15 Dec 65




2 Aug 57

Star of the Euphrates

Sold to Bush Aviation, 8 Oct 65




30 Jul 57

Star of the Po

Converted to freighter, Dec 60. Sold to California Airmotive, 29 Aug 67




16 Aug 57

Star of the Aegean

Converted to freighter, Apr 61. Sold to Bush Aviation, 9 Dec 65




24 Aug 57

Star of the Danube

Converted to freighter, Apr 61. Sold to Aero-Tech, 24 May 68




17 Sep 57

Star of the Meuse

Sold to Arizona Aircraft & Parts, 30 Sep 66




18 May 58

Model-98-16. Built for

, Sold to Alaska Airlines, 31 Dec 62




1 May 58

Linee Aeree Italiane

1 Sold to Bush Aviation, 26 Oct 65




4 May 58

(L. AI.) but not deliv-

| Sold to Aero-Tech, 13 Jun 68




30Jun 58

ered. Converted to freighters, Mar 61.

1 Used as engine carrier Jun 62-Dec 66. Sold to California Airmotive, 6 Sep 67

The names allocated to Fleet Nos. 310 onwards were not displayed on the aircraft.






Date into Service


Disposal and Remarks




8 Sep 57

Star of Wyoming

Model-98-11. Sold to Bush Aviation, 14 Oct 63




2 Jun 57

Star of Utah

Model-98-09. Sold to Bush Aviation, 21 Oct 65




1 Jun 57

Star of Vermont

Model-98-23. Scrapped 24 Sep 62




14Jun 57

Star of Rhode Island

Model-98-03. Sold to Bush Aviation, 28 Oct 65




1 Jun 57

Star of Idaho

Model-98-09. Sold to Transatlantica (Argentina) 12 Sep 60




1 Jun 57

Star of Maryland

Model-98-09. Temporarily named Spirit of St. Louis. Scrapped 26 Ap. 62




3 Jun 57

Star of Montana

Model-98-09. Sold to Transatlantica (Argentina) 3 Oct 60. Reclaimed by T. W.A. Nov 61. Sold to F. A.A.12 Feb 64




2 Jun 57

Star of Oklahoma

Model-98-22. Sold to Transatlantica. 30 Aug 61. Reclaimed Nov 61. Sold for scrap to Arizona Parts & Spares 30 Sep 66




3 Jun 57

Star of Maine

Model-98-22. Sold to Arizona Parts & Spars, 30 Sep 66




21 Dec 57

Star of Kansas

Model-98-22. Sold to Delta Aircraft & Equipment 29 Apr 64




4 Jun 57

Star of the Ebro

Converted to freighter, Oct 60. Sold to California Airmotive, 20 Sep 67




17 Jun 57

Star of the Elbe

Sold to Arizona Aircraft 8, Parts, 30 Sep 66




1 Jun 57

Star of the Severn

Crashed at Milan, Italy, 26 Jun 59




1 Jul 57

Star of the Shannon

Sold to Moral Rearmament Corp. 10 Dec 65




27 Jun 57

Star of the Tagus

Converted to freighter, Dec 60. Sold to California Airmotive, 22 Aug 67


Lockheed 1649A Starliner

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

This early Model 049 in 1945, carried the words Trans World Airline.

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

The Model 1049’s fuselage was lengthened, to become the Super Constellation.

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

This Model 1049G "Super G" at Kansas City in lwa. It Has been restorea by the Save A Connie group of devotees, (courtesy Pete Barrett)

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

Ultimate development was the Model 1649, Starliner called the “Jetstream Startiner” by T. W.A.

Lockheed 1649A Starliner

This Model 749A (N6019C Star of Minnesota,) at Taif, Saudi Arabia (where T. W.A. was advising the national airline) on the high desert sand, (courtesy Stephen Geronimo)

Boeing 727-231

123 seats • 605 mph


Boeing 727-231Boeing 727-231


Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9 (14,000 lb) x 3


153 feet


165,000-185,000 lb


108 feet


1,700 miles


34 feet

Boeing 727-231

Подпись:Tri-Jet Development

Continuing its competitive efforts over the more densely travelled domestic air routes, T. W.A. augmented its fleet of Boeing 727 tri-jets, as well as increasing its fleet of DC-9 twins. Its first 727s had started service in 1964 (see page 75) and in March 1968 the fleet was augmented by a further consignment of “stretched” versions, the Boeing 727-200 series. The inaugural -200 service had been made over the 1,100-mile New York-Miami route by a Northeast Airlines “Yellowbird.” While lacking the range of the 707, it was about the same size, and, short of non­stop coast-to-coast routes, could operate between almost any city pair in the United States.

For many years, the Boeing 727 was the most successful commercial jet airliner on the market. A total of 1,832 Boeing 727s of all types was built, a record that stood until the Boeing 737 twin-jet series overhauled it. T. W.A. had 92 of both 727 series, but showed a preference for the Douglas twins, augmenting its fleet especially when it absorbed Ozark Air Lines (page 91).

The Family Tree

  The Family Tree



The Family TreeThe Family TreeThe Family TreeThe Family TreeThe Family TreeThe Family Tree

Подпись: Acknowledgements and Technical NotesПодпись:

Technical Notes

The sub-title of this book emphasizes that this story of T. W. A. places much importance on the aircraft that it flew. As the final text went to the printer, there have been more than 1,250 of them. The Paladwr team has tried to identify and document every single one, with all the necessary details that constitute an accurate fleet record.

One of T. W.A.’s own pilots, Felix Usis ПІ, whose interests include photography and the study of ancient history (thanks partly to layovers in Cairo), devoted many hours of computer time into the preparation of the lists, drawing upon the airline’s own engineering records and, for the earlier aircraft types (long before his time) the results of research done by such historians as Ed Betts, Bill Larkins, Richard Allen, and Edward Peck. Felix supplemented his official records with additional data gleaned from various sources, including some that were not entered into the ledgers at Kansas City and St. Louis.

These lists were then meticulously checked and carefully edited by John Wegg, author and editor-publisher of Airways magazine. John is one of the world’s leading authorities on such data, and (as the saying goes) “the editor’s decision is final.” If such a presumption can be forgiven, we hope that this book will serve as a permanent and definitive reference source of all the aircraft that have flown the routes of one of the world’s great airlines.

The fleet listings are supplemented, where appropriate, with tabulations that could answer readers’ questions about the subtler differences between the variants and sub-types of some airliners. The manufacturer’s serial number (MSN) is preferred to the term constructor’s number (c/n), as in previous Paladwr Press books. Before 1949, registration numbers were NC or NX for commercial or experimental aircraft, respectively. The single N was used thereafter, and airliners already registered were re-registered when time and opportunity permitted.

Complementing the listings and data blocks with some technical observations, artist Mike Machat has added some useful “artist’s notes” — commentaries on special features, in those cases where T. W.A.’s aircraft may have differed slightly from others of the same family.


1 hope that readers will excuse any inadvertent omissions in this customary tribute to all the folks, most of them T. W. A. veterans, who have helped me to write this book. The personal recollec­tions of old-timers have fitted in neatly with the other inputs from various sources, official and otherwise. They have added life to the factual record, and have helped this author to reflect the personality of the airline and to appreciate the tremendous depth of loyalty that has carried them through thick and thin.

Among the printed sources, pride of place must go to Legacy of Leadership, which appears at a quick glance to be another pilots’ album of nostalgia; but on closer inspection reveals a great deal more. This is because it was compiled by a great team: Ed Betts, Dan McGrogan, and Syd Albright. I first met Syd in 1965, when visiting Western Air Lines, and he will be pleased to know that the photographs that he dug up, and the reminiscences he shared, have been recalled 35 years later. To all T. W.A. pilots, Ed is almost legendary as their historian, while Dan edited that book into shape. Ozark Airlines — Contrails was a similar compilation, obviously a labor of love by an anonymous group of Ozarkians. TWA by George Cearley, an admirable scrapbook of airline memorabilia, has also been most useful.

Most of the T. W.A. collection of photographs evaporated during the troubled times of Chapter 11-threatened 1980s, but many were either rescued or duplicated by collectors and employees. Roger Bentley’s and Jon Proctor’s collections were especially valuable, and complemented my own. They were punctuated by key contributions from Felix Usis III (including the eye-catcher on the back dust-jacket), Roger Bent­ley, John Malandro (master navigator), Pete Barrett and Ona Gieschen (Save-A-Connie), Bernice de Garmo (daughter-in­law of one of the Four Horsemen), Steve Geronimo, Constance Walker, and Terry Van Dyke.

As mentioned above, countless T. W.A.-ers have been kind enough to offer contributions, and I have included as many of them as possible. They have included Andy Anderson (who flew the Stratoliner, unheated and unpressurized, during the War), Barry Craig (who tried to sponsor this very book 12 years ago), Bernice and Richard deGarmo, Tom Donahue, Lawrence Dooling, Clark Fisher, Bill Halliday, Chris Hargreaves, Gordon Hargis, F. A.Harland, Russ Hazelton, Myra Hendricks, Keith Horton, John Leamon, Henry Lotito (who flew The Thing), the aforesaid navigator, John Malandro, T. W. Meredith, John Morelli, Orville Olson, Norman Parmet, Neil Poppe, Tom Roberts, Frank Smith, Marc Spiegel, Michael Swift, Тепу Van Dyke (who helped the cows on their way), Constance Walker (whose late husband founded the Conquistadores), Susan. Warren, and Claudia Woeber.

I must not forget Jim Brown, who was the initial catalyst between T. W.A. and Paladwr Press, and Donna Knobbe, who took care of many of my needs. Above all, I thank Mark Abels, who was most generous in his Foreword, assisted tremendously in the review and fact-checking processes, and opened the doors to many valuable sources of T. W.A. lore. Together we share a respect for the English language which I hope has survived my efforts and his scrutiny without leaving too many scars.


Notes: P = photograph;

T = tabulation; FL = fleet list;

N1 = map; MM = Machat drawing Major entries and "Machats" are in bold type

The maps and Machat drawings are also listed in the Contents, page 5

Adamson, Gary, founds Midwest Airlines, 100 ADF (Automatic Direction Finder), ploce in history, 49 Aero-car, used on TAT. air-rail service, 24, 24P, 25P Aero Corporation of Californio, 18,18P Aeromorine, pioneer airline, 8 Aerovias Brasil, T. WA affiliation, 59T Aigle Azur, French airline, buys Stratoliners, 47 Airbus A318, ordered, 104 Air Commerce Act, 1926,8 Air Express, Inc, flies express services, 37 Air Midwest, purchased by Trans State, 100 Airline Deregulation Act, 82,90 Alderman, Ralph, navigator, 49P Alexander Eaglerock, Standard Air Lines aircraft, 18P "Ambassador" service, 64 American Airlines Claim as first airline, 8 Formation, ЗО, 30M Orders Convairliner, 60

American Export Airlines, formation, Atlantic competitor, 50

American Overseas Airlines (A. O.A.), first trans-Atlantic postwar

commercial flight, 50

Army Air Corps, carries the mail, 32

Arnold, General "Hap," greets Hughes 1944,52

Atlantic Service, 50

ATR-42, commuter airline, 101ММ, 101P

ВАС – One-Eleven, competitor to DC-9,75

Bach tii-motor, West Coast aircraft, 19P

Ball, Clifford, CAM 11,8T,8M

"Bamboo Bomber," Ozark Airlines (1943), 92

Bonk of America, lends to Hughes, 73

Beech 17D Staggerwing, Ozark Airlines (1943), 92,92P, 92FL

Betts, Ed, airline historian, 26

Black-McKellor Air Mail Act, 1934,33

Boeing Air Transport, Wins air mail contract, 9,30

Boeing 40, W. A.E. aircraft, 20P,22P,22FL

Boeing 80A, United Air Unes, 30P

Boeing 95, W. A.E. aircraft, 1 IP, 20R 22P, 22FL

Boeing 204, W. A.E. aircraft, 16,16FL

Boeing 247, worid’s first modern airliner, 32,32P

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Tested by T. W.A. 46,46FL

Boeing 2707 SST, 74,74MM

Boeing 307 Stratoliner

First pressurized airliner, 44-45, 44P, 45MM, 45FL war effort, 46,46P, 47,47P Retired, sold, used in Vietnam,47 Compared to DC-4, Constellation, 51T Boeing 367-80,65 Boeing 707

Dominates air routes, 1958, 59 T. W.A. order, Entry into service with one aircraft, 64 Full description (-100), 65,65MM, 65P, 66P, 66FL Full description (-300), 69,69MM, 68 FL Symbolizes new его, 67P, Last T. WA. flight, 89 Boeing 717, Ordered, 104 Full description, 105,105MM, 105FL, 105P Boeing 720,69,64P, 68FL Boeing 727

Full description (-100), 75, 75MM, 75P, 76FL Full description (-200), 81,81MM, 80P, 81P, 8)FL Boeing 747

Project launched, T. WA service, 82 Full description (-100 series) 83,83MM, 83P,84P, 82FL


De Havilland DH-4B, W. A.E. aircraft, 11,11FL De Havillond Comet 4 First jet airliner, 1958, 59,65 De Havilland DH-121 Trident, 75 De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter With Ozark Air Ones, 98 Delta Air Ones Claim as first airline, 8 First order for DC-9,77 Denver Case, CAB. Route case, 64 Dickenson, Diaries, CAM 9,8T,8M Doolittle, Jimmy, returns home with T. WA Douglas M-2 (and ЛИ), WAE. aircraft, 11,11MM, 11 FI, 12P, 13P.20P

Douglas 0-38, flies Army Air Corps moil sendee, 32P Douglas B-7 bomber, flies Army Air Corps mail service, 32P Douglas DC-1

Historic prototype, 32P, 33, ЗЗР, 34P Brief history, 35 Brief description, 41

Comparison with other Douglas twins, 41MM Douglas DC-2,34P

Full description, 35, 35MM, 35FL, 35P,

Fuselage comparison with DC-3 (chart), 39 Comparison with other Douglas twins, 4ШМ Douglas DC-3

Development from DC-2,38 T. W.A. introduction (DST), 38,39MM, 39-40FL Fuselage comparison with DC-2 (chart), 39 Comparison with other Douglas twins, 4ШМ End of service, 60 Compared to post-wor airliners, 63T Ozork Air Lines (Challenger 250), 93,93MM, 93FL, 92P Freighter services, inc. wartime, 106,106P Douglas DST First version of DC-3,38 T. WA. introduction, 38,38-39FL Comparison with other Douglas twins, 41 MM Airport scene, 1930s, 42P Douglas C-47, military variant of the DC-3 Used by T. WA 38,40FL Comparison with other Douglas twins, 41 MM Douglas C-49 and C-53, military DC-3, used by T. WA, 40FL Douglas C-54

Introduction and testing, 46,46FI Delivery to T. WA, 50 Opens post-war Atlantic services, 106 First international height service, 106, 106P Douglas DC-4

Design specified by airlines, 46 Fleet list, 50T First alkargo service, 50 Entry into T. WA service, 50,51P Full description, 51,51MM Compared to Boeing 307, Constellation, 51T Douglas DC-9,76P(-31)

Ordered, 75

Fleet lists (-51,-14,-32), 76-77 DC-9-14, full description, 77,77MM, 77P DC-9-80 (see MD-80)

DC-9-30 (Ozork), 96-97,97MM, 97P, 98FL Eagle Nest Flight Center, Albuquerque, 46 Earhort, christens Ford Tr-Motor, 109P Eastern Airlines

Operates Curtiss Condor T-32,31 Chooses Martin 404,61 Economy Class, service introduced, 64 Embraer EMB145, commuter airliner, 100P Engineers

Maintain first Boeing 707,64 England-Australia Air Race, publicizes DC-2.38 Equitable Life, insurance giant Finances Boeing 707, 64 Lends to Hughes, sets up voting trust, 73 Erickson, Jeffrey, president of T. WA, 104

Ethiopian Airlines, T. W.A. affiliation, 59T

Eton Corporation, formation of T. W.A., 28

ETOPS, operations approved, 88

Fairbanks, Douglas, Jr., at T. A.T. inaugural, 24P

Fairchild C-82, full description, 56,56MM, 56P

Fairchild FH-227B (Ozark), 95,95MM, 95P, 95FL

Fairchild Metro III, with Midway/Ozark, 98,98P, 100MM

Farley, James A., Postmaster Gen, restores air mail contracts, 32

"Fashion archive," uniform collection by Clipped Wings, 48

Firestone, Harvey, at TAT. inaugural, 24

Fischer, Gerhardt, develops first radio compass, 14

Fitzgerald, Joseph, president, Ozork, 94

Flight Engineers, overtaken by technology, 49

Flint, Perry, comments on T. WA’s survival, 104

Florida Airways Corp., CAM 10,8T, 8M

Fokker F-7A (F-VII)

WAE. Aircraft, 14FL Standard Air lines, 18P West Coast Air Transport, 19P

Fokker F-10/10A, WAE. aircraft, 15,14FL, 15MM, 15P, 20P

Fokker F-14, WAE. aircraft, 20P, 22P

Fokker F-32,21,21FL, 21P,21MM

Fokker Universal, Standard Air Lines aircraft, 18P

Fokker F-27 (Ozark), 94-95,95P,95Fl

Ford, Edsel

Takes interest in Stout aircraft, 23 At TAT. inaugural, 24 Ford, Henry, at T. A.T. inaugural, 24P Ford Motor Company CAM 6 and 7,8T,8M Establishes airline, 23 Ford 4-AT Tri-Motor Maddux Air Lines, 26,26P, 26FL Full description, 27, 27MM Comparison with 5-AT, 27T Ford 5-AT Tri-Motor Full description, 23,23MM, 23FL T. A.T. transcontinental inaugural, 24-25,109P Maddux Air Lines, 26FL Master plan for T. WA, 28,29P Floatplane, 44P Comparison with 4-AT, 27T Used for freight services, 106P Fortune, magazine, comments on Hughes departure, 73 "Four Horsemen," Western’s pioneer pilots, 10,1 OP Freight services, reviewed, 106 Frye, Jock

President of Standard Airlines, 18,18P

Pictured with Fokker F-32,21P

At TAT. inaugural, 24P, At Port Columbus, 25P

Career with T. WA, ЗО, 29P

Sponsors Douglas DC-1,32, ("Jock Frye letter") 33

Breaks transcontinental speed record, 33P

Partner with Howard Hughes, 42P

Flies prototype Constellation, Burbank-New York, 1944, 52,

52P, 108P

Problems with Hughes, resigns, 64 First president of los Conquistodores del Cielo, 108 Gabor, Eva and Zso Zsa, fly by T. W.A., 109P Gann, Harry, ace photographer, 12 General Ait Freight, Ford Motor, 106 Gitner, Gerald, chairman of T. WA, 104 Global affiliations, 59

GPS (Global Positioning System), aid to navigation, 49 Grace, Thomas L., president, Ozork Air Lines, 94, 94P Graham, Maurie, one of Four Horsemen, 10P Grand Canyon Airlines (1935), 98,98M Grant, Cary, flies with T. W.A., 109P Gregory, T. E.C., pictured with Fokker F-32,21P Guggenheim, Daniel, promotes Model Airway, 14 Guggenheim Fund, 14,15

Gulfstream International, commuter airline, 100,101M Hall, Joel, founds Chautauqua Airlines, 100 Holliday, Bill, comments on post-war DC-3 services, 60 Hamilton, Laddie

Founds Ozark Airlines (1943), 92 Resigns, 94

Hamilton, Walter, Standard Air Unes, 18 Hanshue, Harris ‘Pop’

Promotes Western Air Express, 9,9P

Acquires Pacific Marine Airways, 16 Acquires Colorado Airways, 17 Acquires Standard Air Lines, 18,20 Builds W. A.E. network, 20,20M Founds Mid-Continent Air Express, 20 Pictured with Fokker F-32,21P First president of T. WA, 22,22R 28 Harland, Francis, navigator, 49 Harmon Trophy, won by Howard Hughes, 42 Hart, George, navigator, tragic death, 49 Hawaii Route Case, 82 Hawaiian Airlines, T. WA. affiliation, 59T Heathrow Airport, London, last T. WA. flight, 102 Hepburn, Audrey, flies by T. WA, 109P Hertz, John, part-owner of T. W.A., 42 Hicks, HA, member of Ford design team, 23 Hilton Hotels, purchased by T. WA, 82,90 Hiscock, Thorp, communications specialist, 14 Hoover, Herbert, Jr., WAE. communications specialist, 13P, 14 Hope, Bob, flies with T. WA, 109P Hostesses, memories, 48 Howard, William, chairman of T. WA, 104 Howell IV, Charles, founds Corporate Airlines, 100 Hughes, Howard

Brief biography, 42,42P; Buys T. WA stock 42

Break transcontinental speed record,42

Role in Atlantic service development, 50

Flies prototype Constellation, Burbank-New York, 1944,52,

52P, 108P

Interest in Bristol Britannia, 59 Prefers Martin 202 v. Convair 240, 61 Problems with Jack Frye, 64 Orders Boeing 707s and Convair 880s, 64 Problems with Convair 880,71 Surrenders ownership, 73 Icahn, Carl

Career background, takes over T. WA, 91,91P Purchases Ozark Air Ones, 91 Establishes Trans World Express, 101 Career with T. WA, and departure, 102 Agrees to method of debt payment, 104 In-Flight Movies, T. WA first, 91 INS (Inertial Navigation System) death-knell for navigators, 49 Interconf. Division (ICD), T. WA wortime operation, 46, 46M Intercontinental Hotels, acquired by T. WA, 90 Inter Urban Groin Belt Route, Parks Air Transport, 92 Iranian Airways, T. WA affiliation, 59T Irving trust, lends to Hughes, 90 James, Charles "Jimmy"

One of Four Horsemen, 1 OP, 11P With Hoover, Jr., 13P Jet Express, commuter airiine,100 Jetstream, commuter airline (see BAe Jetstream)

Jetstream, name for Lockheed L-1649A, 57 Jones, Floyd, founds Ozark Airlines, 92 Jones, Jesse, Sea. of Commerce, greets Hughes and Frye, 108 Joseph, Anthony F., founds Colorado Airways, 17 Kansas Gly Overhaul and Maintenance Bose, 107, 107P Fairfax airport flooded, 108P Kellett, autogyro, 1938,101 "Kelly" Air Mail Act, 1925,8 Kelly, Fred

One of Four Horsemen, 9P, 10P With Hoover, Jr., 13P

Kerkorian, Kirk, intervenes in bid for routes, 102 Keys, Clement, defines importance of ground service, 107 K. L.M. Dutch airline, DC-2 in England-Australia Air Race, 38 Koppen, Otto, member of Ford design team, 23 Kreusi, Geoffrey, develops first radio compass, 14 Larkins, Bill, airline historian, 26 Lee, John, member of Ford design team, 23 Lehman Brothers, part-owner of T. W.A., 42 Ughted Airway Ends rail-air service, 28 Place in history, 49 Lindbergh, Charles Promotes aviation, 14,107 Technical adviser to TAT., 24,24P Flies first Maddux flight, 26, 27,27P

Plans Т. А.Т. route, 28-29,29P Approves Douglas DC-1 design, 32 Influence of 1927 flight, 52 Linee Aeree Italians (L. A.I.), T. W.A. affiliation, 59T Uttlewood, Bill, recommends DC-3 design, 38 Lockheed Air Express, W. A.E. aircraft, 22 Lockheed Altair, 37FL Lockheed Vega, 37,37MM, 37FL, 37P Lockheed Orion, 37,37MM, 37FL, 37P Lockheed 14, Hughes’s round-the-wodd flight, 42 Lockheed 18 Lodestar, 50FL Lock^.,4 (Si? ..onsteiiation (and 749), 58P Compared to Boeing 307, DC-4,51T Over New York, 52P Full description, 53,53MM.53P Full fleet list, 54FL

Commentary, 59, models compared, 59T Compared to post-war airliners, 63T Lockheed 649, T. W.A. order cancelled, 59T Lockheed Super-Constellation 1049G (and 1049H), 58P Full fleet list, 55, 55AAM Commentary, 59, models compared, 59T Lockheed L-l 649A Starliner Full description, fleet list, 57, 57ЛШ, 57FL Commentary, 59, models compared, 59T Lockheed L-l Oil TriStar Full description, 87,87MM, 87P, 86P Fleet list, 86FL

L-l 011 variants compared, 87T Loening C2H Air Yacht, W. A.E. aircraft, 16P, 16FL Loewy, Raymond, designs new cheatline, 65 Lorenzo, Frank, offeers to buy T. WA, 91 Lykins, Don, flies Douglas M-2 to Washington, 12 McDonnell Douglas DC-9-82 (ММ2)

Full description, 79,79MM, 79,78R 79P, 78FL Enters T. W.A. service, 89 Ozark Air Lines, 96,97P,97FL McDonnell Douglas MD-95 (see Boeing 717)

McNary-Watres Act, 1930, 32

Maddux, Jack L., founds Maddux Air Lines, 26-27, 26P, 27P

Maddux Air Lines, 26-27

Maiden Dearborn, Stout 2-АЇ aircraft, 23

Molandro, John, navigator, 49

Marquette Air Lines, 43, 43M

Martin 202 (and 202A)

Replaces pre-war types, 47, 60, 60P Problems, 61 Preferred by Hughes, 61 Fleet list, 62FL

Compared to post-war airliners, 63T Martin 404

Full description, 63,63MM, 60P Chosen by Hughes and Rickenbacker, 61,61P Fleet list, 62-63FL Compared to post-war aidiners, 63T Ozark Air Unes, 94,94MM, 94P, 94FL Mayo, William B., directs design of Ford Tri-Motor, 23 Metro Airlines Northeast, commuter airline, 100 Metropolitan Life, sets up voting trust, 73 Mid-Continent Air Express, founded by Honshue, 20,20M Midwest Airlines

Associtoted with Ozark Air lines, 98.98P Model Airway, The, 14,14M Mohawk Airlines, trades planes with Ozork, 94 Monroe, Marilyn, flies by T. WA, 109P Moseley, Major C. C, V. P. Operations, WAE., 10P National Air and Space Museum Preserves Douglas M-4,11,12 Receives Northrop Alpha, 36 Will have Boeing 307,45 National Air Transport CAM 3,8T, 8M

Component of United Air Unes formation, 30 Navigation, history reviewed, 49 New England and Western Tpt, flies Ford floatplane, 44P New York Airways, 101 New York Helicopter, 101,101P Northrop Alpha, 36,36P.36FL Northrop Delta, 36

Northrop Gamma

Used by Tommy Tomlinson for high-altitude research, 36P, 36FL, 38,44 Northwest Airways CAM 9,8T,8M

Problems with Martin 202,61 "Ontos," (Fairchild C-82), 56 Ozork Airlines (1943), 92 Ozark Air Unes, 92-97

Begins operations, 92,92P; Map series, 96M Twin Otter service to Meigs Field, 98 Pacific Air Transport CAM 8Д8М

Component of United Air Unes formation, 30 Pacific Marine Airways, route to Avalon, 16,16M, 20M Pacific Route Case, 82 Pon American Airways Use of flying boats, 49 First Constellation service, 50 Challenged on round-theworid service, 64 Orders 707s and DC-8s, 64, Orders 747,82 Requires more range, 84 Porks Air Transport, 92

Parks, Oliver L., founds Porks Air Transport, 92

Patterson, W. R. Pat," president, United Air Unes, 30

Pennsylvania Railroad, participates in formation of T. A.T. 24-25

Philippine Air Unes, T. W.A. affiliation, 59T

Pickford, Mary, at T. A.T. inaugural, 24P

Pierson, Warren Lee, president, 1948, and 1957,64,73, 90P

Pilgrim 100A, American Airlines, 30P

Piper Twinair, 98,98M

Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corp. (P. A.I. C.), participant in formation of T. W.A., 28

Pogue, L. Welch, chairman, C. A.B., initiates local service, 92 Polar Service, 64

Port Columbus, transfer station on T. A.T. transcontinental, 25 Portair, T. A.T. air-rail transfer station, 24,24P Ransome, J. Dawson, founds airline 101 Raymond, Arthur, designs Douglas DC-1,32 Redman, Ben, first possenger, 6P Resort Air, first name of Trans State, 99 Rhodes, Kathryn, first chief hostess, 48P Richter, Paul, Jr.

Treasurer, Standord Air Unes, 18 With TAT., 29P, Resigns, with Frye, 64 Rickenbacker, Eddie, joins Hughes in choosing Martin 404,61 Robbins, R. W.

President of T. WA, 28.29P Furloughs T. WA staff, 32 Robertson Aircraft Corp.

CAM 2,8T, 8M

Rockne, Knute, crash victim, 15 Rogers, Will, first passenger, 108,108P Roshkind, Allan, designs Martin 202,60 Roosevelt, President Cancels oir mail contracts, 32 Flies with T. WA during v/or, 46P Round-the-wodd service, 50M, 64 Rummel, Bob, tests Martin 202 ond Convair 240,61 Russell, Jane, flies with T. WA, 109P SAAB 340, commuter airliner, 99MM Ryan №1, Colorado Airways aircraft, 17P, 17FL Saudi Arabian Airlines, T. WA affiliation, 59T "SavetfConnie" organization, preserves Constellation, 59 Scheduled Air Taxi service, 98 "Secret Weapon," Constellation description, 52 Seven States Area Case, 94 "Shotgun Marriage," merger of WAE. ond T. A.T., 22 Shroeder, Major, Ford test pilot, 23 Sikorsky S-38A, W. A.E. Aircraft, 16P, 16FL Silver Wings, hostess retirement group, 48 Smith, C. R.

Подпись:President, American Aidines, 30 Claims for DC-3 profitability, 38 Southern Air Transport, component of American Airways, 30 "Spoils Conferences," 32 Sportsman’s Trophy, won by Howard Hughes, 42 Standard Air Unes, pioneer airline in the v/esxt, 18,18M, 20M Stadiner, name for Lockheed L-1649A, 57


The Family Tree

•Transcontinental & Western Air

Подпись: і
Подпись: і і

•Transcontinental & Western Air


•Transcontinental & Western Air

Jack Frye had joined Hanshue
when Standard Airlines merged
with W. A.E. He became president
ofT. W.A., succeeding Robbins.

•Transcontinental & Western Air

Frye since Standard’s foundation.
He continued to serve as Jack’s
right-hand man for several years.

•Transcontinental & Western Air

Richard Robbins, acting as
umpire between W. A.E. and T. A.T.,
was president of P. A.I. C., the
catalyst to the merger.

•Transcontinental & Western Air

Charles Lindbergh was ТА. T. ’s

technical consultant and unoffi­cial chief pilot. He continued to advise T. W. A. for the next decade.


iblc—veterans of the air with thou – omb of flying hours on their records.

•Transcontinental & Western Air


The Competition


American Airways

If the T. W.A. Shotgun Marriage was difficult to negotiate, the industrial sparring that resulted in the creation of American Airways was, even without coercion from the Postmaster General, labyrinthine. The airline itself cannot trace every individual component that comprised the eventual amalga­mation of three groups, themselves the result of mergers and take-overs. Universal Aviation Corporation (the real core of the route system). Southern Air Transport, and Colonial Airways Corporation completed their multi-merger to form American Airways on 25 January 1930.

United Air Lines

The Boeing airplane company had always taken a keen interest in air transport, and had been one of the very first Post Office contractors, with a foreign air mail route from Seattle to Victoria, B. C., in 1919. It had won the best air mail contract in 1926, with the coveted “Columbia” San Fran – cisco-Chicago trunk route and with its own Boeing Air Transport, to which it supplied the aircraft. With the Pratt & Whitney engine company, it formed the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation on 1 February 1929, at the same time absorbing various aircraft and aviation-related manufacturing companies. Acquiring Pacific Air Trans­port, Varney Air Lines, and National Air Transport (winning the latter after a bitter boardroom battle on 7 May 1930), the lines started to operate as United Air Lines, a name that was was formally incorporated on 1 July 1931.

Giants of Their Time

In the developing U. S. airline world during its heady forma­tive years, some men, who had started at the bottom rung, climbed the corporate ladder to become leaders, and were to influence substantially the course of airline development. C. R. Smith, who was American’s president for twenty or more years and who was head of military air transport during the Second World War. had started as an accountant with one of Southern Air Transport’s ancestors. W. R. “Pat” Patter­son, who led United, had started in similar fashion with Pacific Air Transport. Jack Frye, who was to direct T. W.A.’s fortunes from its beginnings until after the War. had started Standard Air Lines, but stayed with Western Air Express when American Airways bought Standard on 15 July 1930. T. W.A. was now one of the most important airlines in the United States, and became known, even in official circles at the C. A.B., as one of the ‘Big Four.’


During the early 1930s, before the advent of the modem airliner, the Introduced in the early 1930s, the Pilgrim 100A was quickly

competition was still using biplanes, such as this Boeing superseded in American Airlines service by the introduction of

B-80A with United Air Lines. modern airliners such as the DC-2.


^New York ^Philadelphia Washington


•Transcontinental & Western Air

San Francisco


Kansas City




Los Angeles



9" AP [Dallas


Ъ Miami


Postmaster-General Walter Brown’s grand plan came to fruition in 1930. Three transcontinental airlines, together with Eastern, came to be known as ‘The Big Four. ’ Northwest Airlines did not complete its coast-to-coast service until 1944.


•Transcontinental & Western Air•Transcontinental & Western Air•Transcontinental & Western Air

Constellation Commentary


Spanning an Era

Like its Douglas rivals, the Lockheed Constellation, from its first military Model C-69 to its ultimate development, the Model 1649A, was truly representative of the entire genera­tion of four-piston-engined airliners that dominated the airline scene for a dozen years after the Second World War. They had their troubles and the turbo-compound engines in the later models were a continual problem. Pan American once flew a Connie from New York to Burbank on three engines, just to change the fourth. T. W.A. kept an engine­carrying airplane in Paris for several years to service the frequent replacement needs in Europe and beyond (see page 56). But, supported energetically by T. W.A. throughout its life-span, Lockheed kept pace with technological progress, and was often the front-runner. The 1649A Starliner, or “Jetstream Starliner”, was the ultimate long-range piston – engined airliner. One version, the turboprop Model 1249A never went into service, but with a speed of 440 mph, could claim to be the fastest propeller-driven airliner ever built.

Distinguished Company

One claim for the record books, if not fame, was of an inci­dent in 1944, soon after Hughes and Frye had presented the C-69 to the Washington hierarchy. It had been flown to the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base at Dayton, the home of the Wright brothers. Orville Wright was invited to take a ride. Not only that, he spent half an hour in the pilot’s seat, thus giving the Constellation the honor of being the only com­mercial airliner to have been flown by the pioneer of flight, who first took to the air on 7 December 1903 at Kitty Hawk. North Carolina.

Constellation Models

Elegant Development

The curvaceous Connies were always a picture of elegance, even though the engineers preferred the relative simplicity of the parallel-fuselage Douglas DC-6Bs. Its performance, in speed and range, could not be surpassed. Each stage of devel­opment, with increased engine power, increased tankage, and increased all-up weight: all these permitted higher payloads, longer range, and modest increases in speed. These resulted, for T. W.A., the claim to have flown the first non-stop transcontinental scheduled service, and later, the first non­stop trans-Atlantic service on a regular and sustained basis.

The Memory

Along with the Douglas DC-7C “Seven Seas,” the 1649A began to bow out when the Bristol Britannia “Whispering Giant” came on the scene in 1957. It was bigger, smoother, and faster than any of the Constellations. Howard Hughes would have bought 20 Britannias, had he known about them sooner, and if Bristol had been able to deliver them at short notice. But the death-knell was the arrival of the jet airliners. The harbinger was the ill-fated Comet 1 in 1952-54, then the Comet 4 and the dominating Boeing 707 in October 1958. All the piston-engined propeller airliners disappeared from the world’s main air routes in an extraordinarily short time. Pan American, especially, covered the globe, and all the U. S. air­lines brought the jets into service very quickly.

But the memory remains. The Save-a-Connie Airline History Museum at Kansas City (formerly known as the Save-a-Connie Foundation) volunteer organization preserves that memory with a beautifully-restored 1049H, which is kept in flying condition, more than four decades after it was first built (see picture, page 58)

Global Affiliations

The Lockheed Constellation created an airliner dynasty. Its operational life with T. W.A. also coincided with a period during which the airline, under Hughes’s enterprising leader­ship, and Jack Frye’s and Ralph Damon’s presidencies, aspired to challenge the incumbent international Chosen Instrument, the great Pan American Airways. Pan Am’s leader, Juan Trippe, was almost omnipotent, but Howard Hughes was a worthy opponent. In addition to the technical and operational irritants with which T. W.A. Constellations constantly provoked Pan Am’s Douglases, Hughes and Frye—taking a leaf out of Trippe’s own book—expanded their operational territory and influence by either buying into, or assisting in operational and managerial support of quite a number of foreign airlines. Interestingly, the benefits for T. W.A. during those exploratory years appear to have been an early example of shareholding interests, quasi-alliances, and code-sharing agreements that are with us today.

T. W.A. Foreign Airline Portia



Date of Initial Interest

Details of Affiliation

TACA (Panama)

5 Oct 43

T. W.A. share in U. S. aroup participation 22%. Reduced in Feb 49. Sold to Waterman Steamship Company, 1951

Aerovias Brasil

5 Oct 43

Acquired with TACA which controlled. T. W.A. interest reduced to 9%, 11 Jan 47, when Brazilian investors bought TACA stock. T. W.A. interest withdrawn 1950

British West Indies Airways (B. W.I. A.)

5 Oct 43

Acquired with TACA. T. W.A. interest reduced in 1947, and sold to Trinidad Government in 1952

Philippine Air Lines

Aug 45

Agreement with Col. Soriano, 1944. T. W.A. shareholding 40%, 10 Jan 46. Reduced to 2% when last shares sold, March 1968

Hawaiian Airlines

May 44

T. W.A. purchased 20% stock. Sold in 1948

Technical and Aeronautical Exploitation Со. (T. A.E.) (Greece)

6 Apr 46

T. W.A shareholding 35%. Interest reduced to 15%, July 51. Snares sold to Aristotle Onassis, 1 Jan 57

Ethiopian Airlines

26 Dec 45

Technical and management assistance. No tinancial interest. Gradually withdrawn

Saudi Arabian Airlines

20 Sep 46

Technical and management assistance. No financial interest. Arrangement lasted for almost 40 years

tinee Aeree Italiane (L. A.I.)

16 Sep 46

Company established with 40% T. W.A. shareholding Reduced to 30% in 1952. Withdrawn when L. A.I. merged with Alitalia 1 Sep 1957

Iranian Airways

26 Oct 46

Company formed with 10% T. W.A. shareholding and management contract. Withdrawn when Iranian Government reorganized airline in 1949

Trans Mediterranean Airways (T. M.A.) (Lebanon)

4 Aug 64

Orgonized engine overhaul shop. Technical management contract, 12 November 1966

Wide-Bodied Era

Подпись: Fleet Number Reg. MSN Delivery Date Remarks and Disposal Series 131 17101 N93101 19667 18 Aug 70 Sold to Boeing, 4 Mar 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17102 N93102 19668 31 Dec 69 City of Paris. Sold to Boeing, 14 Nov 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17103 N93103 19669 8 Oct 70 Sold to Boeing, 2 Dec 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17104 N93104 19670 20 Feb 70 Leased to Tower Air, 10 Dec 90 to 15 Apr 91. Sold to Jet-Away Aviation Services, 30 Jun 97. 17105 N93105 19671 7 Mar 70 Stored Kansas City, Dec 96. 17106 N93106 19672 3 Apr 70 Sold to JBB Leasing Inc., 22 Dec 89, leased back and returned, 25 Mar 92. 17107 N93107 19673 29 Apr 70 Sold to Pacific Aircorp 747 Inc., 1 Nov 93, leased back. 17108 N93108 19674 7 May 70 Star of Madrid. Sold to Pacific Aircorp 747 Inc., 1 Nov 93, leased back. 17109 N93109 19675 23 May 70 Sold to CIT Leasing Corporation, 7 Mar 95, leased back. 17115 N93115 20320 20 May 71 Leased from First Chicago Leasing Corp., 20 May 70 to 1 Jun 86. Coverted to 747-131(F) for Evergreen Inti. Airlines. 17116 N53116 20321 21 May 71 Leased from GATX Leasing Corporation, 21 May 71 to 1 Jun 86. Leased again from 1 May 87. Bought 15 Dec 93. Sold to CIT Leasing Corporation, 7 Mar 95, leased back. 17117 N93117 20322 24 May 71 Leased from GATX Leasing Corporation, 25 May 71 to 1 Jun 86. Leased from Citicorp North America Inc., 5 Dec 88, returned 30 Nov 92. Series 125/131 (Eastern Air Lines, not taken up) 17113 N93113 20080 22 Oct 70 Sold to Boeing, 31 Mar 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17114 N93114 20081 2 Nov 70 Sold to Boeing, 3 Nov 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17118 N93118 20082 2 Sep 71 Sold to Boeing, 13 Nov 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17119 N93119 20083 27 Oct 71 Sold to Boeing, 15 Dec 75 for conversion to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. Bought from Boeing, 16 Dec 76. Crashed into Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, NY., 17 Jul 96. Series 131 17110 N53110 19676 10 Aug 70 WFU Feb 98. 17111 N53111 19677 26 Sep 70 Sold to Boeing, 15 Oct 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. 17112 N53112 19678 4 Oct 70 Sold to Boeing, 14 Mar 75. Converted to 747-131(F) for Iranian Air Force. Series 136 17125 N17125 20271 25 Mar 81 1 Ex-B0AC/BA. Sold to JBB Leasing Inc., 26 Dec 89, 17126 N126TW 20273 30 Mar 81 J leased back and returned, 28 Mar 91. Series 143 17128 N17010 19729 12 Jul 96 Ex-Alitalia, Hav/aii Express, Flying Tiger Line, People Express/Continental Air Lines. Re-registered N128TW. Series 156 17133 N133TW 19957 1 May 80 Ex-Iberia. 17134 N134TW 19958 17 Feb 81 Ex-Iberia. Stored, Jan 97. Series 238B 17307 N3071W 20009 30 May 96 Ex-Qantas, Air New Zealand, Air Lanka. Stored Marana, AZ., Jan 97. Sold to First Security Bank, 30 May 97, leased back. Подпись:

The Big Boeing

Just as it had done in 1955, when Pan American ordered 45 jet airliners, to launch the Jet Age in earnest, Juan Trippe did it again in 1965, by persuading the Seattle manufacturer to build the Boeing 747, another airliner that was twice as big as its predecessor. Paradoxically, Pan Am was to acquire too many 747s too quickly, but having been persuaded, Boeing went on to build more than a thousand “Jumbo Jets”—and is still building them 35 years later, an amazing tribute to a great design.

On 2 September 1966 T. W.A. placed a large order for Boeing aircraft and this included 12 747s. At the time, like most large airlines, confidence was high. During that summer, service had been resumed to Bangkok, and extended to Hong Kong. On 6 April 1967 the last Constellation was retired from domestic service and on 11 May the very last of that famous airliner was withdrawn from overseas routes. T. W.A. was the first major U. S. domestic airline to become all-jet. In the same year, riding high, it acquired the Hilton Hotel chain on 9 May, and placed another multi-million dollar Boeing order on 18 October, to augment the 747 fleet to 34. T. W.A.’s Jumbo Jets entered service on 25 February 1970, on the premier transcontinental route, Los Angeles – New York, and on 18 March on the world’s most prestigious intercontinental route, New York-London.

Pacific Interlude

For several years, the Civil Aeronautics Board had been wrestling with two important issues, the trans-Pacific and the associated Hawaii Route Cases. The U. S.trans-Pacific traffic had hitherto been shared between Pan American and North­west to Asia, Pan Am only to Australasia, and Pan Am, North­west, and United to Hawaii. Now, other airlines wanted a piece of this lucrative cake, and T. W.A. was one of them. President Johnson signed the Pacific Route Case on 19 December 1968 and the Hawaii Case on 4 January 1969, just before he left office. The incoming President Nixon promptly amended the choice of airlines and routes, but T. W.A. never­theless received its share, and opened service on 1 August 1969. This enabled the airline to complete a round-the-world service, with Boeing 707s, on 31 October 1971.

The route was not as successful as expected because of strong competition and the consequent excessive capacity offered. Accordingly, T. W.A. and Pan American entered into a route standardization agi’eement on 16 October 1974, and T. W.A. suspended its Pacific route on 2 March 1975.

Capacity Sharing

The Pacific agreement with Pan Am was symptomatic of a problem that had resulted from the enormous increase in the capacity offered world-wide by the influx of the 360-seat 747s, augmented by the 270-seat Douglas DC-10 and Lock­heed L-1011 tri-jets. The problem was also acute in the U. S.A., where, for example, three airlines all offered a 9 a. m. departure from New York to Los Angeles—all at a disastrous 35% or so load factor.

On the initiative of Mel Brenner, T. W.A.’s advocate for common sense in a strictly regulated environment which was supposed to encourage competition, the C. A.B. and the Justice Department agreed, on 21 December 1970, to a capacity scheduling agreement, so that the airlines could continue to compete without cutting each other’s throats. This sensible T. W.A. initiative was appreciated on all sides, and was a har­binger of an even more liberal approach to the problem, one that was solved by the Airline Deregulation Act, signed by President Carter on 24 October 1978. T. W.A. would, in years to come, face fresh challenges, fierce competition, and threats to its very existence.(p. 90)

Curtiss Condor CO

18 seats • 120 mph


The Model 53 CO was an early attempt to create a passenger air­craft from a military bomber. More modern examples include the Boeing Stratocruiser (from the B-29/B-50), and the Russian Tupolev Tu-I14 (from the Tu-20 “Bear”).



Curtiss GV-1570 Conqueror (625 hp) x 2


17,900 lb.


500 miles


58 feet


92 feet


16 feet


Curtiss Condor COCurtiss Condor CO

Подпись: mmПодпись: Т.А.Т. 's Condors operated briefly between Columbus and Waynoka, but never went into regular service. Tommy Tomlinson called it an “aerodynamic monstrosity. ”Curtiss Condor COПодпись:

The Condor

The Curtiss Condor was the last large biplane built in the United States. T. A.T. put it into service early in 1929, and until the Douglas DC-2 came along, it supplemented the Fords on routes where the traffic demand was high. It was much bigger, weighing nine tons against the Ford’s six, and could carry more people with a more attractive cabin. But it was not much faster, and its life span with the United States airlines was only about three years. T. AT.’s Condor COs (also designated the Condor 18, the B-18 or the B-20) were N185H, N725K, and N726K (manufacturer’s serial numbers G-l, G-2, and G-4, respectively).

A later version, the T-32, went into service with Ameri­can Airlines and Eastern Air Lines in 1934 as a much-publi­cized sleeper transport; but by all accounts, the passengers did not get much sleep. The low-altitude flying tended to be a little rocky, and the segments were too short. In any case, the modern airliners would soon be outlasting the obsolescent Condor design. Biplanes were becoming a thing of the past.

Подпись: Air Mail Scandal

The NlcNary-Watres Act

The spur to the spectacular growth of air transport in the United States in the early 1930s was the result of imaginative legislation, enacted after substantial persuasion by the Post­master General, Walter F. Brown. The Third Amendment to the Air Mail Act, named after its Congressional sponsors, was approved on 29 April 1930. Its far-reaching provisions gave permanence to the contracted operators, paid them according to space offered, not by the weight of mail carried, and gave Brown powers to extend or consolidate routes to improve the system. This encouraged the airlines to invest in larger aircraft, which were more economical to operate; and gave Brown almost unlimited authority to draw the airline map as he pleased.

The "Spoils Conferences"

Things went mainly according to Brown’s plan, which was to fashion a rational system of air routes that would not suffer from the excessive fragmentation he had observed in the railroad system. No single railroad, for example, ran from coast to coast. Brown’s pressure and advice to the incumbent air mail carriers resulted in three transcontinental airlines that followed different routes, but offered opportunities for competition between the main traffic-generating areas: California and the Northeast.

But to do this, he sometimes overstepped the mark in what was perceived to be selective manipulation of the exact intentions of the Air Mail Act, and even, it was alleged, a cer­tain degree of favoritism. This led to an investigation of the circumstances of a series of meetings that he had held with the airlines between 15 May and 9 June 1930, and which became known as the Spoils Conferences.

The Air Mail Scandal

Many of the small airlines felt that they had been by-passed deliberately; and although their case was not well docu­mented and of doubtful legality, it was intensively publi­cized—so effectively, in fact, that, responding to political pressure, the Senate set up a Special Committee. Its adverse report resulted in President Roosevelt taking the unprece­dented step, on 9 February 1934, of cancelling all the air mail contracts and asking the Army Air Corps to carry the mail. This it did, with remarkable success, bearing in mind the extreme difficulties of weather and inexperience with which it was faced. But some pilots were killed, mostly in training, and this led to a national outrage that forced Roosevelt to retract his decision.

A New Life

Подпись: Douglas 0-38 observation plane, used by the Army Air Corps in March 1934 to carry the mail. Подпись:Подпись:On 30 March 1934, the Post Office Department invited the airlines to submit new bids, and these were duly accepted by the new Postmaster General, James A. Farley, on 20 April. During the two months during which the Army carried the mail, the airlines struggled on the best they could. Drastic measures had to be taken, as the revenues from passengers and express were insignificant compared with the mail pay­ments—effectively a life-sustaining subsidy. In the case of T. W.A., President Richard W. Robbins sent a letter to all the staff, which began: “Effective February 28th, 1934, the entire personnel of T.& W. A. is furloughed.”

Curtiss Condor CO

Postmaster-General Walter Folger Brown was the czar of the U. S. air transport industry in the early 1930s. By awarding air mail contracts for specific routes (with­out which no airline could operate profitably), he laid the foundation for a nationwide airline network.

DC-3 Replacement

Post-war Problems

When the Second World War ended, the leading airlines rushed to put into service the new longer-ranged airliners that had been stimulated by technical advances during the war, as well as by the commercial pre-war design innovations that had been frustrated by wartime needs. T. W.A.’s Stratoliners were recalled from the military, and the C-69 Constellations and C-54 Skymasters were quickly refurbished with comfortable seating layouts. The emphasis was on the main inter-city routes; but the networks dated back to the 1930s, and with the “grandfather” route certificates in 1938, the airlines had sought, and the C. A.B. had granted, full service con­tracts to serve almost every city in the U. S.A. that was big enough to have an airport.

The problem was that many of the cities—and there were dozens of these—were too small to generate enough passengers, mail, or freight to justify service by such mainliners as the Con­stellation. Other cities were able to generate the traffic, but did not have the airfields to cope with the four-engined types. Also the airlines themselves chose to deploy their best equipment on the prestige routes, which generated the highest revenues. And so the veteran Douglas DC-3, obtain­able as conversions from military C-47s, C-53s, and other DC-3 variants, and which could land or take off almost anywhere, was in great demand to back up their newer brethren in the fleet.

Life in the Old Dog

The old Douglas DC-3 “Gooney Bird” was the obvious choice, as there were thousands of them. T. W.A. alone had 96 altogether—a large fleet during that period. Under the C. A.B. man­date, and like the other trunk airlines, it had to serve the smaller points, or lose its certificate for the whole route. Exemptions were sometimes granted, but every’ one had to be argued sep­arately, in an often protracted series of meetings in Washington. Later, during the 1950s, the Local Service airlines were established, and these provided the answer to the problem for sev­eral decades, relieving the trunk airlines from the obligation of providing “whistle stops” on prestigious point-to-point services.

But this took time, and this is why T. W.A. continued to keep the old DC-3s in service. Bill Halliday recalls that in 1947 “T. W.A. was flying so many DC-3s that as we approached Amar­illo to turn westward to Albuquerque (at night) we could see the flight ahead of us headed west and after we had completed our turn, we could look back and see the flight behind us.”

DC-3 Replacement

While Douglas, Lockheed, and Boeing were concerned with providing the front-line fleets, it was left to other manufacturers to come up with a formula for a modem airliner to replace the DC-3s which, even if they were not too old, were regarded by air travelers as old-fashioned and obsolescent. Postwar airliners needed, at the very least, a pressurized cabin, tricycle landing gear, on-board amenities such as ample luggage and coat space, good lavatories, and above all, faster speed. Two manufacturers came to the fore to meet this requirement: Martin, with its Model 202, and Convair, with its Model 240.

At the Martin plant in Baltimore, Allan Roshkind and his team started work on the Martin 202 (at first called the Mercury) immediately after Japan surrendered. But this 36-seat design was unpressurized, and its first customer, American Airlines, changed its mind and ordered Convair-Liners instead. Nevertheless, by the end of 1945, Martin had orders for 155 aircraft and the 202 made its first flight on 22 November 1946, four months ahead of the Convair-Liner. United had ordered a pressurized version, the Model 303, but this was cancelled.

DC-3 Replacement

This Martin 404, Skyliner Louisville, displays its registration number unusually, reading downwards on

the vertical stabilizer.

DC-3 Replacement

The Martin 202A went into service on 1 September 1950, to relieve the DC-3s on T. W.A. ’s shorter routes.
It carried 36 passengers, had a З-man crew, and cruised at 220 mph. Its built-in boarding stairs, includ-
ing a ventral access at the rear, accelerated boarding and disembarking at the “whistle-stops. ” This pic-
ture is of Skyliner San Francisco.

Boeing 747-131

342-433 seats • 590 mph

Boeing 747-131


*Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3 (43,500 lb) x 4 Length

232 feet


734,000 lb Span

196 feet


4,000 miles Height

63 feet

^Initially, later JT9D-7A (46,9501b)

Подпись: This Boeing 747, landing at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport, carries the airline’s revised “outline” TRANS WORLD paint scheme, (photo: Roger Bentley) The Boeing 747, called the “Jumbo Jet” from the time it first went into service in 1970, has already served the airlines for three decades, and will probably still be in front-line flagship service for for many more years yet. This will be as long as all the generations of airliners before 1970, at least from the debut of the first DC-3. Its reign covers half of the proverbial three-score years and ten—quite a lifetime. When they started service, the 747s cost $21 mil­lion each. Now, a Series -400 would cost about $140 million.

In mixed class seating layout, it accommodates between 350 and 390 passengers; but in Japan, where a special short-haul version is used to connect the majoi centers of population, the airlines put in 530 seats, or the capacity of an average-sized London theater. Like all the trans-Atlantic jets, it makes a round-trip between Europe and the United States within 24 hours, and its productivity is thus about five times higher than that of an ocean liner such as the Queen Man. At least two of T. W.A.’s 747s were retired only after no less than 100,000 hours of flight time, a truly impressive record of aeronautical achievement.