Category AN AIRIINE AN0 ITS AIRCRAFT

Above the Weather

Above the Weather
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Up, Up, and Away

T. W.A. had been experimenting with high-altitude flying for most of the 1930s, ever since ex-Naval Lieutenant D. W. “Tommy” Tomlinson started serious work in 1934 with the Northrop Gamma (see page 27). During the two years 1935­1936, he was estimated to have done more flying (with oxygen equipment) at altitudes above 30,000 feet than all other pilots, military and civil, combined. His experience— in practical terms exclusive to T. W.A.—led to the conclusion that 95% of all weather problems occurred below 16,000 feet, so that an aircraft that flew at 20,000 feet would be much smoother in flight, and faster.

Improved Comfort Level

The full benefit that such an innovation brought to the airline clientele is sometimes forgotten. Unpressurized DC-3s, which were flying 85% of the airline mileage in the United States by 1940, were a great improvement over the old Fords; but they still had to fly at low altitudes and through weather that was too often very turbulent, mainly because of low
clouds that could not be avoided. The term “air pocket” was used to describe sudden, sometimes violent, changes of alti­tude, in which the aircraft would drop suddenly, and so would the passengers, except for their stomachs. Air sickness, rare today, was a common occurrence in the 1930s.

T. W.A. Does It Again

The introduction of the Boeing 307 Stratoliner, described on the opposite page, was the first commercial aircraft to incorporate cabin pressurization to eliminate the discomfort of low altitude flying. Even though the differential against sea level pressure was only 2-1/2 lb/square inch, this was enough to enable the 307 to cruise at 20,000 feet “above the weather.” Although on the transcontinental route, two stops still had to be made, and sometimes three, when T. W.A. inau­gurated the service on 8 July 1940, it cut the coast-to-coast time to less than 14 hours, some four hours quicker than the DC-3’s. One of the economies for the airline was a marked decline in the budget allocated for the purchase of sick-bags, and, in those days, sick-cups.

Above the Weather

While Tommy Tomlinson was exploring the realms of higher altitude and higher speed, the last veteran of a bygone age saw brief service with T. W.A. In 1935, a Ford Tri-Motor, fitted with floats, was delivered from New England and Western Transportation (and ex­Eastern Air Transport) on 26 April 1933. NC-410H (msn 5-AT-69) operated a shuttle service in the New York Harbor area, carrying passengers from outlying points. The aircraft was sold to Colombia’s SCADTA on 11 February 1936.

 

This photograph illustrates very well the much-promoted claim that the Stratoliner could fly “above the weather."

 

Above the Weather

Ozark’s DC-3 Replacements

Ozark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 ReplacementsTime to Move On

When Ozark received some new route awards on 9 December 1958, in the decisions in the Seven States Area Case, the time seemed ripe to supplement the old DC-3s with modern feeder airliners. A selection committee chose the Dutch 40- seat Fokker F-27, powered by Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines, and put them into service on 4 January 1960. With traffic growing healthily, more ‘DC-3 Replacements’ were required, and the first Convair 240 piston-engined 40-seater went into service on 14 August 1962.

Aircraft Exchange

The Convairs did not stay long. In an ingenious solution to equipment problems, Ozark and Mohawk Airlines filed jointly with the C. A.B. for approval of an exchange of air­craft: Ozark took eight of Mohawk’s Martins for four of its Convairs, thus standardizing both fleets. The C. A.B. acted swiftly, and the first Martin 404 entered Ozark service on 1 December 1964.

During this time, Laddie Hamilton, Ozark’s founder, resigned on 6 August 1959, and Joseph Fitzgerald took over as president, He too resigned on 30 July 1963, and Thomas L. Grace was appointed president on 18 February 1964. He was to guide Ozark into the Jet Age, was elected chairman of the board on 21 August 1970, but died on 21 July 1971, just before the death of founder Hamilton three months later.

OZARK’S MARTIN 404S

 

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Regn.

MSN

Delivery

Date

Remarks and Disposal

N470M

14109

2 Jun 65

(FH) 7 Jui 67.

N471M

14112

1 Oct 65

(FH) 29 Jul 67.

N468M

14139

13 Apr 65

(FH) 30 Mar 67.

N456A

14147

16 Mar 65

Ex-Charlotte Aircraft Corp. (FH) 4 Aug 67.

N469M

14148

29 Dec 64

(FH) 2 Apr 68.

N464M

14151

19 Dec 65

(FH) 12 Jun 67.

N465M

14152

23 Sep 65

(FH) 17 Aug 67.

N462M

14153

11 Mar 65

(FH) 29 Dec 67.

N463M

14155

24 Aug 64

(FH) 7 Jul 67.

N460M

14162

10 Aug 65

(FH) 14 Sep 67.

N466M

14163

20 May 65

(FH) 3 Jun 67.

N467M

14164

26 Oct 64

(FH) 11 Mar 67.

N473M

14224

23 Aug 65

(FH) 17 Aug 67.

N461M

14227

29 Dec 65

(FH) 7 Jul 67.

N472M

14234

9 Jul 65

(FH) 12 Jan 67.

Notes: (FH) = Sold to Fairchild-Hiller Corp. All except N456A (ex-Charlotte Aircraft Corp.) were ex-Mohawk Airlines.

 

OZARK’S CONVAIR 240S

 

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Ozark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 Replacements

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Turbine Power

As mentioned on page 94, Ozark Air Lines moved with the times and began to retire its old DC-3s, trustworthy and reli­able though they were, simply because the Jet Age had arrived and the trunk airlines were all rushing to upgrade their fleets with Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s on their premier routes, and introducing ВАС One-Elevens and Douglas DC-9s on their secondary routes. The travelling public was beginning to look askance at any airliners that still had pro­pellers. The Local Service airlines, whose networks now reached beyond the boondocks into the big cities, had to ‘keep up with the Joneses.’ The answer was a compromise: turbine power (which the publicists could refer to as jet power) with jet engines that drove propellers, and called turboprops or propjets.

The Fokkers and Fairchilds

Of all the Rolls-Royce Dart-engined turboprop airliners, the Fokker F-27 had a head-start on the competitors, the Avro 748, the Handley Page Herald, and the Nihon YS-11. More than 600 of all types were sold world-wide. Ozark put them into service on 4 January 1960 and six years later, with bur­geoning traffic demand on all fronts, ordered the U. S. license – built development, the Fairchild-Hiller FH-227. Ozark had increased its capital by $12 million to finance this order, as well as one for more Douglas DC-9 jets, which went into service during the same year (see page 96). The first FH-227 schedule was on 19 December 1966.

OZARK’S FOKKER F-27S

Goodbye to Pistons

On 26 October 1968, the veteran Douglas DC-3 fleet was retired, and this included one of the earliest off the production line (as noted on page 93), originally a DST that had logged 65,000 hours in flying time. The last revenue service was from St. Louis to Kansas City, and from then onwards, the Ozark Air Lines fleet was all turbine-powered.

F-27

Engines

Rolls-Royce Dart

Length

77 feet

(1,670 ehp) x 2

Span

95 feet

NIGTOW

405,000 lb.

Height

28 feet

Range

400 miles

The stretched FH-227featured three more cabin windows than the standard F-27 from which it was derived.

Ш-227В

Engines

Rolls-Royce Dart

Length

84 feet

(1,990 ehp) x 2

Span

95 feet

MGTOW

45,500 lb.

Height

28 feet

Range

550 miles

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Fairchild F-27 (photo: Roger Bentley)

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Fairchild-Hiller FH-227B (photo: Roger Bentley)

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

One of Ozark’s DC-9-34s over the grid-patterned fields of the Midwest.

 

Minneapolis-St. Paul

 

Ji50”

Milwaukee

 

OZARK
AIR LINES

(Regional)

 

New York

 

This series of maps dearly illustrates Ozark’s transition from local service to regional airline status.

 

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Denver^”

 

Las Vegas,

San Diego

‘ms

REGD

 

1960

 

Son Antonio

 

Ft. t-aua

 

Miami

 

Ozark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 Replacements

DC-9-30

 

Douglas

127 seats • 560 mph

 

OZARK’S DOUGLAS ©C-9S

 

Ozark's DC-3 Replacements

Regn.

MSN

Delivery

Date

Remarks and Disposal

Series 15

N970Z

45772

25 May 66

First Ozark DC-9.

N971Z

45773

10 Jul 66

Merged with TWA, 26 Oct 86. Returned to lessor, 20 Apr 00.

N968E

45786

7 Dec 72

Ex-Swissair, ex-Air Panama, ex-Douglas. Sold TIA, 28 Mar 74.

N490SA

45798

3 Nov 66

Ex-Standard Airways, ex-Ozark Air Lines.

N49ISA

45799

1 Oct 68

Ex-Standard Airways, ex-Ozark Air Lines.

N972Z

45841

24 Aug 66

Sold to Douglas Aircraft, 29 Oct 74.

N969Z

47001

3 Jul 72

Ex-Saudia. Leased to and returned LAV, 8 Aug 75 to 15 Oct 76. Leased to and returned Southern Airways, 10 Sep 77 to 1 Jun 78.

N973Z

47033

31 Jul 67

Returned to lessor, 20 Apr 00.

N974Z

47034

1 Sep 67

Leased to and returned Air West, 12 Mar 68 to 16 Oct 68. Crashed after aborted take-off Sioux City, Iowa, 27 Dec 68.

N975Z

47035

10 Oct 67

Returned to lessor, 20 Apr 00.

Series 31

N993Z

47082

2 May 75

Ex-Northeast.

N992Z

47095

3 Apr 75

Ex-Northeast.

N991Z

47096

6 Feb 75

Ex-Northeast.

N994Z

47097

6 Jun 75

Crashed after hitting a snowplow during take-off, Sioux Falls, SD. 21 Dec 83. Sold to Aviations Sales Company Inc., Jun 84.

N988Z

47134

1 Apr 74

Ex-Northeast.

N989Z

47135

1 May 74

Ex-Northeast.

N990Z

47136

3 Jun 74

Ex-Northeast.

N987Z

47137

1 Mar 74

Ex-Northeast.

N976Z

47248

26 Feb 68

Retired 25 May 00.

N977Z

47249

19 Apr 68

N978Z

47250

10 May 68

N982PS

47251

14 Jul 69

Ex-Pacific Southwest Airl Lines.

N979Z

47343

25 Feb 69

Ex-Ozark Air Lines.

N980Z

47344

27 Mar 69

N981Z

47345

21 Apr 69

Leased to Allegheny Airlines, 18 Feb /4 to 14 Feb /6.

N983Z

47411

8 Dec 69

N984Z

47412

11 Dec 69

N985Z

47491

25 Jun 70

N986Z

47589

4 Dec 73

Series 32

N995Z

47027

3 Feb 77

Ex-Delta.

N996Z

47028

13 Jul 77

Ex-Delta.

N997Z

47029

28 Jul 77

Ex-Delta.

N998R

47030

15 Jun 77

Ex-Delta.

N921L

47107

20 Dec 78

Ex-Delta.

N922L

47108

6 Mar 79

Ex-Delta.

N923L

47109

5 Jun 79

Ex-Delta.

N926L

47172

11 Dec 79

N931L

47173

19 May 81

Ex-Delta.

 

Ozark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 ReplacementsOzark's DC-3 Replacements

The Second Line

MARTIN 202A FLEET MARTIN 404 FIEET

Fleet

No.

Regn.

MSN

Date into Service

Name

Disposal and Remarks

401

N40401

14101

20 Feb 52

Skyliner Baltimore

First T. W.A. aircraft with Hughes Ter­rain Warning indicator. Sold to Pied­mont Airlines 9 Jan 62. Written off at Wilmington, Delaware, 22 Aug 62

402

N40402

14102

2 Feb 52

Skyliner Indianapolis, later Skyliner Chicago

Sold to East Coast Flying Service, 28 Jun 61. Then to Piedmont, 1 Feb 65; Mark Aero. St. Louis, 1972-74. Scrapped 1 Jul 76.

403

N40403

14103

10 Nov 51

Skyliner Pittsburgh

Crashed Pittsburgh, 1 Apr 56

404

N40404

14104

30 Nov 51

Skyliner Philadelphia

Crashed Las Vegas, 15 Nov 56

405

N40405

14105

6 Dec 51

Skyliner New York

Sold to Piedmont Airlines, 2 Feb 62. With Piedmont until 1969. Several owners

406

N40406

14106

13 Dec 51

Skyliner Washington Dt

Sold to California Airmotive 15 Feb 60. Leased to Hughes Tool Co. for radar testing. 18 Feb 60—Feb 61. With Piedmont Airlines, 2 Feb 65-Dec 69. Atlantic Southeast Airlines 1972.

407

N40407

14107

14 Dec 51

Skyliner Indianapolis

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. South­east, May 72; Provincetown – Boston/Naples Airlines, 6 Jan 76

408

N40408

14108

25 Dec 51

Skyliner Columbus

Sold to Pacific Air Lines, 26 Sep 60. Then to Piedmont 9 Apr 66-Mar 73. Several owners, inc. Valley Marlin, Inc., cropdusting

409

N40409

14113

28 Dec 51

Skyliner Dayton

Leased to Pacific, 24 Apr 60 and then sold to Pacific 30 Jun 60. With U. S. Atomic Commission, Las Vegas, 1967­76. In 1996, fuselage trucked to Fresno for "haunted house" attraction

410

N40410

14114

3 Jan 52

Skyliner Cincinnati

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. With Piedmont until 1968

411

N40411

14115

15 Jan 52

Skyliner St. Louis

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. With Piedmont until 1970

412

N40412

14116

27 Jan 52

Skyliner Wheeling

Sold to California Airmotive, 11 Mar 60. Montex Drilling Co. 12 Mar 60. Several owners. Crashed, Atlanta, 30 May 70.

413

N40413

14117

22 May 52

Skyliner Louisville

Sold to Piedmont 12 Nov 62. PBA/Naples, 1976

414

N40414

14118

1 Jun 52

Skyliner Boston, later Skyliner Dayton

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after 1972. Used for fire drill at St. Louis, 1988

415

N40415

14119

2 Jun 52

Skyliner Albany

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after 1973, inc. PBA/Naples 1976

416

N40416

14120

2 Jun 52

Skyliner Binghamton

Crashed on Sandia Mountain, Albu­querque, 19 Feb 55

417

N40417

14123

3 Jun 52

Skyliner Williamsport

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after 1968, inc. Atlantic South­east

418

N40418

14124

3 Jun 52

Skyliner Newark

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after 1968, inc. Frontier Air­ways, in California, as cropduster.

 

Fleet

No.

Regn.

MSN

Date into Service

Name

Disposal and Remarks

419

N40419

14125

13 Jun 52

Skyliner Wilmington

Used by Martin, 5-10 Jun 52, for gross weight testing. Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after 1972, and registered in Haiti

420

N40420

14126

7 Jun 52

Skyliner Allentown

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after Apr 69

421

N40421

14127

14Jun 52

Skyliner Harrisburg, later Skyliner Washington

Sold to Piedmont, 31 Jul 61. After Nov 69 with U. S. Aircraft Sales and Atlantic Southeast. In 1988 reportedly used for smuggling in Bahamas

422

N40422

14128

19 Jun 52

Skyliner Kansas City

Sold to Pacific Air Lines, 26 Sep 60. Several owners after 1968

423

N40423

14129

20 Jun 52

Skyliner Reading

Sold to Piedmont Airlines, 31 Jul 61. Several ov/ners after 1972, inc. PBA/Naples and San­tiago Freighters (HI-501)

424

N40424

14130

20 Jun 52

Skyliner Toledo

Sold to Piedmont Airliens, 31 Jul 61. Several owners after Jul 68, inc. Southeast and PBA/Naples, Nov 75

425

N40425

14131

28Jun 52

Skyliner Zanesville, later Skyliner Easton

Sold to California Airmotive, 24 Mar 59; then to Houston Lumber, before Piedmont Airlines Moy 66—Apr 69. Several owners, inc. South­east and PBA/Naples. 1972-1978, then to Beringuen Air Leasing.

426

N40426

14132

4 Jul 52

Skyliner Mansfield, later Skyliner Bethlehem

Sold to Remmert Werner (Beldex Corp.) 11 Feb 59, then to Kewanee Oil Co. From 1972 to 1976 with Danny Davis and the Nashville Brass band. In 1988 with Dade County Public School System, as instructional airframe.

427

N40427

14133

12 Jul 52

Skyliner Fort Wayne

Leased to Pacific Air Lines, 25 Apr 60 and sold to Pacific 30 Jun 60. Several subsequent owners. Crashed 1 Sep 74, Norfolk, VA

428

N40428

14134

16 Jul 52

Skyliner South Bend

Sold to Outboard Marine Corp., Milwaukee. Travel club in 1970. Several owners. Reported with CAMBA, Bolivia (CP-1318) 1988

429

N40429

14135

17 Jul 52

Skyliner Peoria

Sold to California Airmotive, 10 Mar 59. Sev­eral owners, inc. Sun and Wind Co., 1988 U. S. Aircraft Sales Dec 68. Atlantic Southeast, 1972

430

N40430

14136

21 Jul 52

Skyliner Quincy later Skyliner Oklahoma City

Sold to Piedmont Airlines, 31 Jul 61. U. S. Air­craft Sales Dec 68. Atlantic Southeast, 1972.

431

N40431

14166

23 Jul 52

Skyliner Terre Haute

Sold to California Airmotive, 4 Aug 59. With Piedmont Airlines, Nov 64—Sep 68. Several owners, inc. Atlantic Southeast, 1972

432

N40432

14167

25 Jul 52

Skyliner Detroit

Leased to Pacific Airlines, 12 Nov 59, and sold to Pacific 30 Jun 60. Several owners, inc. CAMBA, Bolivia, 1988 (CP-1570)

433

N40433

14168

14 Aug 52

Skyliner Cleveland

Sold to Piedmont Airliens, 31 Jul 61

434

N40434

14169

20 Aug 52

Skyliner Topeka

Sold To Essex Productions (Frank Sinatra) (N710E) 11 Jun 61. Several subsequent owners. Scrapped at St. Louis, Jul 76

435

N40435

14170

21 Aug 52

Skyliner Wichita

Sold to Pan-Air Trading for СОРА, Panama, 2 Feb 61 (HP-302). Then to Piedmont Airlines, Oct 65. Crashed, New Bern, NC, 20 Nov 66

436

N40436

14171

29 Aug 52

Skyliner Wilkes-Barre later Skyliner Scranton

Leased to Pacific Air Lines, 18 Jan 60, and sold to Pacific 30 Jun 60. Several subsequent owners.

 

The Second Line

MARTIN 202 FLEET

 

N93049

N93047

9132

9233

Acquired on 30 Jun 60 from Southwest Airways (later Pacific Air Lines) in trade

N93056

9146

for Martin 404s. Never operated by T. W.A. 9131-9149 sold to Martin Air Leas-

N93060

9149

ing, Inc., 17 Nov 61; 9162 sold to Delta Aircraft & Engine Company, 8 Sep 60

N93041

9162

 

Port Columbus

Port Columbus

Remarkably, the historic building, complete with the control tower, looks very little different today from when it was first opened in 1929. (photo courtesy Jim Thompson)

Port Columbus

Even the original hangar at Port Columbus is still there, (photo courtesy Jim Thompson)

Port Columbus

This picture shows the partly-constructed Pennsylvania Railroad station at Port Columbus, Ohio, while on the left the ground is being prepared for the new terminal building.

An Historic Site

The city of Columbus no longer possesses a railroad station. Yet it was once the key transfer point in T. A.T. ’s transconti­nental air-rail service. The west-bound passengers travelled overnight in the comfort of a Pennsylvania Railroad sleeper coach, to wake up at the new station, Port Columbus, where they enjoyed breakfast in the new terminal building before

This was all part of the T. A.T. service for the rail-air transfer at Clovis, New Mexico. Passengers on T. A.T. were provided with a comfortable Aero-Car to lessen the inconvenience of having to make the transfer between the railroad station and the airport.

boarding the Ford Tri-Motor to continue their journey (see map opposite).

Port Columbus

Port ColumbusThe building is still there. As one of the very few—and undoubtedly one of the most historically significant— 70-year-old architectural survivals of the formative years of air transport in the United States, it should be listed as an Historic Monument.

Boeing 307B Stratoliner

Boeing 307B Stratoliner33 seats • 220 mph

B.

STRATOLINER

———- E———

Подпись: Engines Wright GR-1820 Cyclone (900 hp) x 4 Length 74 feet NIGT0W 42,000 lb. Span 107 feet Range 1,250 miles Height 21 feet Подпись:Подпись:

The 307 was T. W.A.’s first aircraft to incorporate the use of white in its bare metal color scheme.

Boeing Fights Back

T. W.A.’s introduction of the Douglas DC-2 in 1934 had been a severe blow to the Boeing Com­pany. But it was still a driving force in the military field, and its B-17 Flying Fortress bomber —named because of its impressive array of defensive armament—ensured its survival. Boeing engineers and designers adapted the B-17 as an airliner by substituting a commercially accept­able fuselage but keeping the same wing, tail, and four engines. The result was the innovative Boeing 307 Stratoliner.

The First Pressurized Airliner

The fuselage was the most notable advance in design and construction since Jack Northrop’s monocoque replacement of the steel framework. The fuselage of the Boeing 307 Stratoliner was hermetically sealed so that, by maintaining the same pressure inside the cabin as at low altitudes—at the equivalent of 8,000-10,000 feet—the 307 could climb to higher altitudes without discomfort to the passengers or crew. It was advertised as “flying above the weather” and the term pressurization soon came into use. The name Stratoliner neatly conveyed the idea of reaching for the stratosphere, which in 1940 was perceived by the flying public as almost like flying into space.

An Eventful Life

Although T. W.A. and Pan American both put it into service in 1940, the Stratoliner’s airline life was commercially short. The aircraft’s fuel capacity was limited, to the extent that it did not have trans-ocean range, at least with an acceptable payload. But Boeing was a little unlucky, in that before improvements could be made, as is normal with all great airliners, the outbreak of the Second World War disrupted both demand and production. Only ten were built, of which T. W.A. had five. It entered service on the transcontinental route on 8 July 1940. As explained in the following pages, it suffered the ignominy of having its pressurization system removed so that the weight saving permitted a payload to be carried across the Atlantic. The 307 was a

Подпись: Registration MSN Delivery Date Remarks 41-20137 3050 1 Dec 42 Ех-USAAF C-54-DO (41-20137). Leased to T.W.A. Dec 42-9 Jon 43. This was the first C-54 built. 41-32939 3114 8 Sep 42 Ех-USAAF C-54-DO (41-32939). Crashed, Paramaribo, 15 Jan 43 Подпись:Подпись:

 

Ozark Enterprise

As narrated on pages 82-87, Ozark Airlines, one of the more successful Local Service airlines, had started life as a one-route and almost one-plane operator. It would be classed as a Com­muter airline today. It grew steadily through DC-3s, twin turbo­props, and short-haul jets. In 1985, it was able to adopt a junior partner, when it made an agreement with Air Midwest, which took over some of the smaller routes, using Swearingen Metros. Ozark itself had been in to the small airplane field when, on 15 March 1972, it used two de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otters to operate between the Illinois state capi­tal, Springfield, and Chicago’s lakeside airport Meigs Field, next door to the downtown business district.

 

The Grand Canyon

A little-remembered feature of T. W.A. pioneering was its spe­cial connection to the Grand Canyon in the summer of 1935. A special arrangement was made whereby passengers on Flights 2 and 3 (Sky Queen and Sky Master, respectively) could trans­fer at Winslow to the Bach tri-motor planes of Grand Canyon Airlines. The operation was under the supervision of Miss Edith McManus, who was an established local trader in Indian artifacts and products. The round trip Winslow-Grand Canyon fare was $19.00. This must surely have been one of the earliest, if not the first, example of a local interline agreement between a trunk carrier and what today would be termed a commuter air­line. So that the clientele would not be too fatigued to enjoy the scenic view and stopover at the Canyon, T. W.A. also offered a no-charge overnight hotel break, including taxi fare to and from the airport, at Kansas City.

For a month or two during the summer of 1935, this unusual service appeared in the T. W.A. timetables, but it was not repeated in 1936, as T. W.A. itself stopped at the Canyon when the airstrip was improved; and subsequently, instead of stopping, the DC-2s overflew the Canyon (as close as they dared). The timetables, uniquely, marked this amenity with “OVER” instead of the conventional “arr.” or “dep.”

 

Short Cut to JFK

One such operation was started by a Piper aircraft distributor in Bridgeport, Connecticut, who provided connections to New York’s LaGuardia and JFK airports, thus avoiding a cir­cuitous and sometimes grid-locked road journey via the Whitestone or Throgs Neck bridges. The Piper Twinair serv­ice was advertised in the later 1960s as connecting with T. W.A. trans-Atlantic flights. Although not exactly a code­sharing operation, such an arrangement seems to have been a harbinger of things to come.

 

La я Vpnns Grand Canyon veya’3 National Park

 

I <00

 

200__________ .

 

Early Air Taxi Links

Early Air Taxi Links

Dignity and Impudence: an Ozark/Midwest Metro II lines up with a DC-9-30

 

Scheduled Air Taxi

During the 1960s, when air transport was spreading its wings near and far, the first diminutive airlines that were later to be termed Third Level, and later still Commuter, began to emerge. Not yet dignified by the Civil Aeronautics Board for certifica­tion as bona fide airlines, they were able to operate as air taxi services, under Part 135 of the F. A.A. regulations. Under popu­lar pressure from the public, which appreciated the convenience of a non-scheduled air taxi flight that seemed to depart every morning and/or evening at the same time every day, many such services started to operate regularly.

 

Early Air Taxi LinksEarly Air Taxi Links

Early Air Taxi Links

SAAB SF-340A

37 seats ® 325 mph

 

Engines

General Electric CT7-5A2

Length

65 feet

MGTOW

(1,735 slip) x 2 28,000 lb

Span

Height

70 feet 22 feet

Range

500 miles

 

Early Air Taxi Links

A Trans World Express Jetstream 31 circles over the Mississippi at St. Louis, with Busch Stadium on the left and the famous arch, the Gateway to the West, on the right.

 

Mad isoi

 

TRANS WORLD CONNECTION —

AMERICAN _ EAGLE

■M Ko^tSos’

 

q Montreal

 

Cedar Ra

 

Early Air Taxi Links

Boston

 

Early Air Taxi Links

Columbia

 

fir

NEW4$) YORKT e ladelphia

 

Cleveland

 

Evansville

 

PittsbunghO

 

Paducah

 

Richmond

 

І

 

VvW

 

Fayetteville

 

Scale~Msl€5

 

Early Air Taxi Links

Trans States connects with T. W.A. at St. Louis and New York, which have become
connecting hubs for T. W.A. ’s main transcontinental route network.

 

Early Air Taxi LinksEarly Air Taxi Links

Подпись: More ConnectionsEarly Air Taxi Links

Early Air Taxi Links

Подпись:Подпись: Cape Girardeau I J CORPORATE Подпись:Подпись: REGDПодпись: Stoux City  Waterloo л -0.1 i Fort Wayne Lincol ' 4 л Подпись:Early Air Taxi LinksПодпись: LexingtonПодпись: Knoxville CHAUTAUQUA Подпись: A Corporate Airlines Jetstream 32Подпись:Early Air Taxi LinksEarly Air Taxi Links

BAe Jetstream

19 seats • 300 mph

Early Trans World Express Connections

Several early commuter airlines were connected with T. W.A. Air Midwest, founded by Gary Adamson in Wichita in 1987, had an extensive network throughout the Midwest, and was associated with Ozark Airlines from 1 My 1985. This operation became T. W. A.’s in 1987, when the fleet consisted of Metro IIs, SAAB 340s, and Embraer Brasilias. It was purchased by Trans States Airlines in November 1990 (see page 99).

Jet Express, founded at Atlantic City in 1968, using CASA aircraft, became a T. W.A. connector in February 1989, feeding traffic into New York. Metro Airlines Northeast, a division of the nation’s largest regional carrier at the time, head­quartered in South Burlington, Vermont, became a connector in July 1989, feeding traffic to T. W.A. from cities of the Northeast. Most of its routes passed to Trans States Airlines.

Virgin Islands Seaplane Shuttle became a TWE carrier on 1 June 1988 but ceased operationson 17 September 1989, when its fleet was destroyed by Hurricane Hugo.

Gulfstream International Airlines

A former Eastern Airlines captain, Tom Cooper, founded Gulf – stream International in November 1968. He began scheduled services in December 1990 in southern Florida, with Cessna 402s, flying to Haiti and the Bahamas, by which time the fleet had been upgraded to Beech 1900s. Service was expanded during the 1990s, also with Shorts 360s, under agreements with various airlines. Among other ventures, Gulfstream established a hub at San Juan on 1 November 1999, and T. W.A. is one of the beneficiaries of this important Caribbean focal point of sev­eral main routes from major cities of the U. S.

Fairchild Metro

19 seats • 320 mph

Early Air Taxi Links

Burlingto

Corporate Airlines

This airline was founded by Charles Howell IV in 1996 as Corporate Express Airlines. It started TWE partner service on 16 December 1999, with routes radiating from St. Louis for Trans World Express. Its fleet consists of nine Jetstream 32s.

Chautauqua Airlines

Joel Hall founded Chautauqua Airlines as an Allegheny Com­muter on 3 May 1973, based at Jamestown, New York, and serv­ing western New York State and Pennsylvania with Beech 99s, Shorts 330s, and SAAB 340s. It added a southern division at Orlando, Florida, in 1980, and it became a T. W.A. Express con­nector on 2 April 2000, centred on St. Louis. It is currently adding at least 15 50-seat Embraer EMB 145 s to its TWE fleet.

Подпись: Trans-World Express
Подпись: ATR-42 48 seats *310 mph

Early Air Taxi LinksПодпись: Engines P&W Canada PW120 Length 74 feet (2,000 shp) x 2 Span 81 feet MGTOW 36,800 lb Height 25 feet Range 800 miles Подпись:The New York Connection

One of T. W.A.’s feeder affiliates came and went, after a chequered history. It was founded in 1967 by J. Dawson Ran- some in Philadelphia, and with the Volpar Turboliner (an upgraded Beech 18) he built up an excellent commuter net­work in the northeast, concentrating on feeds into all the New York airports. By 1972, he had become a member of the Allegheny Commuter system, and with a succession of inno­vations, he built Ransome Airlines into the largest commuter airline in the world. This was achieved by the use of ever – larger aircraft: Twin Otters, Nord 262s, de Havilland Canada Dash Sevens, and finally 48-seat ATR-42s.

Ransome parted company with Allegheny in 1982, flirted with Delta for a year or two, and finally sold his airline to Pan American on 1 June 1986. Pan Am continued to oper­ate services as Pan Am Express to feed into its New York international base, and in June 1989 and May 1990 opened branches in California and Miami, respectively. But “the world’s most experienced airline” was itself in deep trouble, and folded on 4 December 1991.

At midnight on 3 December, Carl Icahn had purchased the operation, which then became Trans World Express (T. W.E.). Carl departed from the T. W.A. scene in 1993, and at a time when belts were tightening, all the T. W.E. landing slots were sold on 6 November 1995, effectively wiping out the former Ransome local commuter empire.

Pan Am Express became T. W.E., Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of T. W.A.

Early Air Taxi Links

Early Air Mail Experiment

As early as 1938, T. W.A. sought to improve air mail service times. A Kellett autogyro wore its colors during an air mail experiment in connecting service in Chicago.

Early Air Taxi Links

Kellett autogyro, 1938

Going To The Fair

In 1964/65 TWA offered direct service from JFK Airport to the New York World’s Fair, through an arrangement with New York Airways, using Sikorsky S-61 helicopters.

Best Connections

During the 1980s, T. W.A. advertised “best connections” with New York Helicopter. International and transcontinental first class and Ambassador Class passengers could travel free between New York aiiports and downtown heliports and East 34th Street or the World Trade Center.

Подпись: One of Trans World Express’s ATR-42s at New York’s JFK International Airport in January 1995 (photo: Felix Usis III) Today, T. W.A. offers many “best connections” to many more places with larger aircraft through its Express Connec­tions throughout the northeastern States, (see also page 99)

Martin 404

40 seats • 280 mph

9 AIRCRAFT

Martin 404

The 404 differed visually from its 202 predecessor by the addition of one extra cabin window, and the absence of the cockpit ‘eyebrow’ window.

Engines

Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CB16 (2,400 hp) x 2

Length

75 feet

MGTOW

44,900 lb.

Span

93 feet

Range

925 miles

Height

28 feet

 

Martin 404

T. W.A. AIRLINERS IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD

 

Type

Engines

MGTOW (lb.)

Cruise

Speed

Range

Seats

No.

Type

Total Horsepower

DC 3

2

P&W R-l 830

2,400

25,200

165

500

21-

Martin 202A

2

P&W R2800

4,800

42,750

220

1,380

36

Martin 404

2

P&W R-2800

4,800

43,650

220

1,080

40

049 Constellation

4

Wright R-3350

8,800

98,000

295

3,000

60

 

Martin 404

Tomorrow the World…

The astonishing success of the Constellation and Howard Hughes’s association with it was followed by the award of overseas routes to Europe (page 50). T. W.A. had won its spurs across the Atlantic Ocean during the Second World War (page 50). When the airline industry adjusted itself to postwar conditions, the airline consolidated its transcontinental net­work, and entered the world’s most competitive air route: between northeast U. S.A. and western Europe. After opening its first Atlantic service to Paris on 5 February 1946 (page 50), T. W.A.’s rapidly-expanding Constellation fleet was soon to be seen in many of the capitals of Europe and as far as the Middle East. T. W.A. reached Bombay on 5 January 1947, and Colombo by the summer of 1953. The aircraft carried the slogan Trans World Airline, and this was formally regis­tered as the new name for T. W.A. On 17 May 1950.

On 25 April 1956, the C. A.B. Examiner approved an extension from Colombo onwards to Bangkok and Manila, where the line would connect with Northwest’s trans-Pacific terminal. This would complete the round-the-world service— and challenge Pan American for that achievement. Service opened on 1 October, but was terminated in April 1959, because of dismal load factors on the eastern segments.

Much Changing of the Guard

Still controlling T. W.A.’s fortunes, Howard Hughes was, by this time, facing dissatisfaction within his top management, much of it of his own making. He was increasingly diverted by other interests, mostly of the feminine gender, leaving the day-to-day management to others. In February 1947, his long-time flying associate, Jack Frye, resigned, and took with him chairman T. B. Wilson, and executive vice-presi­dent Paul Richter, who dated back to Frye’s Standard Air Lines days in 1929. Lamotte Cohu became president, but effectively Hughes’s oil-drilling giant, Toolco, took control. Cohu resigned on 1 June 1948, and Warren Lee Pierson took over.

Things settled down when Ralph Damon was elected president on 25 January 1949. Damon came with formidable credentials (page 61) and for a few years, on Hughes’s behalf, he kept the T. W.A. ship on an even keel. They made a good team, and when Damon died of pneumonia on 4 January 1956, T. W.A. went through an uncertain period. Carter Burgess became president on 23 January 1957, but he did not last long, resigning on 8 December 1957, and Warren Lee

Pierson took over once again, only to hand over to Charles S, Thomas on 15 July 1958.

Bracing for the Jets

In spite of the problems of top management, and pilots’ strikes in 1946 and 1947, the airline made steady improve­ment, matching the competition both within the States and across the Atlantic. On 1 July 1947, Constellations began a transcontinental night service, with only only stop; at Chicago, in an eastbound journey time of just over ten hours. On 1 October 1948, the “New York Sky Chief’ and “Paris Sky Chief’ all-sleeper luxury service opened on the Atlantic route. De Luxe service Super Constellations, starting on 10 September 1952, reduced the transcontinental journey time further, and then, on 19 October 1953, the “Ambassador” service offered eastbound non-stop flights in 8 hours. On 1 June 1957, this was consolidated with Lockheed 1649A Star – liner service. In November 1955, the celebrated Denver Case, decided by the Civil Aeronautics Board, gave T. W.A. the authority to stop at Denver en route from Chicago to San Francisco. Overseas, T. W.A. opened a direct Polar Service from California to London on 29 September 1957.

While the airlines were still emphasizing luxury and creature comforts, the balance of air travelling public was changing. The dominance of business travel was giving way to a growing tourist and leisure market. On 1 April 1952, all the members of the quasi-cartel IATA (International Air Transport Association) introduced Tourist-Class fares across the Atlantic; and this was followed by Economy Class on 1 April 1958. As an IATA member, T. W.A. kept pace with the changing fare structures.

Storm Clouds

Possibly because T. W.A. had lost, by Damon’s death, an accomplished administrator who could steer it through rough waters, the airline ran into difficulties during the late 1950s. In spite of continued traffic growth and increases in fleet strength, T. W.A. lagged behind in the queue to buy jet air­craft. Pan American Airways had set the world of airlines into a spin on 13 October 1955, when it ordered 20 Boeing 707s and 25 Douglas DC-8s, to launch the Jet Age in earnest (after the British de Havilland Comet had set the pace in 1952, but had paid the price with structural problems). Hughes finally ordered 8 Boeing 707-I20s in February 1956, but showed his preference elsewhere. He ordered 30 Convair

880s (at first called the 600 Skylark), in June of that year, ignoring the other established manufacturers of big airliners, Douglas and Lockheed.

There was a brief flirtation with the long-range Bristol Britannia turboprop (page 59), but the jets were inevitable, and Hughes ordered 25 more Boeing 707s in May 1957. However, the finances were such that even Toolco, once the almost limitless source of capital, needed help. It came from the insurance giant, Equitable Life, which insisted on a long­term financing plan. This was to have long-term repercus­sions on the fortunes of the multi-millionaire owner.

T. W.A. Takes a Gamble

But the show went on. In spite of a company-wide strike in November 1958, the first Boeing 707 was received on 17 March 1959, and put into service only three days later. Facing transcontinental competition from American Airlines, which had started jet service coast-to-coast on 25 January 1959, T. W.A. took a gamble. It operated its New York-San Francisco route for a whole month with only one aircraft; and the fact that that N732TW held out, without a single cancellation, was a great tribute to its engineering staff at Kansas City.

They could never have done it with even the best of the piston-engined airliners. An inspection, at least, would have been necessary, possibly an engine change. But the 707’s Pratt & Whitneys held out.

Martin 404

This 707 is seen here climbing out over the entrance to San Francisco Bay.

143 seats • 600 mph

 

Martin 404

Artist’s Note

The legendary Raymond Loewy designed T. W. A.’s elegant new ‘arrowhead’ cheatline. Pilots were quoted as saying “The jet looked like it was going 600 mph on the ground!"

The Jet Age Begins

The jet engine, invented by Hans von Ohain in Germany and Sir Frank Whittle in England during the 1930s, was not operational until the closing stages of the Second World War. Most aviation authorities considered that their use would be only for military types because the fuel consumption rate was excessive. But in England, the de Havilland Comet, which first flew in 1949 and went into service with B. O.A. C. in 1952, proved otherwise. The airliner had struc­tural deficiencies, which led to its withdrawal in 1954, but it did prove the viability of jet air­liners in commercial service. The fuel consumption of engines that were designed for economy, not absolute performance, was lower than expected; and the fuel—kerosene, not gasoline— was cheaper. Most important, and not fully realized until the Comet’s service record revealed it, was that the turbine engines did not suffer from the wear and tear of the reciprocating piston – engines; and nor did they have the complication of propellers. The TBO (Time Between Over­haul) of the jets grew in unbelievable leaps and bounds; and the positive effect was also observed in the airframes, where rivets stopped popping as excessive vibration ceased.

The United States Takes Over

Americans have always been superb in developing a good idea, whether or not it was invented or innovated at home or abroad. This has nowhere been truer than with jet airliners. Only a few short months after the pioneering Comet was grounded, the Boeing 367-80 made its first flight on 15 July 1954. Little more than a year later, on 13 October 1955, in the order that shook the aviation world, Pan American Airways ordered 45 ‘big’ jets, 20 Boeing 707s and 25 DC-8s. T. W.A.’s first order was placed on 7 February 1956.

The impact of the Jet Age, when first, the B. O.A. C. de Havilland Comet 4 started Atlantic service on 4 October 1958, and Pan Am followed on 26 October, was overwhelming. The Boeing 707 was twice as fast and twice as big as its piston-engined predecessors, so that the productiv­ity was four times as great. Yet the world air traffic demand kept pace, thanks to the introduction of economy fares. The Jet Age had begun, and transformed the world of air transport.

Engines

Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 (13,500 lb. thrust) x 4

Length

145 feet

N1GT0W

247,000 lbs

Span

131 feet

Range

3,000 miles

Height

42 feet

Martin 404

T. W.A. had four Boeing 720s. This variant of the Boeing 707 was 8 feet shorter than the -100 series,

with 14 fewer seats.

Подпись: 7747 N70774 17610 22 Dec 1967 12 Nov 1971 7748 N70785 17612 31 Dec 1967 16 Nov 1971 7746 N74612 18012 8 Dec 1967 11 Nov 1971

Подпись:Martin 404Подпись: Fleet No. Regn. MSN Remarks N1007 5057 9801 N7961S 5116 727 trainer 9802 N7962S 5118 707 trainer

BOEING 707-131

Fleet

No.

Regn.

MSN

Delivery Dat

> Date of Sale

Remarks

7731

N731TW

17658

8 Jul 1959

3 Dec 1971

7732

N732TW

17659

17 Mar 1959

1 Dec 1971

7733

N733TW

17660

30 Mar 1959

2 Nov 1971

7734

N734TW

N16648

17661

3 Apr 1959

9 Dec 1974

Sold to Carbourne Corp., 20 Dec 1971. Repossessed and reregistered, 15 Jan 1973. Sold to Israel Jan 1975.

7735

N735TW

17662

18 Apr 1959

8 Mar 1971

Sold to Air International.

7736

N736TW

17663

29 Apr 1959

8 Dec 1971

7737

N737TW

17664

10 May 1959

15 Dec 1971

Hijacked to Shannon, 1 Nov 1969.

7738

N738TW

17665

13 May 1959

17 Dec 1971

7739

N739TW

17666

28 May 1959

19 Dec 1971

7740

N7401W

17667

28 May 1959

11 Dec 1971

7741

N741TW N16649

17668

13Jun 1959

9 Dec 1974

Sold to Carbourne Corp., 20 Dec 1971. Reregistered and repossessed, 15 Jan 1973. Sold to Israel Jan 1975.

7742

N742TW

17669

1 Jul 1959

6 Nov 1967

Destroyed by fire after aborted takeoff from Cincinnati.

7743

N7431W

17670

10 Jul 1959

22 Apr 1970

Destroyed by fire on the ground at Indianapolis.

7744

N744TW

17671

14 Jul 1959

25 Nov 1971

7745

N7451W

17672

1 Aug 1959

28 Nov 1971

All purchased by Hughes Tool Co. (Toolco) (N731TW – N745TW) and leased to T. W.A. at $2,500 per day. Except where noted, all aircraft sold to Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI)

BOEING 707-124

All Boeing 707-124s ex-Continental Airlines, sold to Israel Air­craft Industries.

* All Boeing 707-13 IB aircraft (N746TW – N86741) sold to Boeing Military Airplane Co., except where noted.

*Two more 707-131Bs, 6760/N760TW (18398) & 6780 N780TW (18399) ordered but cancelled and not built.

BOEING 707-13IB*

This eye-catching painting by artist Ren Wicks, captures the glamour of the early jet age, with a T. W.A. Boeing 707flying (a little off the designated approach path) over the center of Paris.

Martin 404

LOCKHEED 1329 JETSTAR 6

Maddux Air Lines

Подпись: Jack Maddux (nearest the camera) is seen here displaying some of his fleet of cars—including the 1903 Model A that, even then, was already a vintage model—and one of his Ford Tri-Motors, (photo courtesy Bill Larkins) Подпись:

Jack Maddux

Harris Hanshue’s Western Air Express and Jack Frye’s Stan­dard Airlines were not the only airlines of substance among the many which recognized the possible potential for airline operations in the booming California of the late 1920s. Jack L. Maddux, a Los Angeles Lincoln car dealer, took delivery of a Ford 4-AT Tri-Motor and incorporated Maddux Air Lines on 9 September 1927. His activities were overshad­owed by other events, not least by Charles Lindbergh’s his­toric trans-Atlantic flight in May of that year and the Goodwill Tour of the 48 States that followed. Maddux’s con­tribution to the development of the airline business in the West has long been under-recognized, except by historians such as Ed Betts and Bill Larkins, whose research has pre­served the memory of the Maddux operation.

Service Begins

Maddux began airline service on 1 November 1929 from Rogers Field, Los Angeles, to San Diego. He did it in style. For the occasion, Lindbergh was the honorary chief pilot. But like most of the aspirant airlines in California, he had no mail contract to supplement the passenger revenues. Nevertheless, he was very successful and popular. On 15 November, he added service to Agua Caliente, just across the Mexican

MADDUX AIR ONES FORD TRI-MOTORS

Maddux Air Lines

One of Maddux Air-Line’s Ford 4-ATs flying near the Tejon Pass, north of Los Angeles.

 

Maddux Air Lines

Maddux was one of the earliest airlines to cooperate with United Parcel Sendee (UPS) in carrying goods by air.

 

Maddux Air Lines

Artwork size does not allow accurate scale representation of the Tri-Motor’s corrugated aluminum skin.

 

Jack Maddux is seen here with Charles Lindbergh, who flew the inaugural flight, (photo courtesy Bill Larkins)

 

Engines

Wright R-975 Whirlwind (220 hp) x 3

Length

50 feet

MGT0W

10,130 lb

Span

74 feet

Range

500 miles

Height

12 feet

 

Maddux Air LinesMaddux Air Lines

Maddux Air Lines

Maddux Air LinesПодпись: Dimensions Engine Cruise Pass. No. Original Model Length (ft) Span (ft) Height (ft) Type hp Speed Seats Built Price 4-AT 50 74 12 Wright JR 220 100 10 78 542,000 (later) Wright R975 300 107 5-AT 50 78 14 P&W Wasp 450 115 13 117 $55,000 (Dimensions rounded off to nearest foot.)

border, for thirsty Prohibition sufferers and for clients of the race-track and casinos there. On 14 April 1928, he started a twice-daily service from Los Angeles to San Francisco (Oakland), with optional stops at Bakersfield, Visalia, and Fresno. By the end of the year, his fleet com­prised eight Fords, two Lockheed Vegas, and two Travel Airs.

Ford Promotion

Maddux began 1929 in style, adding a daily service to Phoenix (paralleling Standard), together with some local routes in California. Early in the year, the San Francisco terminus was trans­ferred to Alameda, and the Los Angeles terminus to Glendale. Jack Maddux had assembled the largest fleet of Ford Tri-Motors, eight 4-ATs and eight 5-ATs plus two Lockheed Vegas. The only loss was when an Army pilot, doing some stunt flying, hit a 5-AT in mid-air. Maddux had not apparently sought an air mail contract, but his 16 pilots carried 40,000 passengers in 1929.

Historic Merger

In the summer, he started to negotiate with the new well-capitalized T. A.T., which began its highly-publicized coast-to-coast air-rail service on 7 July. Charles Lindbergh flew the inaugu­ral flights for both airlines. Another important Maddux employee was Vice-president of Oper­ations Lt. D. W. ‘Tommy’ Tomlinson, an ex-Navy pilot, and who was to play a key role in subsequent developments, when on 16 November 1929, Jack Maddux merged with T. A.T. and became president of the combined airline. T. A.T.-Maddux. Through this merger, T. A.T. was able to serve the two big Californian cities. Los Angeles and San Francisco, both growing quickly in population, wealth, and consequent travel potential.

The Ford Tri-Motors Compared

Подпись: The Grand Plan of •..

Maddux Air LinesMaddux Air Lines

Consolidation of a Great Airline

Postmaster General Brown’s analytical planning had pro­duced a fine transcontinental route. The Maddux merger had given T. A.T. direct service to all three of the large urban con­centrations in California. But the formation of T. W.A. had been a complicated affair, because Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corporation (P. A.I. C.) had started service from Pittsburgh to New York, via Philadelphia, with two Travel Airs, in December 1929, and had staked its claim. The threat to Brown’s master plan was neatly solved by dividing the stock of the merged company in the ratio 47.5% T. A.T., 47.5% W. A.E., and 5% P. A.I. C. After a legal delicacy, with the formation of the Eton Corporation on 19 July 1930, Transcontinental & Western Air (T. W.A.) was formed five days later. The coveted mail contract was awarded on 25 August. Although Harris Hanshue was made president of the new company, he quickly became disillusioned. R. W. Rob­bins, of P. A.I. C., took over the presidency in September 1931. Another contender, a group called United Avigation, was disposed of by the offer of a lucrative mail contract on a route sub-leased from American Airways.

End of the Air-Rail

With the completion of the Lighted Airway, and the improve­ment of aircraft reliability, the pioneering air-rail service came to an end. On 25 October 1930, the train connections were dropped and the Fords flew the whole route, coast-to-coast, in 36 hours, with an overnight stop at Kansas City. On 5 Novem­ber 1932, even the overnight stop was dropped and the Fords flew by day and by night. Nevertheless the journey must have been arduous. The Ford’s engines were noisy, and passengers were issued ear plugs and chewing gum. Another development had been the shipment of livestock on 6 August 1931, one of the first examples of air freighting in the United States.

Superb Planning

All this was achieved only by some masterly planning. This is well illustrated by the map on this double-page spread, based on an original blueprint, signed by Jack Frye, but undoubtedly the work of T. W.A.’s technical consultant, Charles Lind­bergh, who carried out the detailed surveys. He had a per­sonal aircraft for the arduous travelling involved, and was paid $10,000 per year (a tidy sum in those days) plus 25,000 shares of T. W.A. stock, sold at well below market value.

Transcontinental

&

Western Air, inc.

America’s First 36-Hour
Transcontinental Passenger Service

 

Ad

 

THE NATIONAL SKYWAY

 

Maddux Air Lines

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Maddux Air Lines

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Maddux Air Lines

Boeing 727-231

123 seats • 605 mph

 

Boeing 727-231Boeing 727-231

Engines

Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9 (14,000 lb) x 3

Length

153 feet

MGT0W

165,000-185,000 lb

Span

108 feet

Range

1,700 miles

Height

34 feet

Boeing 727-231

Подпись:Tri-Jet Development

Continuing its competitive efforts over the more densely travelled domestic air routes, T. W.A. augmented its fleet of Boeing 727 tri-jets, as well as increasing its fleet of DC-9 twins. Its first 727s had started service in 1964 (see page 75) and in March 1968 the fleet was augmented by a further consignment of “stretched” versions, the Boeing 727-200 series. The inaugural -200 service had been made over the 1,100-mile New York-Miami route by a Northeast Airlines “Yellowbird.” While lacking the range of the 707, it was about the same size, and, short of non­stop coast-to-coast routes, could operate between almost any city pair in the United States.

For many years, the Boeing 727 was the most successful commercial jet airliner on the market. A total of 1,832 Boeing 727s of all types was built, a record that stood until the Boeing 737 twin-jet series overhauled it. T. W.A. had 92 of both 727 series, but showed a preference for the Douglas twins, augmenting its fleet especially when it absorbed Ozark Air Lines (page 91).