Category AIRCRAFT

Avioane IAR-99 Soim

Romania

Advanced trainer/light attack aircraft

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This is Avioane’s IAR 99 Soim demonstrator aircraft a capable, cost-effective trainer which makes maximum use of new technology.

 

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omania has a long tradition of aeronautical achievement, and it succeeded in maintaining an independent aviation industry Through the stag­nant years of Communist control – which ended with the 1989 ‘revolution’. In 19/5 the Institute de Aviatic (INAv) began work on what would become the first aircraft to be designed and built completely ’in country’, the IAR-99 basic jet trainer. The project was formally launched in 1979, with the ambitious aim of replacing the Aero L-39 Albatros in Eastern European service. IAR-99 production was conducted by Avioane Craiova. Romania’s only builder of fixed – wing military aircraft, which was founded (as lAv Craiova) in February 1972.

The IAR 99 is a conventionally-configured low-wing, single-engined trainer with a tandem seat layout. For attack training it can be equipped with a ventral GSh-23 23-mm gun pod, and has four undeiwing hardpoints. The prototype first flew on 1 December 1985 and two flying development aircraft were built. The first IAR-99 was equipped with a mix of UK and French-supplied avionics, but the political climate forced a change to less-sophisticated Eastern systems from the second aircraft onwards.

The IAR 99 proved to be an extremely reliable and user-friendly aircraft, with excellent handling
qualities. Deliveries of an initial batch of 20 began to the Romanian air force in 1988. Beginning in 1990, Avioane tried to develop a series of improved aircraft with Western avionics. An IAR 99 fitted with Honeywell avionics first flew on 22 August 1990, while a second demonstrator fitted with Collins systems flew on 7 November 1991. Avioane next collaborated with IAI on another upgraded version. This received the new designation IAR-109 Swift and made its maiden flight on 2 December 1993 – but only a single example was built.

Since 1996 Avioane has been developing the significantly enhanced IAR 99 Soim (falcon), in conjunction with Elbit. This version incorporates many of the advanced avionics systems applied to the Romanian MiG-21 Lancer upgrade, developed for the air force by Aerostar and Elbit, at Bacau. These include a MIL-STD 15S3B databus, Elbit modular multi-role computer, Flight Visions HUD, two cockpit colour MFDs, GPS/INS, integrated Elbit chaff/flare dispenser and the Eibit DASH helmet – mounted display system. In 1998 the Romanian air force ordered 24 Soims for delivery by 2004 (with a view to then upgrading its existing IAR 99s also), and Avioane is actively offering the type on the export market.

Подпись: Romania’s existing fleet of base-line IAR 99 trainers may be upgraded to IAR 99 Soim standard, once procurement of the new aircraft is complete. Specification: Avioane IAR 99 Soim Powerplant one (17 79-kN( 4,000-lb Rolls – Royce (licence-built by Turbomecanica) Viper 532-41M Viper turbojet Dimensions: wing span 9.B5 m (32 ft 3 in), length 11 m |36 ft 1 ini: height 3.8/ m (12 ft 9 in) Weights: take-off, dean 4330 kg (3,680 lb|; maximum take-off 5572 kg (12,285 lb); maximum payload 1000 kg (2,700 lb) Performance: maximum Icve speed 940 kmh (585 mph): service ceiling 17903 m (42,322 ft); maximum mission radius 1100 km (683 miles) Armament: centreline ooirt for podded 23-ТШ GSh-23 twin-barrelled cannon with 180 rounds, and up to 250 kg |550 lb) of stores on each of four underwing hardpoints

Lockheed С-141 StarLifter

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Though the C-141B is slowly being retired, in favour of the C-17, the USAF cannot afford to replace its hard-working C-141s on a one-for-one basis.

 

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irst fiown on 17 December 1963, the Lockheed C-141A StarLifter has orovided the USAF with a fast and versatile long-range jet transport since it entered serv’ce in 1964. The design features a fuselage of similar cross-section to the C-130, two large clamshell doors and a rear ramp which can be opened in flight for зіг-droppirg. Swept wings were adopted for high-speed cruise, with powerful high – lift devices provided for good low-speed field performance. Power came from four podded TF33 fuei-eff;cient furbofans, ano ell fuel was housed in integral wing tanks. The aircraft commenced squadron operations with MAC in April 1965, supplying the war effort in Vietnam.

If soon became apparent that the C-141A’s maximum payload os 32136 kg {70,847 lb! (or 4Л731 kg/92,000 lb on C-141As configured to carry LGM-30 Minuteman ICBMs) was rarely achieved, with the aircraft ‘bulking out’ before iis weight limit was approached. During the 1970s, the entire fleet (minus four NC-141A test aircraft) was cycled through a programme to bring ail 270 aircraft to C-141B standard. This added a 7.11-m (23-ft 4-in) fuse age stretch and an in-flight refuelling receptacle above the coc<pit for true global airlift capacity. Overall cargo capacity has been increased by over 30 per cent, aoding the equivalent 0і 90 new C-141s to the airlift fleet (in terms of capacity) at a much lower relative cost. The prototype YC-141B StarLifter made its first flight on 24 March 1977 and

Lockheed completed the final C-141B conversion in June 1982. USAF Special Operations Command operates 13 modified C-141B SOLL II (Special Operations Low-Level! aircraft with a FLIR turret and extra defensive aids.

Palletised seats can be fitted for 166 passengers, while by using canvas seats some 205 passengers or 168 paratrooos can be carried, For medevac missions, the C-141B can carry 103 litter patients and 113 walking wounded. It can also carry light armoured vehicles, an AH-1 or U F-|-1 helicopter or five FIMIVIWVs. Thirteen standard cargo pallets can be carried, and other loads can Include aircraft engines, food supplies, fuel drums or nuclear weapons.

As the Boeing C-17 has entered service many of the older StarLifters have been retired with the AMC airlift fleet suffering a shortfall in capacity. Sixty four C-141BS are being converted to C-141C standard with a ‘glass’ EFIS cockpit, GPS navigation, collision-avoidance systems tTCAS) and an all – weather "light control system.

Подпись: White most C-141Bs are in the hands of Air Mobility Command, some are operated by the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve (as seen here). td Specification: Lockheed C-141В StarLifter Powerplant: four9341-kN [21 .DOO-ib) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-7 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 48.74 m (159 ft 11 in): length 51.79 m (168 ft 34 in); height 11.96 m 139 ft 3 in)

Weights: operating empty 87186 kg (148,120 lb): maximum payload 41222 kg (90.88C lb); maximum take-off і 5558C kg (343,000 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed at high altitude 910 kmh (566 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 890 m (2,920 ft) per minute; service ceiling 12680 m |41,600 ft); ferry range 10280 km (8,390 miles); range with maximum payload 4725 km (2,935 miles)

United States

Boeing/Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche Advanced scout helicopter

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he US Army issued its LHX (Light Helicopter Experimental) requirement in 1982, initially calling tor 5,000 helicopters to replace UH-1, AH-1, OH-6 and OH-58 scout/attack/assault aircraft. By 1990 this number had been cut back to 1,292 aircraft tor the scout/attack role only. Boeing/Sikorsky’s ‘First Team’ was awarded the contract (over the Bell/ McDonnell Douglas ‘Super Team’) for three (later two) YRAH-66 dem/val aircraft on 5 April 1991

The RAH-66 Comanche has a five-bladed all – composite bearingless main rotor and an eight-bladcd tan-in-fin shrouded tail rotor Its largely composite airframe is designed for low observability, employing a degree of faceting and sunken-notch intakes for the two LHTEC T800 turboshafts. The undercarriage is retractable, and all weapons are housed internally, with missiles carried in bays on t. ne fuselage sides, directly attached to the bay doors which act as pylons when they are open, A chin turret will house a 20-mm cannon, and in the extreme nose is a sensor turret for a FLIR and a laser designator. The Longbow MMW radar of the AH-64D Apache will also be fitted in a radome above the main rotor.

The Army has specified maximum avionics com­monality with the USAF’s F-22 and the Comanche pilot (front) and WSO each have two flat screen MFDs for presentation of tactical situation, moving map and FLIR/TV information, The pilot also has a wide field-of-view helmet-mounted display system, allied to an electro-optical night navigation and


The Comanche is lighter but only slightly smaller than the AH-64, and will back up – but not replace – the Apache in the combat role.

targeting systems. Flight control is by a triplex fly-by-wire system, with sidestick cyclic-pitch controls. The RAH-66 also features a wide array of defensive equipment, including laser – IR – and radar-warning receivers, RF and IR jammers.

Work on the first prototype began in November 1993, and it flew on 4 January 1996. The early flight test programme was slowed by gearbox failures, but by August 1997 progress was being made once more. The second aircraft was rolled out in April 1998 and made its maiden flight on 30 March 1999. One 1 June 2000 the RAH-66 was approved to enter its engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) phase Boeing/Sikorsky will build 13 FMD RAH-66s, and the Army hopes to then acquire an interim batch of 12 aircraft between EMD and the launch of initial low-rate production, in 2006. The first EMD aircraft will fly in 2004. The US Army’s 2000 Aviation Force Modernization Plan still recom­mends the acquisition of 1,213 Comanches, valued at nearly 534 billion. I he first RAH-66s are scheduled to be operational in December 2006.

The Boeing/Sikorsky team has now rebuilt one RAH-66 with a revised empennage and tail and also added a radome for the Longbow radar.


Specification: Boeing/Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche (provisional)

Powerplant: two 1068 TW (1/132 slip)

LHTEC T800-IHT-80Q turboshafc Dimensions: main rotor diameter 11.90 m |39 ftin); length overall, rotor turning 14.28 m |tS ft 10.25 n) and fuselage ‘3.20 in (43 ft ■/. ini excluding gun barre., height overall 3.39 m (11 ft 1.5 in) over stabiliser Weights: empty 3942 kg (8,690 lb); normal take-off 4807 kg (10,597 lb]

Performance: max level speed 3?4 kmh (201 mph), ferry range 2334 km (1,450 miles) Armament one General Dynamics three – barrelled 20-mm cannon with up to 500 rounds, with 2296 kg (5.052 lb) of ordnance

 

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United Kingdom

Mikoyan MiG-29 ‘Fulcrum

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he MiG-29 (NATO code-name ‘Fulcrum’) was developed to meet a 1971 requirement for a lightweight fighter to replace Frontal Aviation MiG-21 s, MiG-23s and Su-17s in the battlefield air superiority and ground – attack roles. Design work began in 1974, and the first prototype flew on 6 October 1977, Deliveries began in 1983.

The baseline MiG-29 ‘Fulcrum-A’ carries two BVR AA-10 ‘Alamo-As’ inboard and four short-range AA-8 ‘Aphid’ or AA-11 ‘Archer’ IR-homing missiles outboard, backed by an internal 30-mm cannon. Early Russian MiG-29 regiments included a ‘strike’ squadron, its aircraft using the 30-kT RN-4Q nuclear weapon on the port inboard pylon, The MiG-29 has an N-019 pulse-Doppler radar and a passive IRST sysiem. This can detect, track and engage a target while leaving the radar in a non-emitting mode. For close-in engagements, a helmet-mounted sight can be used to cue IR-homing missiles onto an off-bore – sight target.

More than 450 single-seat ‘Fulcrums’ are esti­mated to be in service with the WS, and other for­mer Soviet states including Belarus, Kazakhstan. Moldova, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The aircraft has also been acquired by Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, East Germany, West Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Malaysia, Peru, Poiend, Romania, Slovakia, South Yemen, Syria and Yugoslavia. MiG-29s have been evaluated by Israel and by the USA.


The MiG-28SE demonstrator was based on the ‘fat back’ ‘Fulcrum-C’ and was intended as an improved export version of the first-generation MiG-29.

The MiG-29UB (9-51) ‘Fulcrum-B’ trainer has no radar, but retains the IRST and has a weapons system simulator, allowing the instructor to gener­ate HUD, IRST and radar symbology in the front cockpit. An improved single-seater HVIodel 9-13, known to NATO as the ‘Fulcrum-C’) introduced a bulged spine, housing additional fuel and an active jammer. None have been exported outside the former USSR, except a handful of Moldovan aircraft supplied to the USA.

MiG-293, SD, SE and SM designations were applied to planned late production variants and upgrade configurations, while the MiG-29M (9-15) was an advanced derivative with revised structure, increased fuel and genuine multi-role capability. This reached the prototype stage, as did the carrier – borne MrG-29K (9-31) . A handful of MiG-29S air­craft entered service with Russian regiments, and the SD formed the basis of the MiG-29N for Malaysia. A number of upgrade programmes are underway in Germany (DASA), Romania (Aerostar Sniper) and Russia itself,

The Luftwaffe’s ‘Fu/crum-Asinherited from the former East German air force, have been overhauled by DASA to make them more reliable and economic.


Specification: Mikoyan MiG-29 ‘Fulcrum-A’ Powerplant: two 81 39-kN 118,298-lb) Klimov/ Leningrad RD-33 afterburning turbofans Dimensions: wing span 11.36 m (37 ft 31/4 in); length 17.32 m (56 ft 10 in); height 4.73 m (i 5 ft 6.2 in)

Weights: empty 10900 kg (24,030 Ib); maximum take-off 18.500 kg (40,785 Ib) Performance: maximum level speed 2445 kmh (1.Ы9 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 19800 m (64.961 ft) per minute; service ceiling 17000 m (55.775 ft), ferry range 2100 km (1,305 miles). 1500 km (932 miles) with internal fuel

Armament: ore GSh-301 30-mm cannon, maximum stores of 3000 kg (6,614 Ib)

 

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Russia

Enhanced multi-role combat aircraft

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The MiG-29SMT upgrade is the latest in a series of attempts to improve the range and performance of the MiG-29 ‘Fulcrum’.

 

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ne first attempt to produce a ‘second-generation’ muiti-role MiG-29 resulted in the MiG-29M (9.15). six prototypes of which were constructed and flown from April 1986. This featured a redes;gned airframe, with deleted overwing intake ducts and with extensive use of composites and advanced welded aluminium-lithium alloy compo­nents, giving increased internal volume with the minimum weight penalty. The aircraft aiso featured aerodynamic refinements, including ‘sharp’ LERXes and increased spar ailerons. The ai’craft also had a revised weapons system, with RLPK-29M (N010) Zhuk radar, and new TV and laser guidance sys­tems for PGMs. The aircraft impressed during acceptance trials, but cid not enter production, due to the high, cost of re-tooling. Two prototypes of a carrierborne derivative, the MiG-29K (9.31) were also built, with an increased span, reduced-sweep folding wing and extenced chord flaps, drooping ai erons and enlarged tailp anes. Development ceased in 1992, after the less versatile Su-27K was selected for Russia’s carrier.

Instead of procuring a new-build second-genera­tion MiG-29, it was eventually deciced to produce such an aircraft by upgrading existing MiG-29s. The MiG-29SMT (9.17) can be manufactured using
existing jigs, or produced by upgrade. It has a new glass cockpit, and new multi role avionics, and has a massive swollen spine to provide the necessary extra internal fuel capacity. This covers the old ‘spl’t-beaver tail’ airbrakes, and requTes the addition o* a large dorsa airbrake, like that used on the MiG-29M. Tne aircraft also features a bolt-on retractable refueling probe and has an extra pair of uncerwing harcpoints. The airframe is strengthened to allow ooeraiior at much higher weights, and has an extended airframe life. An avionics prototype first flew on 29 November 1997, and an aircraft with a mock-up of the new spine followed on 22 April 1998. A fully converted prototype flew on 14 July 1998. Current plans call for about 180 Russian air force MiG-29s to be upgraded to SMT standard. This includes the two-seat MiG-29UBT version, which car also be configured for a combat role.

The MiG-29SMT forms the oasis of s new can erborne version (using the MiG-29K’s wing, landing gear anc other navalised features) known as the MiG-29SMTK A further sub-variant, the MiG-29MTK or IVMG-29K-2002 offers fold ng tailplanes and a narrow-span ‘nboard wng fold, and has been offered to India to equip the newly – acquired ar. d converted carrier Gorshkov.

Подпись: The two-seat MiG-29 UBT development prototype, which first flew in 1998, was converted from MiG's existing MiG-29UB testbed Specification: Mikoyan MiG-29SMT Powerplant: planned to receive two SB 1 kN (22,050-lb) Klim ov/L эп і ng rad RD-933 (RD-43) turbofans

Dimensions: wing span 11.36 nn (37 3!4in|: length 17.32 m (56 ft 10 in); height 4.73 n (15 ft 6.2 in)

Weights: maximum take-off 71,100 kg (46,237 lb) in ground attack configuration Performance: maximum level speed 2445 krnii (1,519 mph); maximum rale sf climb st sea level 19800 m |64,90". ft) per minute; service ceiling 17000 n (55,775 ft); ferry range 3500 km [2,7)4 miles): combs* radius 1550 km (963 miles) Armament: one GSn-301 30-nvr cannon, p us 5000-icg (11,023-lb) of ordnance

Russia

Long-range heavy interceptor

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he MiG-31 ‘Foxhound’ was ceve oped to counter the threat Dosed by new low-level strike aircraft and cruise missiles, complementing the Su-27 in service, and us ng its ultra-long-range capability to fill gaps in Russia’s ground-based radar cha:n. A two-seat derivative of the MiG-25 ’Foxbat’ airframe, the ‘Foxhound’ introduced an ai – new structure, a new wing planform with small LERXes, Soloviev D-30F-6 turbofans and a new undercar­riage. The Ye-155MP prototype flew on 16 September 1975 and series probuct’or of 280 fvliG-31s began in 1979.

The MiG-31 featured a flat belly with four missi e recesses for its orimary armament, which consisted of R-33 (AA-9 ’Amos’) AAMs. The ‘Foxhound’ also carries a scafcbed-on GSh-6-23 six-barrel ed 23-mm cannon ooo and has underwing pylons for two AA-6 ‘Acrid’ or four AA-8 ‘Aphid’ missiles. The new ‘Zaslon’ radar had a pnased-array antenna, increasing range and allowing faster, more accurate beam pointing. Ten targets can be tracked simultaneously, and four engaged. Groups of four IVliG-31s can operate independently of ground control, covering a 900-km (560-mile) swathe of territory, with tne leader automatically controlling his wingmen,

The MiG-31 01-DZ introduced a retractable inflight refuel ing probe, whi e the MiG-31 В also had an improved radar with better ECCM, and a new digital processor, Existing aircraft brought up to the same standard were designated MiG-31 BS


This is one of the improved MiG-31 development aircraft, identifiable by its wingtip fairings. It is carrying a load ofR-77 (AA-12 Adder’) missiles.

Two MiG-3 ID prototypes were produced as test­beds for a new anti-satellite missile. The MiG-31E, MiG-31 F and MiG-31FE designations were applied to unbui’t export ana upgrade configurations, while the MiG-31 BM s a proposed defence suppression variant,

The improved MiG-31M interceptor variart was oui t in prototype form only. The MiG-31 M carried six R-37 long-range AAMs in three side-by-side recesses under the belly, each accommodating tandem pairs of missiles. Its new radar hac a 1.4-m diameter antenna anc could simultaneously engage six targets. A fully-retractable IRST was fitted, and MiG-31 Ms also have a redesigned rear cockpit, with three CRT MFDs. Other changes include a one-piece carooy and windscreen, a retractable IFR probe, large wingtip ESM pods, and aerodynamic refinements. Redesigned LERXes improved high AoA handling, and a bulged spire gave increased fuel caoacity, but development was abandoned due to lack of funding. The first of six prototypes made its maiden flight on 21 December 1985.

This Foxhound’ is the one-off MiG-31 LL flying testbed, operated by the Lll flight test and development institute, atZhukhovskii.


Specification: Mikoyan MiG-31 ‘Foxhound-A’

Powerplant; two 151.9-kN (34.170-lb) Aviavidgate! D-30F6 turoofans Dimensions: wing span I ЗАВ – n |44 ft 2 in), lengti 77.69 m І74 ft 5У n) including probe, height 6.15 m [20 ft 2X in)

Weights: empty 21825 leg |48,115 lb); maximum іаке-оИ <55200 kg [10′ .850 lb) Performance: maximum level sneer. 300G kmh (1,365 mphj; service ceiling 20600 m 157,600 ft!; combat radius with maximum interna – fuel and four R-33 AAMs 1200 krn (745 miles! Armament: one GSh-6-23 23-mm cannon with 250 rounds, hardpoints for four missiles under the fuselage, ar. d two urderwing pylons.

 

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Russia

Basic and advanced trainer, light attack aircraft

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The MiG-ATs distinctive ‘overwing’ intakes have recently been replaced by Hawk-style oval intakes, extending just ahead of the leading edge.

 

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uring the late 1980s MiG began design work on a new type of advanced trainer. The Russian а;г force had an emerging requirement to replace its Czech-built L-29 and L-39 jet trainers and opened up the search for the new aircraft to Russian indus­try. Submissions from Sukhoi and Myasischev were rejected, but the MiG-АТ proposal was selected to go forward with the Yakovlev Yak-130 for evaluation.

The MiG-АТ was a more conventional design than the Yak-130, using a low-wing configuration, mid-set tailplane and over-wing inlets for its Turbomeca-SNECMA Larzac turbofans. The original design featured a ‘T-taiT and the PS/ZMK DV-2 (R-35! engine, but these elans were abandoned – as was an intended industrial co-operation with Korea’s Daewoo.

In addition to its French-supplied engines the MiG-АТ also features French-supplied cockpit avionics, from Sextant and Thomson-CSF (now Thales). Each cockpit is fitted with a pair of colour multi-function displays and provision for helmet – mounted sights, while the front cockpit had a wide- angle HUD for the student. MiG designed the MiG-АТ to have a re-configurable three-axis digital flight control system, allowing the aircraft to

Development and acquisition funding for the MiG-AT have been hard to come by in recent years, as post Cold War military budget cuts have bitten deeply.

replicate the handling characteristics of a number of different front-l ne combat types.

MiG has proposed two versions of the basic trainer, the MiG-ATR for Russian air force service (with Russian engines and avionics) and the export MiG-ATF with Sextant Topflight avionics. The MiG-ATR would be powered by the Soyuz/CIAM RD-1700 engine wnich is currently under develop­ment. The MiG-ATS (or MiG-AT-UTS) is a combat – capable/weapons training version, fitted with under­wing hardpoints end a centreline stores station. The second MiG-AT prototype was built to this standard. MiG is also proposing a dedicated light-attack variant, the single-seat MiG-AS, with a built-in gun, radar and air-to-air missiles.

The first MiG-AT made its official maiden flight on 21 March 1996. The MiG-AT is being adopted by the Russian air force, though Yakovlev claims to have received air force orders for the Yak-130 also. Russia has a requirement for between 200 and 250 MliG-ATs, and MiG is building an initial batch of 18 aircraft, the MiG-AT is also being promoted on the export market – most recently in South. Africa and India. In both cases it was beaten by the BAE SYSTEMS Hawk, but MiG is optimistic that the MiG-AT will find new customers.

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Specification: MiG-AT Powerplant: Two 14.12-kN |3,175-Го)

1 urbomeca-SNECMA Larzac ІИ R20 turbofans, Dimensions: wing span 10.16 m(33 It 4 in): length 17.01 m (39 ft 5 in) excluding probe; height 4.42 m (14 ft 6 in)

Weights: norma: take-off 461Okg (10,163 lb); maximum take-off 7800 kg (17,195 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 1000 kmh (621 mph; maximum rate of climb at sea level 4140 m 113,580 ft) per minute; service ceiling 15500 m 150,860 ft); ferry range 2600 km (1.615 miles)

Armament: maximum ordnance 2.000 kn (4,410 ib) cn seven urtdcrfuselage and wing hardpoints.

 

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Kazan Helicopters has refined the ‘Hip’ design to produce the round-nosed Mi-17MD/Mi-8MTV-5.

Note the cockpit armour and IR jammer.

 

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il’s Mi-8 (NATO code-name ‘Hip’) helicopter was designed as a turbine-engined Mil Mi-4 derivative, using the same tailboom and rotors. The new Isotov turboshaft was relocated above the fuselage, allowing a simpler transmission and big­ger cabin for up to 28 troops. The single-engined prototype V-8 ‘Hip-A’ flew during 1961, followed by the V-8 ‘Hip-B’, powered by twin TV2 engines, The Mi-8P ‘Hip-C’ was a transport, while the Mi-85 Salon was в passenger/VIP transport with toilet and galley, and square cabin windows The МЇ-8Т/АТ ‘Hip-C’ is a utility transport with circular cabin windows, and optional outriggers cauying four weapons pylons. The МІ-8ТВ ‘Hip-E’ is a dedicated assault derivative, with a nose – mounted machine-gun. It has new outriggers with three underslung nylons per side. Above the outer four pylons are launch rails for the AT-2 ‘Swatter’ ATGM. The export МІ-8ТВК ‘Hip-F’ had six ‘over – wing’ launch rails for the AT-3 ‘Sagger’ ATGM. To improve performance, the Mi-8 was re-engined with uprated TV3-117MTs to produce the Mi-17 ‘Hip-H’. The new aircraft has PZU intake filters, anc the tail rotor is relocated from starbosrd to port. CiS/Russian air forces use the Mil МІ-8МТ or Mi-8TV designations depending on equipment fit.

The ‘Нір-D’ was a command post/radio relay platform, with a pair of tubular antennas above the rear fuselage, and a V-shaped antenna mast under the tailboom. The Mi-9 ‘Hip-G’ is another command
post/radio relay variant, with ‘hockey stick1 antennas under the tailboom. The Mi-8SMV ‘Hip-J’ operates in the ECM jamming role. The Mil МЇ-8РРА ‘Hip-K’ is a communications jammer, with box fairings on the fuselage sides, a complex mesh-on-tubular – framework antenna array on the rear fuselage and six side-by-side neat exchangers below the forward fuselage. The МІ-17Р or МІ-17РР ‘Hip-H (EW)’ has the same heat exchangers and box-like fairings on the fuselage sides but has a solid array in place of the mesh antenna.

Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, the pants building Mii helicopters have begun marketing their own versions. These include Kazan, Ulan Ude and the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant. Ulan Ude has offered an export Mi-17 with Western avionics ca led the Mi-171 and also the Mi-8AMT(Sh) ‘Terminator’ which has a four hardpoint stub wing. Kazan’s main version is the Mi-8TV-3 (similar to the ‘Terminator’, With the Mi-172 as the export version. Kazan a so makes the Mi-17MD with a rear loading ramp and capacity increased to 40 passengers.

Подпись: The Mi-8AMT(Sh) ‘Terminator’ is the latest model of the Mi-8 armed transport on offer from the Mil Bureau and its associated Ulan-Ude plant. Specification: Mil Mi-B "Hip-C’ Powerplant: two 125/-kW(1,700-hp) Klimov (Isotov) TV2-117 A turboshefts Dimensions: rolyr diameter 21.29 m (69 ft 1014 in); length overall, rotors turning 25.2-5 m (82 ft 9K in) and fuselage 18 "7 m {59 ft 7.35 in); height overall 5.65 n (18 It 52 in)

Weights: tyoical empty 7260 kg (16.007 lb); maximum payload 4000 kg 18,8′ 3 lb); maximum take-oil 12000 kg (26.455 lb);

Performance: maximum level speed 2БС kinh (161 mph); muximLm cruising speed 225 kmh (140 mph); sendee ceiling 4500 m (14760 It); hovering cei ng 1500 m (6.235 ft) IGE and 800 m (2,525 III OGt; ferry range 1200 km (746 milesl; range 465 km 1259 miles), standard fuel

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The Mi-24D ‘Hind-D’ introduced the redesigned armoured cockpits that now characterise the ‘Hind’. This is a Hungarian airforce aircraft

 

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he Mil Mi-24 ‘Hind’ wss developed from the Mi-8, using the same engines and rotor, It was designed as a flying ARC, to carry soldiers and provide its own suppressive fire, while relyirg on speed lor protection. A V-24 prototype flew in 1970 and the production ‘Hind-A’ entered service during 1973, armed with АЇ-2 ‘Swatter’ missiles. During production the TV3-117 engine (used by the Mi-17) was introduced, leading to repositioning of the tail rotor to the port side of the tailboom.

The Mi-24’s anti-tank capability became more important, but the original heavily-gla2ed cockpit provided inadequate visibility and little protection. The solution was en entirely new nose, with separate, stepped, heavily armoured tandem cockpits for the pilot (rear) and gunner (front). Under the nose was a stabilised turret housing a four-barreiled 12.7-mm gun. The new aircraft was the Mi-24D ‘Hind-D’ iMi-25 for export). This was soon replaced by the MI-24V ‘Hind-E’ (Mi-35 for export) armed with tube-launched AT-6 ‘Spiral’ missile.

Combat experience in Afghanistan proved that the Mi-24 was a sound design. However, the original 12.7-mm machine-gun proved ineffective against some targets, and the ‘Hind’ needed a bigger gun. Accordingly, Mil designed the МІ-24Р ‘Hind-F’
whicn mounts a GSh-ЗОК twin-barrelled 30-mm cannon on the starboard forward fuselage. This was followed by the Mi-24VP, armed with the smaller twin-barrelled GSh-23L 23-mm cannon in its nose turret. Export versions of the ‘Hind-F’ were designated МІ-25Р and МІ-35Р Over 35 countries, most recently Macedonia, have taken delivery of Hind’ variants and they have seen combat in numerous conflicts, including Ethiopia-Eritrea, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, and various parts of the former Soviet Union, notably Chechnya.

The МЇ-24М is an upgraded night-capable version for the Russian forces with the rotor and transmission system of the Mi-28 and a turret for a twin 23-mm cannon. This is offered for export as the Mi-35M, while the Russian army has gone for a less sophisticated Mi-24VM with new avionics. A second phase will see the Mi-28 rotor/transmission introduced, as well as a lightweight fixed undercar­riage. Israel’s Tamam (a division of IA!) and South Africa’s ATE have offered upgrades with western avionics and weapons capabilities. ATE’s ‘Super Hind’ has a 20-mm chain gun cannon and new night vision systems. The first ‘Super Hind’ customer is Algeria, while the Tamam upgrade is thought to encompass 25 Mi -25s for India,

Подпись: Poland operates a mix of'Hind-Ds' and ‘Hind-Es’ and has announced plans to upgrade and modernise its Mi-24s, adapting some for the C-SAR role. Specification: Mil Mi-24D ‘Hind-D’ PowerpSant: two 1640-kW {2,200-hp) Klimov (Isotov) TV3-117 Senes III turboshafts Dimensions: main rater dameter 17.30 ni (55 ft 9 in|, length cverall, rotors turning 19.79 nn (64 ft 11 n) and ‘fuselage 17.51 m (57 ft 57 ir) excluding rotors and gun; heigh overall 6.50 n (21 ft 4 ini with rotors turning Weights: empty 8400 kg (18.519 b); тэх:тит take-off 12500 kg (27,557 lb] Performance: maximum level speed 310 krnh (192 mph), service ceiling 4500 m (14,765 It); combat radius 160 km (99 miles) with maximum military load

Armament: one four-barrelled JakB 12.7-mni gun, maximum ordnance 2400 kg (5.201 lb)

Russia

Multi-role combat helicopter

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This is the first production МІ-28А ‘Havoc1 which introduced the definitive do wn wa rd po in ting exhaust suppressors for its TV3-117VMA engines.

 

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il’s Mi-28 (NATO code-nams ‘Havoc’) is a successor to the Mi-24 and a direct rival to the Kamov Ka-50, Born in the Soviet era, the post Cold War years have seen funding for new p’-ograrrmes collapse and the Mi-28’s progress has been slow. The first of three Mi-28 attack hel copter prototypes flew on 10 November 1982. The basic production – standard МІ-28А flew in 1987 and was first seen in the West at the 1989 Paris Air Show. Since then it has not entered production.

The Mi-28’s conventional layout has stepped armoured cockpits accommodating a pilot (rear) and gunner (forward), with an undernose cannon. A conventional three-bladed tail rotor was abandoned and replaced on the second and third prototypes by a ‘scissor’-type tail rotor, with two independent two-bladed rotors on the same shaft, set at approxi­mately 35° to each other and forming a narrow X.

The Mi-28 is armed with a single-barrelled 2A42 30-mm cannon, with twin 150-round ammunition boxes co-mounted to traverse, elevate and depress with the gun itself, reducing the likelihood of jamming. The stub wings have four pylons, each able to carry 480 kg (1.058 lb), typically consisting of four tube – launched AT-6 ‘Spiral’ missiles or a variety of rocket pods. The wingtip houses a chaff/flare dispenser.

The cockpit is covered by flat, non-glint panels of armoured glass, and is protected by titanium and ceramic armour. Vital components are protected and duplicated, and shielded by less important
items. In the event of a catastrophic hit the crew are protected by energy absorbing seats. An emer­gency escape system is installed which blows off the doors and inflates air bladders on the fuselage sides. The crew ‘oil over these before pulling their parachute ripcords.

Mil’s development effort has now movec on to the radar-equipped МІ-28ІМ all-weather day/night attack helicopter. This aircraft is fitted with a mast – mounted Kinzhal V or Arbalet millimetre-wave radar, like that of the Longbow Apache, with FUR and LLLTV sensors in the nose. The Mi-28N has an NVG-compatible cockpit with multi-function dis­plays. Only four Mi-28s have been completed to date and they have undergone numerous detail changes. The first Mi-28N demonstrator was modi­fied from the МІ-28А prototype. It had its formal roll out in August 1996 and first fiew on 30 April 1997. The names Night Hunter and Night Pirate have been applied to the Mi-28N, by Mil. Officially, the Russian army has adopted the Ka-50. but Mi-28N development continues.

Подпись:Specification: Mil МІ-28А Havoc" Powerplant: two 1640-kW (2,200-hp) Klimov (Isotpv) TV3-117VMA turbcshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 17.20 m ІВЄ it 5 in); wing span 4.87 m (16 ft); length oveiral. rotors turning 1915 m (62 ft 10 in) and fuselage 16.85 m (66 T37 in)

Weights: empty 8095 kg [17,046 lb); maximum lake-all 11500 kg (25.353 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 300 kmn (188 mph); service ceiling 5800 m (19,025 ft); hovering coiling 3500m (11,810 ft) 0GE; range 470 km (292 miles), endurance 2 hours Armament: one single-barrelled 2A42 30-mm cannon with two 150-round drums, maximum ordnance approximately 1920 kg (4,233 lb)

Japan

Подпись: Mitsubishi F-2Multi-role combat aircraft

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The larger wing and revised tailplane configuration of the Mitsubishi F-2, when compared to the F-16C, are clear in this view of the first prototype XF-2 A

 

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aoan has established a Tradition of military self – sufficiency, preferring to licence-build or indige­nously develop its military hardware, despite the higher financial costs that such small-scale production ineviraoly Incurs. When the JASDF launched its FS-X competition to find a replacement for its attack-dedicated Mitsubishi F1s – and ultimately its upgraded F-4EJs – the solution came in an interesting hybrid, Japan decided to adopt a modified F-16C, redesigned in conjunction with Lockheed Martin and built by Mitsubishi (with Kawasaki, Fuji and Lockheed Martin as important sub-contractors). The new aircraft was given the designation F-2 Mitsubishi modified the F-16 by adding an entirely new, and larger, composite materials wing, a longer mid-fuselage, wider tailplanes, a slightly elongated nose and a brake-chute housing. The F-2 is powered by a General Electric F110 IPE turbofan, It is fitted with a Mitsubishi Electric active phased array radar, and a cockpit with LCD MFDs and a wide-angle holographic HUD – all of Japanese origin. A new integrated EW system has also been developed by Mitsubishi.

The Mitsubishi proposal was selected as the winning FS-X design in October 1987 and Mitsubishi was appointed as the prime contractor
in November 1988. After some early difficulties with the allocation of workshare and technology transfer between the US and Japan were ironed out, the initial airframe development contract was awarded in March 1989.

Mitsubishi has built four flying prototypes – two single-seat XF-2As and two two-seat XF-2Bs. The first prototype XF-2A made its maiden flight on 7 October 1995 and the first XF-2B flew on 17 April 1996. In May 1996 the Japanese government approved the production of 130 aircraft, comprising 83 F-2As and 47 F-2B trainers (and, at the same time, officially allocated the F-2 designation).

On 22 March 1996 the first XF-2A was handed over to the Japan Defence Agency. The XF-2 test fleet was transferred to the Air Development and Test Wing at Gifu AB. During 1998/99 serious prob­lems were uncovered when the composite wing began to show signs of cracking when carrying heavy loads. This caused a nine-month delay in the programme while the wingtips and pylon attach­ments were redesigned. Mitsubishi delivered the first production F-2A aircraft to the Japan Defence Agency in a ceremony at its Komaki-South facility in September 2000. By the end of March 2001, 18 F-2s had been delivered to the JDA.

Подпись: The fourth and final XF-2 prototype - the second two-seat XF-2B operational trainer - was painted in a representative blue/grey camouflage. Specification: Mitsubishi F-2A Powerplant one 131.7-kN (29,BOO-lb) General Electrjn F110-GE-129 IPE afterburning turbofan (licence-built by I HI)

Dimensions: wing span 1113m (16 ft 6!* in), aver missile rails; length 15,52 m{50 ft11 in); height 4.96 m (16 ft 371 in)

Weights: empty, eqL pped 12QD0 kg (25,155 lb), maximum take-off 22Ю0 kg (48.722 lb) Performance: maximum level speed approximately Mach 2.0 IDetailed performance figures not available) Armament: one internal M61A1 Vulcan 20-mm cannon, plus 13 external stores stations

China Tactical bomber

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evelopment of the Nanchang Q-5 ‘Fantan’ began in 1958 to meet a PLA requirement for a dedicatee attack aircraft. Although based on the MiG-19, Nanchang’s design retained only tne rear fuselage and main undercarriage, introducing a new, stretched, area-ruled fuseiage with an internal weapons bay, new conical-section nose, wings of greater area and less sweep, larger tailplanes and lateral air intakes. A prototype made its delayed maiden flight on 4 June 1965, but extensive modifi­cations proved necessary to solve problems with the hydraulics, brakes, fuel and weapons systems. Two new prototypes flew in October 1969 and the type was ordered mto production.

Little is known about the dedicated Q-5A tactical nuclear strike version, which carries a single 5- to 20-kT free-fall bomb. The Q-51 is an extended-range variant with a new ejection seat, two additional hardpoints and a new Wopen WP6 engine. Some Q-5ls were modified to serve as missile-carriers with the PLA navy, and some of these may have Doppler nose radar. C-801 anti-ship missiles and torpedoes could also be carried. The Q-5IA, certified for production in 1985, was fitted with an additional underwing hardpoini and introduced a new gun/bomb sighting system and new defensive avionics. Thep-511 received an RWR but was other­wise similar. The A-5C (Q-5IIII was an export Q-5IA for Pakistan with substantially improved avionics and compatibility with AIM-9 AAMs. The A-5Cs


The A-5C Is still on offer to export customers, but its bargain-basement price brings with it outdated technology and debatable effectiveness.

serve with two squadrons at Peshawar, one having been disbanded due to the high accident rate. A programme to rebuild A-5Cs in Pakistan has beer •Liming out refurbished aircraft at about 10 per year for very low cost compared to new-build examples.

Production of the Q-5/A-5 continues by Hongdu Aviation Industry Group (HAIG) – which Nanchang became in 1998 – though only at a low rate as attrition replacements. Over 1,000 are believed to have been delivered. Approximately 500 Q-5s serve with 12 regiments of the PLAAF.

The A-5 has been exported to Bangladesh, North Korea, Pakistan and Myanmar (Burma). Several programmes were launched to upgrade Q-5s with Western avionics and/or equipment. The A-5K Kong Yun (Cloud) was equipped with a French-built laser rangefinder The А-БМ programme began in conjunction with Italy and added a ranging radar, an INS, a HUD and new IFF and RWR equipment. An extra wing hardpoint was added, along with compatibility with the PL-5 AAM. All western-aided upgrade work on the A-5 has now ceased.

The PLAAF relies heavily on the 0-5 as Its primary tactical strike/attack aircraft It has no obvious successor in the Chinese inventory.


image176Specification: Nanchang Q-5 IA ‘Fantan’ Powerplant: two 39.7-kN (8,930-lb) Liming (LM) Wopen-6A afterburning turbojets Dimensions: wing span 9.58 m (31 It Э in), length 15.65 m (51 ft in) including probe, height 4,333 m (14 ft 2A in)

Weights, emoty 6375 kg (11,354 lb): rraxmum take-off 11830 kg I25.CB0 lb) Performance: maximum leve speed 1190 kmh (74C mph); maximum rate of climo at 5C00 m (16,400 ft) 4980-5180 m (16.340-20,275 ft) per minute; service ceiling 15850 m (52.030 ft); combat radius with maximum external stores. 400 km (248 miles!

Armament: two Type 23-2K 23-mm cannon with 100 rpg, plus 2000-kg (4,409-lb) ordnance

Подпись: N H Industries NH90Fran се / Germ a пу/ It а І у Advanced multi-role helicopter

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The NH 90 TTH-configuration has a nose-mounted FUR and weather radar, a radar-/missile launch – Jlaser-warning system, EWjammers and chaff/flares.

 

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longside the EH101 the li H Industries NH 90 is the ‘most inportent European collaborative helicopter programme. In terms of planned production numbers it is certainly the largest. The NH 90 is being developed by a consortum of manufacturers from France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands with Eurocopter and Agusta {now AgustaWestland) as the senior partners. Two versions, the multi-role raval NFH and the battlefield tactical transport TTH are being developed from a common airframe.

The NH 90 prog’amne can trace its beginnings back to the mid-1980s (its very name betrays the fact that was intended as a helicopter for th9 1990s). Tne first NATO ndustrial Advisory Group studies were aunched in 1983/84 and a five-nation Moll (including Britain) was signed in 1985. The initial design phase was launched in 1986, but in ‘.987 tne UK withdrew and the German and Italian work- shares had to be renegotiated n 1990/91. Further design and development VIoUs were finally signed in 1992, agreeing to the production of five flying prototypes – nearly 10 years after the NH90 programme began.

The NFH (NATO Frigate Helicopter) is desigred for ASW and ASuWjssks, with a secondary SAR and transoort role, he TTH (Tactical Transport

Helicopter! is an army/ar force version – or akmobi e operations. The twir-engined NH 90 will be the world’s firs: f:y-by-wire helicopter, using a quadruplex digital flight control system. The fuselage is built entirely from composite materials, as are the main ‘otor blades (which use an advanced aerofoil section with curved tios). The NFH cockpit has a five – screen EFIS layout, wnilethe TTH has four,

The first of the five NH 90 prototypes was bu It to a common basic configumtion and made its fhst Tght or 18 December ‘995, powered by RTM 322 engines. It flew with the NIT 90’s alternate T70Q powerplsnts n March 1998. The first full TTH missior system was f own n 1999 on the fourth prototype, while the first full NFH system flew later that year on the fifth prototype,

m June 2000 the partner nations gave the go – ahead for full NH 90 production. A month later, in July, they s gned a firm order for the first batch of 298 NH 90s, comprising 70 TTHs and 46 ~THs for Italy (plus one option), 27 NFHs for France, 80 TTHs for Germany (plus 54 options) and 20 NFHs for the Netherlands. The initial NH 90 production comrrri – ment is for 366 helicopters and the tota European requirement *or tne NH 90 stands at 595 aircraft The first (TTH) deliveries will begin in 2003.

Подпись: In its NFH configuration, the NH 90 is fitted with a 360° search radar in a ventral radome. It will also have a dipping sonar, FURMAD, ESM and datalink. Specification: NH 90 TTH Powerplant: two 1253-<W*1.680-hoi class Ralls-Rayce/lirbomeca PTM372-01/9 or Alfa Rameo/6ET70C-T6E turboshafts Dimensions: rotor diameter 16.30 m (53 ft 5/ in): length overall, rotors turnirg 19 55 m (G4 ft 2 it) arid luseloge 15.89 m |57 ft 1/ it): height overall 5.44 m (‘7 ft 10 in)

Weights: typical empty 54-30 kg (11.505 >b). mission payload 2500 ку {5.512 Ibl; maximum take-off 10000 xg (22,046 lb):

Performance: maximum erasing soeed 251 kmh (181 rrph); service celling 4250 m (13,840 ft); hovering ceiling 35CC m(11,480 ft) IGF and 2900 n (9.52C ftl 0GE; ^erry range 1204 km (748 miles); missinn radius 250 <m (’55 nilesl

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The EA-6B is now a key element of US (and Allied) air operations, because of its powerful jamming capability and HARM anti-radar missiles.

 

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esigned and bu’lt for the US Navy, Grumman’s EA-6B Prowler is now the United States’ only dedicated lethal SEAD (Suppression o’ Enemy Air Defences} and IVgh-oerformance jamming glat’orm. Experience with the two-crew EA-6A EW aircraft led to the development o’ an advanced, lengthened four-seat A-6 variant, seating a oilot and three e ectronic warfare officers (EWOsl to manage the sophisticated smay of ECM ard ESM systems Entering service dining 1971, it introduced a tactical jamming system 0iS} which employs noise1 jamming originating from a maximum of five transmitter pods. The first 23 production aircraft were to ‘Basic’ standard with ALQ-99 TJS and ALQ-92 communications jamming system.

These were fo loweo in "I973 by 25 EXCAP (Expanded Capability} a’rframes witn the ALQ-99A TJS. in 1976, the ICAP (Improved Capability) standard was app iec to ^5 new-bui. d and 17 ea-lier aircraft and introduced new displays, AN/ALQ-126 multiple – band defensive treakers anc upcated raaa – decep­tion gear, All 55 surviving ICAPs were upgraded with software and display improvements to ІСАР-І standam. This also introduces ungraded jamming pods and is able to handle groups of weapons systems with imoroved identification of hostile emitters and improved reliability and maintainability. The ICAP-ll/Block 86 introduced ‘hard kill’ canability with AGM-88A HARMs. More recently, EA 63s have been upgraded to two ADVCAP conf gurat;ors. The
basic ADVCAD has new jammer transmission and passive Detection capabilities and an expanded AK/ALE-39 chaff dispenser fit. An Avionics Improvement Pmgrarr was to lead to a remanufec – tured ADVCAP, Block 91 EA-6B with new displays, radar improvements, an imarcved tactica support jamming suite, AK/ALQ-K9 communications jam­ming system and a digital autop lot. In fact, only three prototypes were tested, and a new uograue, Block 86, proceeded instead. This inciucec new radios, a cig tal fue indicator ana other cockpit imo-ovements. All surviving aircraft then became Block 89, with new ‘safety of flight’ features such as halon fire extinguishers and hardened control rods, and were followed by Block 89A rebu;ds with imoroved instrumentation and imbedded GPS.

With tne retirement of the USAF’s F 4G ‘Wild Weasel’s and EF-111 jamming aircraft, a joint – service agreement allocated four Prowler squadrons to Air Fcrce use when needed. These units have a mix of USAF and USN crews and first saw action during Operation Allied Force in 1999.

In addition to the US Navy’s 16 Prowler squadrons, the US Marine Corps operates another four. This aircraft is from VMAQ-1 ‘Banshees’.


image180"Specification; EA-6B Prowler Powcrplant; two 49.8-kN (11.200-0) Pratt & Whitney J52-P4CR turbojets Dimensions: wing span 16.1b n!53 fl); width folded 7.87 rr (25 ft 10 r$ length 18.24 m I59 ft 10 in); height 4.85 m (16 ft 3 in)

Weights: empty 1432′ kg (ЗІ,572 lb); normal carrier take-off 24/03 kg (54,461 1Ы. o’ from lard 27493 <g{6C, B1011:1 Performance: maximum level soeed with five jamnnrr pass 962 krnh {6:0 mph); service cel mg with five jammer pods’ 1Ь39 m (38,000 ft); rence 1769 km (1,099 miles! with maximum external load

Armament: up to four AGM-S8A HARM enti – rariar missiles

United States Long-range ‘stealth’ bomber

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he Northrop B-2 Spirit flying wing was developed in great secrecy as a ‘stealthy’, radar-evading, bomber for the Cold War mission of attacking Soviet targets with stand-off nuciear weapons. B-2 development was a ‘black’ programme, known in its infancy as Project Senior C. J. and later as the ATB {Advanced Technology Bomber)

The 8-2’s four F118 turbofans are non-afterburning variants of the F110 turbofan and have intakes and exhausts locatedabove the aircraft to shield them from detection. The crew/payload section of the aircraft starts aft of the apex of the wing, ends at the wing trailing edge and is smoothly blended on the upper surfaces of the wing. The crew compart­ment provides side-by-side seating for two pilots, seated in zero-zero ACES II ejection seats.

The first flight of a B-2 took place on 17 July 1989. Test flying to evaluate low observables tech­nology began on 30 October 1990. The USAF received is first operational B-2 in December 1993 and the last was delivered to the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman AFB, MO in December 1997. As later aircraft were delivered, early examples were upgraded to Block 20 and Block 30 standard, Block 30 bombers have full PGM and terrain-following capability and improved stealth measures.

The B-2 has a nuclear strike role, armed with cruise missiles or bombs. This aircraft was involved in inert drop tests of the B61-11 penetrating nuclear bomb.


The B-2 used stealth technology developed a generation after the F-117 Stealth Fighter, and the differences between the two are striking.

Total procurement, reduced initially from 132 to 75, has been curtailed to just 20 front-line aircraft due to the enormous $2.25 billion cost of each B-2. The need for secrecy and problems with the Defensive Management System (DMS) contributed to the ballooning of costs. Maintenance costs are also very high due to the need to preserve the smooth, RAM-coated surface finish.

Although many observers thought that the USAF would never risk the costly B-2 in anything other than all-out nuclear war, the Spirit saw action against Yugoslav forces in Kosovo in 1999. Non­stop 15-hour missions were flown all the way from Whiteman to the Balkans and back, in which up to 16 GPS-guided 2.000-lb JDAMs were dropped on targets such as airfields and air defence sites with 16 direct hits, and complete surprise from the defenders The USAF plans to build special dedicated B-2 hangars at forward locations such as RAF Fairford, in the UK, to support future deployed operations and reduce the strain on aircrews from such extremely long missions. With possible charges to US defence strategy forthcoming, Northrop Grumman has offered to reopen the pro­duction line for an improved version at a cost of $700 million each for a batch buy.

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Specification: Northrop B-2A

Po we rp la nt: four 84.52-k N (19,000-1 b) General Electric F118-GE-110 non-afterburning turbofans

Dimensions: span 52.43 m {172 ft!; length 21 03 m (59 ft); height 5.18 m {17 ft!

Weights: empty between 45360 and 49900 kg (100.000 and 110,000 lb); maximum take-off ;8I437 kg (400.000 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed 754 kmh 1475 mph); service ceiling 15240 m (50,000 (l); range with a 10886-kg (24.000-lb) warloed 12231 km (7,600 miles) on a hi-hi-hi mission or 8339 km (5.182 miles)on a hi-lo-hi mission Armament maximum ordnance 50,000 lb (22680 kg)

 

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Until the delivery of the far-larger E767, the E-2C Hawkeye was the sole AEW and ABCCC asset of the Japan Air Self Defence Force.

 

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he E-2 Hawkeye has been the US Navy’s airborne early warning platform since entering service in 1964. It has a rotodome (mounted above the rear upper fuselage) housing antennas for the main radar and IFF systems. Including prototypes and development aircraft, a total of 59 E-2As was built, equipped with the APS-96 surveillance radar. Most were later converted to E-2B standard with a general-purpose computer and retired from service in the mid-1980s.

Current generation Hawkeyes are built to E-2C standard, the first example of which flew on 20 January 1971. Identified by a cooling intake behind the cockpit, the E-2C introduced a new APS-125 radar and improved signal processing capability. The basic E-2C has been the subject of continual updating over the years. Raoar units have changed to the APS-138 (E-2C Group 0), the APS-139 (E-2C Group I, from 1989) and the APS-145 (E-2C Group II) now fitted to all aircraft. APS-145 offers improved resistance to jamming and better overland surveillance capability.

Production of the Hawkeye by Grumman on Long Island finished in 1994 with the 139th exam­ple, but was reinstated at St. Augustine, Florida to turn out four Group II aircraft per year plus export aircraft. In the AEW role, the E-2C extends the detection range of the battle group by about 480 km (300 miles) for aircraft and 258 km (160 miles) for cruise missiles. Small surface vessels can be located
at 231 km (143 miles). Communication is main­tained with the carrier’s Combat Information Centre and patrolling fighters by means of a datalink. The Hawkeye can also act as an airborne control and command post, feeding directions to attack aircraft and escorting fighters to deconflict them, in addition to providing warnings of hostile aircraft.

In US Navy service, the E-2C flies with 11 active – duty units, two training units and two Reserve squadrons. E-2Cs have been exported to the air forces of Egypt (six), Japan (13). Singapore (four plus two on option) and Taiwan (four E-2Ts>. Israel had four aircraft fitted with refuelling probes but has now retired them. The French navy is acquiring four E-2Cs to operate from its new carrier, Charles De Gaulle.

The next-generation Hawkeye 2000 will inte­grate into the USN’s Co-operative Engagement Capability network. Northrop Grumman also has plans for an Advanced Hawkeye with a new multi- bladed propeller and a tactical cockpit giving the pilots access to the overall sensor ‘picture’

Подпись: The US Navy is investing in future developments of the E-2 Hawkeye, while beginning to explore options for its replacement by 2020. Specification: Grumman E-2C Hawkeye

Po we гр I a n t two 3661 – kW (4.910-hp) Allison T58-A-425 turbuprops

Dimensions: wing span 24.56 m (80 ft 7 in): folded width 8.94 m{29 ft 4 in); length 17,54 m (57 ft in); height 5 58 m (18 ft VA in) Weights: empty 1728b kg (38,063 lb); maximum lake-off 23556 kg (51.933 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 598 kmh (372 mphl; maximum rate of climb at sea level 767 m (2.515 It) per minute; service ceiling 9390 m (30.800 ft); minimum take-off run 610 m (2,000 ft), minimum landing run 439 m (1,440 ft). 1,605 miles]; operational radius 320 km (200 miles) for a petrol of 3 to 4 hours

Подпись: United States Battlefield surveillance

*U. S. AIR FORCE

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aking a ‘star’ appearance in Operation Desert Storm years before it was truly operational, the Boeing/Grumman E-8 represents a major advance in battlefield command and control, intro­ducing the capaoility for monitoring and controlling the land battle that the E-3 provices in the air batt e.

і wo E-8A prototypes were converted from former Boeing 707 airliners, with the first flying in operational configuration in 22 December 1988. The E-8A had a cabin configured with 10 operator consoles. It introduced the Norden AN/APY-3 multi – mode side-looking phased array radar (housed in a forward ventral canoe fairing). Its synthetic aperture radar gives a high resolution radar picture out to 257 km (160 miles) from the orbiting aircraft, wh le two pulse-Doppler modes provide moving target indication (MTl).

A wide area search MTl mode monitors a large sector of land, while an MTl sector search mode is used to target smaller areas of inte’est to follow individual vehicles. The antenna can be electronically slewed 120° to either side of the aircraft to cover nearly 50,000 km’ (19,305 sq miles) and the radar has some capability to detect helicopters, rotating antennas and low slow-moving fixed wing aircraft. A dataiink is used to transmit intelligence gathered


A former Southern Air Transport Boeing 707 was used to provide the first full-scale development E-8C aircraft, which will serve as a permanent testbed.

in near rea – time to mobile ground consoles, similar to those on the E-8. Using the various modes, the JSTARS (Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar

System) can be used for general surveillance and battlefield monitoring to provide the ‘big picture’ to commanders, stand-off radar reconnaissance or individual targeting functions for attacking vehicles and convoys.

In January 1991 both E-8As deployed to Riyadh to fly combat missions in Desert Storm. Forty-nine war missions were flown, for a total of 535 hours, a sizeable portion of which was spent on the search for Iraqi ‘Scud’ missiles.

In service, the JSTARS system was to have been carried on the new-build E-8B aircraft with F108 (CFM56) turbofans but, despite one YE-8B being procured (later sold), the production-standard platform is the E-8C based on converted 707 airliner airframes. The first production E-8C end a pre-pro­duction aircraft made their operational debut over Bosnia in 1996, but IOC with the 93rd Air Control Wing was not declared until December 1997. The E-8C crew consists of four flight crew and 18 oper­ators. Current plans are for 14 E-8Cs to be in service by 2003. The USAF is already working on the RTIP radar upgrade for the JSTARS.

The AN/APY-3 radar is housed in a canoe fairing under the forward fuselage. It uses an electronically – scanned, mechanically-steered (in elevation) array.

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Specification: Northrop Grumman E-8C Poworplant: four 84.52-kN (t9.000-lb) Pratt & Whitney JT3D-7 turbofans Dimensions: wing span 44.42 m 114b ft 9 ini; length 46.SI m 1152 ft 11 in); height 12.93 m (42 ft bin)

Weights: empty 77564 kg(171,000 lb), maximum take-off 152407 kg (336,090 lb) Performance: max cruising speed at 7620 m (25.000 ft) 973 kmh (605 mph); economical cruising speed at 10670 m (35,000 ft) 860 kmh (534 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 12T9 m (4.000 hi per minute; service ceiling 12800 m |42,000 ft); range with maximum fuel 9266 km (5,758 miles); endurance 11 hours unrefuelled, 20 hours refuelled

 

United States Lightweight fighter

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Chile’s F-5E Tigre III upgrade was carried out in conjunction with Elbit and added a new EL/M-2032 radar, helmet-mounted sight and Python III missiles.

 

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n 1954 the US government initiated a study for a simple lightweight fighter to be supplied via the Military Assistance Program. Northrop’s private – venture N-156C design made its first flight on 30 July 1959, and was selected in 1962 by the USAF as the required FX’ fighter. It was designated F-5, and an F-5A prototype flew in May 1963. A corre­sponding two-seat F-5B trainer entered service in April 1964, four months ahead of the F-5A. Northrop also developed the reconnaissance RF-5A, equipped with four nose-mounted cameras.

First generation F-5s were exported to Brazil, Greece, Jordan, Morocco, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Venezuela and Yemen. Improved versions were built by Canadair as the CF-5A and CF-5D and were later upgraded by Bristol Aerospace. Some were iater sold to Botswana. The Royal Netherlands air force ordered 105 NF-5As with leading-edge manoeuvre flaps and Doppler radar.

The F-5E/F Tiger II incorporated uprated J85 engines, an integrated fire control system, additional fuel and a larger, modified wing with LERXes and manoeuvring flaps. The F-5E is the single-seat variant and was first flown on 11 August 1972. The combat – capabie F-5F trainer had a lengthened fuselage was first delivered to the USAF in 1973, to prepare the aircraft for foreign users. F-5E/Fs later served for aggressor training with the USAF until the late 1980s and still fly with the USN.

Some 1,300 F-5E/Fs were supplied to 20 air forces. Current operators are Bahrain, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia. Mexico, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea. Sudan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand. Tunisia, USN/USMC, Venezuela and Yemen. It was also built under licence in South Korea, Switzerland and Taiwan.

Many F-5 upgrade programmes are now available. Chile, Brazil, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey have all modernised their aircraft with new radars, cockpit systems and weapons.

A specialised RF-5E Tigereye reconnaissance version, retaining full combat capability, first flew in 1978. A modified lengthened nose houses a single camera. This can be augmented by two inter­changeable pallets, containing combinations of panoramic cameras and an IR linescanner. The RF-5E has been exported to Malaysia and Saudi Arabia Singapore Aerospace has converted some of its F-5Es to RF-5S configuration and others to RF-5E TigerGazers for Taiwan.

Подпись: The last F-5s in US service are the aggressor F-5Es operated by the US Navy’s VFC-13 'Saints’ (seen here) and the USMC's VMFT-401 ‘Snipers'. Specification: Northrop F-5E Tiger II Powerplant: two 22,24-kN (5,000-lb) General Electric J85-GE-21B afterburning turbojets Dimensions: wing span 8.53 m {28 ft) with tip-mounted MMs; length 14.45 m (47 ft 4K in! including probe; height 4.08 m {13 ft 4/ in| Weights: empty 4349 kg |9,558 IbJ; maximum take-off 11187 kg (24.664 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed 17Э0 kmh I I,056 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 10455 m (34,300 ft) per minute; service ceiling 15590 m (51,800 ft); combat radius 1405 km (875 miles) with two AIM-9 AAMs Armament two M39A2 20-mm revolver cannon with 280 rounds per gun, maximum ordnance 3175 kg (7,000 lb) ~

United States

EH Industries EH101

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The Merlin HM. Mk I has a mission fit that includes a FLASH dipping sonar, AQS-903 signal processor, Orange Reaper ESM and Link 11 da talink.

 

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anking as one of Europe’s most important current helicopter programmes, the EH101 has its roots in the cancelled Westland WG 34 design that was adopted in late 1978 to replace the Sea King. Negotiations between Westland and Agusta in November 1979 led to the establishment of European Helicopter Industries Ltd to manage the programme. In January 2001 Agusta and Westland completed a merger to become AgustaWestland.

The three-engined EH 101 is powered by RTM322-Q1/8 turboshafts (UK aircraft), T700-GE-T6AS (Italian navy) or CT7-6s (Canadian Forces). The five- bladed main rotor uses a BERP-derived high-speed tip design and an elastomeric hub. The cockpit is fitted with a Litton six-screen EFlS system.

Several other potential roles were planned from the outset, including military and civil transport and utility duties, Nine preproduction aircraft were built to develop these different configurations, with the first EH 101 making its maiden flight on 9 October 1987. EHI built demonstrators ’or the UK and Italian naval ASW standard, the military and civil utility standard (fitted with a rear ramp) and the civil passenger carrying version (the Heliliner). The programme suffered several set backs when two of the pre-production aircraft crashed, in 1993 (PP2) and 1996 (PP7).

The first EH101 operator was the Tokyo police, which took delivery of its first aircraft in 1997, In October 1991 the UK ordered 44 aircraft for the

Royal Navy, to be known as Merlin HM. Mk Is. In July 1992 Canada ordered 35 CH-148 Petrel (later 28) and 15 CH-149 Chimo aircraft to replace its Sea King ASW and Labrador SAR helicopters respectively, but this order was cancelled in November 1993 after a change in government. Following a lengthy re-evaluation process Canada reordered 15 CH-149 Cormorant SAR aircraft (based on the ‘civilianiseci’ AW320 Cormorant design) in January 1998, and is still evaluating the EH101 for its ASW requirements.

In March 1995 the UK placed a second order for 22 Merlin HC. Mk 3 aircraft for the RAF. In October 1995 the Italian navy ordered 16 aircraft (plus eight options), comprising eight Mk 110 ASW aircraft, four Mk 112 AEW/ASW aircraft and four Mk 410 utility aircraft.

The first production-standard Merlin HM. Mk 1 flew on б December 1995 and the first naval trials squadron. No. 700M Sqn, was commissioned on 1 December 1998. The first batch of six RAF Merlin HC. Mk 3s was handed over to the newly-reformed No. 28 Sqn, at RAF Benson, on 8 March 2001.

The RAF’s Merlin HC. Mk 3s replace the Westland Hte-ssex, now largely retired, and may ultimately replace the Puma in the transport role.


Specification: EHI Merlin HM. Mk 1 Powcrplant: three 1724 kW (2,312-hp) Rolls – Royce Aurbomeca RTM322-01 turboshafts Dimensions; main rotor diameter 18.53 hi"

(61 ft); length overall, rotors turning 22.80 rn (/4 ft 9X in); height overall 6.62 m (21 ft Ш in) with rotors turning

Weights: uperating empty 10500 kg (23,143 lb); maximum take-off U600 kg (32.188 lb) Performance: maximum speed 309 kmh (192 mph|; service ceiling 4575 m (15,000 ft); ferry range 2093 krn (1,300 miles) with auxiliary fuel; endurance 5 hours on station with maximum weapon load Armament: maximum ordnance 960 kg (2.116 lb), comprising four torpedoes

 

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Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’

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The Tu-160 clearly shares a common design ‘inspiration’ with the Rockwell B-1, but it is a far larger aircraft – built in far fewer numbers.

 

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he Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’ is the world’s largest bomber, and is the heaviest combat aircraft ever built. The Tu-160 was heavily influenced by the Rockwell B-1A, designed to penetrate at high leve, relying on performance and a highly sophisticated ECM suite to get through hostile defences. The B-1A was cancelled, and then subsequently resur­rected as the B-1B, relying on low-level subsonic flight and reduced RCS to penetrate. The Tu-160 remains committed to both low – evel transonic penetration and high-level supersonic penetration, however. The aircraft is a dedicated cruise missile carrier, with two tandem fuselage weapons bays each containing a rotary carousel for six RK-55 (AS-15 ‘Kent’) cruise missiles (with 200-kT warhead and a range in excess of 3000 km), 12 Kh-15P (AS-16 ‘Kickback’) ‘SRAMskis’ or free-fall bombs The Tu-160’s variable-geometry wing and full- span leading-edge slats and trailing-edge double – slotted flaps confer a useful combination of benign low-speed handling and high supersonic speed, Its cockpit is eouipped with fighter-type control columns and conventional_analog instrument displays, with no MFDs, CRTs and no HUD. The long pointed radome houses a TFR, with a fairing below for *he forwarc-looking TV camera used for visual weapon aiming. A retractable IFR probe endows intercont nertal range.

The development programme of the Tu-160 was extremely protracted. Following a first flight on 19

December 1981, series production eventually began at Kazan in 1986 and continued until termina­tion in January 1992, One incomplete aircraft was later finished ano delivered in 2000. Even after the aircraft entered service, problems continued to severely restrict operations. These included a shortage of basic flying equipment, problems with the aircraft’s K-36A ejection seats and poor reliability of engines and systems.

Between 32 and 39 Tu-160s have been built, including prototypes, about four of which are now derelict at ZhukhovskC Nineteen Tu-160s were delivered to the 184th Heavy Bomber Regiment at Priluki from ‘987. These were left under Ukrainian command after the break-up oJ the USSR, but eight were later transferred back to Russian control and the remainder were scrapped (or, in the case of three aircraft, demilitarised as commercial satellite launch p atforms). Six newer aircraft wen* to Engels, which had been intended to be the first Tu-160 base, where they ware joined by the eight ex-Ukrainian aircraft in 2001.

Подпись: The small numbers of Tu-160s available to the Russian airforce restricts the bomber’s effectiveness, but it is still a formidable warplane. Specification: Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack-A’ Powerplant: four 245.16-kN (55,115-lb) SSEE Trud (Kuznetsov) NK-321 turbojets Dimensions: wig span 55.7G m |i B2 ft 9 in) spreac and 35.60 rh Г16 ft 9.75 in) swept; length 5410 nri (177 ft 6 in); height 13.10 n (43 ft 0 in)

Weights: empty equipped 110D03 kg (260,140 lb); maximum take-off 276000 kg [506.261 lb!

Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ at 11030 m 136,030 ft) 2000 kmh (1,243 mpb); range 14000 km (8,699 miles]

Armament: maximum ordnance ;oad about 15330 kq (36,000 в) in two tandem fuselage weapons bays.

Подпись: Westland LynxAnti-tank, battlefield utility, naval ASW and ASuV helicopter

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The Lynx HAS. Mk 3 is the Royal Navy’s primary light anti-submarine and shipboard anti-surface helicopter. It is being replaced by the HMA. Mk 8.

 

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aunched under (he Anglo-French helicopter agreement of Feoruary 1967, the Westland Lynx is an extremely versatile and agile nelicopter with cigital flight controls and a four-bladed semi-rigid main rotor. The first prototype flew on 21 March 1971. The production Lynx HAS. Mk 2 undertook a range of shipboa-d missions including ASW, SAR. ASV search and strike, reconnaissance, troop trans­port, and VertRep duties. The HAS. Mk 3 intro­duced Gem 41-1 turboshafts, and subsequent upgrades included the HAS. Mk 3S with secure speech facility, the HAS. Mk 3ICE tor use aboard the Antarctic survey vessel Endurance, the HAS. Mk 3CTS with a new central tactical system and the HAS. Mk 3GM with improved cooling, IR jammers and ALQ-167 ECM pods. Foreign customers for the first-generation naval Lynx were Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Nigeria and Norway,

The second-generation Lynx introduced new composite rotor blades with swept ‘BERP’ high­speed tips, which were fitted to new-bulld Super Ly nxes delivered to Brazil, South Korea and Portugal. These aircraft also had a new 360° under­nose radar and some had provision for a nose – mounted FLIR. The new rotor was also a feature of
the Royal Navy Lynx HAS. Mk 8, produced by conversion of surviving HAS. Mk 3s. This variant also introduced an undernose radome, a nose- mounted thermal imager turret, a rear-mounted MAD, Orange Crop ESM and a Yellow Veil ECM jamming pod.

The Army Lynx had a skid undercarriage, and was ordered by the UK Army Air Corps as the Lynx AH. Mk 1. The only export customer was the Qatar Police. Able to carry 12 troops or 907 kg (2,000 lb) of internal freight, most AAC Lynxes were modified with roof-mounted sights and provision for eight TOW anti-tank missiles, Most were subsequently converted to Lynx AH. Mk 7 standards (also produced in smell numbers as a new-build aircraft), with a reverse-direction tail rotor, uprated Gem 41 engines and a box-like IR exhaust shroud. The Lynx AH. Mk Э (offered for export as the Battlefield Lynx) incorporated all the AH. Mk 7 modifications and also introduced a new nosewheel undercarriage The first new-build example flew on 20 July 1990.

Westland is now offering a Super Lynx 200 configuration, with LHTEC CTS800-4N turboshafts, and a Super Lynx 300 with T8QQ engines, an EFlS cockpit, and advanced avionics. The latter version was ordered by Malaysia and South Africa.

Подпись: The German navy’s newest Mh 88 Super Lynxes are fitted with the Sea Spray 3000 radar, FUR, AQS-18 dipping sonar and Sea Skua missiles. MS Specification: Westland Lynx AH. Mk 7 Powerplant two846-kW|t,135Tip) Rolls – Royce Gem 42-1 turboshgf-s Dimensions: main rotor diameter 12.80 m •|42 (t|; length overall, rotors turning ’19 ft 9 in (15.16 m); height overall 12 ft (3.73 m) with rotors stationary

Weights: operating empty 3072 kg 16,77/ lb| in the anti-tank role: maximum take-oil 4876 kg) ■110,75C lb); maximum payload 3.30U lb (1365 kg) Performance: maximum contnucibs cruising speed 256 kmh (159 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 756 m (2,480 ft) per minute; hovering ceiling 3230 m (10,600 ft); combat radius 46 km (29 miles) lor a 2-hour patrol Armament: 550 kg (1,210 lb) of ordnance

Beech (Raytheon) King Air

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AH of the US Army’s Guardrail-configured RC-12s, like this RC-12N, are festooned with antennas for their communications intercept and Jamming role.

 

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he Beech Super King Air family of six – to 10-seat.

twin-turboprop business aircraft evolved from the King Air 90 and King Air 100 to the Model 200 Super King Air, which first flew on 27 October 1972 (the ‘Super’ title was drooped from all King Airs in 1996), The Model 200 was an enlarged, more powerful derivative, with a T-tail, increased wing span, extra fuel and improved pressurisation.

The Model 200 was rapidly adopted by all US armed services, primarily as utility aircraft/light transports, under The designation C-12 Variants include the C-12A (Model A200 for the US Army, USAF and Greece); UC-12B (Model A200C with cargo door for USMC and USN; TC-12B (USN crew trainers converted from C-12B); C-12C (with uprated PT6A-41 engines for US Army, later US Customs Service); C-12D (Model A200CT for US Army, USAh), C-12E (USAF C-12As refitted with PT6A-42s); C-12F (Operational Support Aircraft similar to B200C for USAF, US Army and National Guard); UC-12F (USN equivalent of РТбА-42-powerod C-12F); UC-12M (C-12F equivalent for USN); C-12R (B200C for US Army). The designation C-12J has been applied to a version of the Beech Model 1900 operated by the USAF and Army, while the C-12S is a Model 350 operated by the US Army.

Other military operators of the (Super) King Air include Argentina, Bolivia. Canada, Chile, Colombia Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,

Japan (Model 350, local designation LR-2), Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Spain, Sri l. anka, Sweden (local designation Tp 101), Thailand. Turkey and Venezuela. A radar-equipped maritime B200T patrol version serves with Algeria, Peru and Uruguay.

The US Army operates battlefield signals intelli­gence (Sigint) RC-12s, urder the Guardrail programme. Current versions include the RC-12D Improved Guardrail V (Model A200CT, fitted with AN/USD-9 remote-controlled communications inter­cept system, associated antenna and wingtip pods); RC-12G (increased weight version based on RC-12D); RC-12H Guardrail Common Sensor (System -3), increased weight version based on RC 12D: RC-12K Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 4), developed from RC-12F1, also delivered to Israel: RC-12N Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 1), developed from RC-12K with new mission fit; RC-12P Guardrail Commons Sensor (System 2), developed from RC-12N RC-12Q Direct Satellite Relay (relay platform for RC-12P).The US Navy also operates two RC-12M RANSAC range patrol aircraft.

Beech (Raytheon) King Air

Lockheed S-3 Viking Carrier-based ASW and ASuV aircraft

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Each US Carrier Air Wing embarks a single S-3B squadron for battle group ASW protection, but the Vikings have many other useful functions.

 

Подпись: Specification: Lockheed S-3B Viking Powerplam: two 41,26-kN (9,275-lb) General flectrfc TF34-GE-2 turbarans Dimensions: wing span 20.93 m (68 ft 3 rn); length overall 1 S.26 m (53 ft 4 in) height overall 6.93 m (22 ft 9 in) Weights: empty '2038 kg (26,660 lb); (42.5Ю lb); maximum take-off 23832 kg (52,540 lb) Performance: max speed at sea level 814 kmh: (506 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 1280 m (4,200 It) per minute; service ceiling 10670 m 136.000 ft]; combat radius over 1751 km (1,088 miles) Armament: maximum ordnance 3175 kg (7.000 lb) with 1814 kg (4.000 lb) carried internally
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eveloped to counter the new generation of Soviet navy quiet, deep-diving nuclear-powered submarines, the Lockheed S-3 Viking is the US Navy’s standard carrier-based, fixed-wing ASW aircraft. It is a conventional high-wing, twn-turbofan aircraft with four crew (pilot co-pilot, tactical co­ordinator and acoustic sensor operator) The first of eight service-test YS-3As made its maiden flight on 21 January 1972, and was followed by 179 production S-3A Vikings equipped with an AN/APS-116 search radar and OR-89 FUR. The heart of the ASW suite is an AN/ASQ-81 WAD sensor housed in a retractable Tailboom. The S-3A carried 60 sonobuoys in its aft fuselage and has a ventral bomb bay and wing hardpoints for bonnbs, mines torpedoes or depth charges. The S-3A entered fleet service in July 1974. Lockheed produced four US-ЗА COD aircraft which have now been retired, and a single KS-3A tanker demonstrator.

The current in-service S-3B Viking variant is the result of a 1981 upgrade programme, which added the APS-137 Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar, the ALR-76 ESM system and the ALE-39 chaff/flare dispenser. The Viking’s anti surface warfare capability was greatly improved througn the integration of the Harpoon and Maverick missiles. About 160 S-3 As

For the future the US Navy is looking to its Common Support Aircraft requirement to replace the S-3 Viking, E-2 Hawkeye and C-2 Greyhound.

were upgraded to S-3B standard. In recent years the Viking fleet has placed less emphasis on the ASW role as the Russian naval threat receded. Vikings instead took on an increased attack and special missions role, while also acting as the de facto tanking aircraft for carrier air wings. Specialist S-3B programmes include the Outlaw Viking (over-the-horizon targeting! Beartrap Viking (ASW development), Orca Viking (ASW development) and the Grey Wolf (overland reconnaissance, com­mand and control with a podded SAR radar)

The ES-3A Shadow was a carrier-based Elint aircraft modified from the S-3A with extensive sur­veillance equipment. The co-pilot’s position was replaced by a third sensor station and the bomb bays were modified to accommodate avionics. The ES-3A had a new radome, direction-finding antenna, and other equipment in a dorsal ‘shoulder’ on the fuselage, an array of seven receiving antennas on its underfuselage, an omnidirectional Elint antenna on each side of the rear fuselage, and wingtip AN/ALR 76 ESM antennas. Two squadrons operated the ES-3A from 1995 to 2000 when it was retired in favour of land-based Elint aircraft. Studies for an S-3 replacement are now being conducted under the US Navy’s Common Support Aircraft programme.

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arly variants of the Lockheed U-2 had successful (if clandestine) careers as high-altitude recon­naissance platforms. However, these models were limited by the size and weight of sensors which they could carry, and so Lockheed developed the improved U-2R which first flew in August 1967. It was larger overall, offering greatly improved range/ payload, endurance and handling characteristics Twelve early-production U-2Rs served with the USAF (in Vietnam) and with the CIA.

In 1979 the production line re-opened to provide the USAF with 37 new airframes for the TR-1A tactical reconnaissance programme, using the U-2R as a platform for the ASARS-2 synthetic aperture battlefield surveillance radar, the PLSS radar location system, and all-new Sigint-gathering equipment. The batch also nc:uded two two-seat TR-1B (later TU-2R and TU-2S) trainers and one U-2RT All three two-seat trainers are identical. Finally, two ‘civilianised’ U-2Rs were built for NASA as ER-2 earth resources monitoring aircraft. In 1991 the USAF abandoned the TR-1 designation and renamed all its aircraft as U-2Rs.

All U-2R and U-2R i aircraft were re-engined with the General Electric FI01 (later redesignated F118- 101) replacing the original J75 engine, to become the U-2S and the U-2ST, respectively. The new engine had a dramatic effect on performance and operating costs. Flight tests began in 1991 and the aircraft were redelivered between 1994 and 1998.


The chief identifying feature of the U-2R/U-2S are the ‘super pods’fitted to the inboard wing. These large pods carry a range ofSigint systems

The U-2S most resembles a large powerea g ider. The retractable main bicycle undercarriage is aided by plug in detachable ‘pogo’ outriggers. The wingtips incorporate skids, above which are RWR$, Sensors are carried in the nose, a large ‘Q-bay‘ for cameras (behind the cockpit), smaller bays along the lower fuselage ano in two removeabie wing ‘super pods’. Sensors include Comint and Elint recorders, imaging radars, radar locators and high resolution cameras. A common mission fit combines a nose – mounted ASARS-2 radar and the Senior Glass Elint system with its substantial ‘farm’ of Sigint antennas on the rear fuselage and in the ‘super pods’. Recorded intelligence can be transmitted via datalink ю ground stations, and some aircraft can carry the Senior Span/Spur satcom antenna in a large rear-mounted teardrop radome. The U-2S has also been re-equipped with the SYERS (Senior Year Electro-optical Relay System) camera, which uses imaging technology developed for US reconna s- sance satellites. The electro-optical camera at the heart of SYERS is carried in the aircraft’s nose.

ine senior spur satellite communications antenna allows the U-2S to relay ASARS-2 imagery back to base from the other side of the world.

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Specification; Lockheed U-2S Powerplant: une 81.4-kN (18,300-lb) General Electric F118-101 non-afterburning lurbo’an Dimensions: wing span 31.39 m (103 ft in); lergth 19 13m {Б2 ft 9 in); height 4.88 in (16 ft) Weights: operating empty about 6441 kg (14,199 lb); maximum take-off 18733 kg (41.300 lb)

Performance: maximum cruising speed at 21335 m (70,000 Ilf over 692 kmh (430 mpb). operational ceiling approximately 25450 m (83,500 ft), maximum range over 12500 km (7767 miles); mission endurance over 12 hours

 

BAE SYSTEMS Hawk 50, 60 Advanced jet trainer

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The extra power provided by the Hawk Mk 60’s Adour 861 engine has made it a popular choice for Middle Eastern customers, such as Kuwait.

 

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he BAe (Hawker Siddeley) hawk T. Mk 1 trainer

for the RAF first flew in August 1974. It has a low-mounted wing, stepped tandem seats and is powered by a single Adour 151-01 turbofan. It entered service in 1976, replacing Hunter and Gnat advanced trainers. The RAF’s 175 Hawk T. Mk 1s were fitted with three weapons stations as standard for advanced tactical training. In 1983, 89 (including the Red Arrows’ aircraft) were modified to Hawk T. Mk 1A standard as back-up, point-defence fighters with two AIM-9L AAMs and a centreline Aden 30-mm cannon pod. In 1989 BAe launched a re-winging programme for RAF Hawks with 72 wing sets refurbished between 1989 and 1995. In 1998 a rear-fuselage rebuild programme was authorised to extend the structural lives of RAF Hawks until 2010. This work is now being carried out by BAE SYSTEMS, the new name adopted by BAe after its merger with GEC Marconi. A single RAF Hawk T. Mk 1 has been modified to serve as the ASTRA (Advanced System Training Aircraft) Hawk, for variable stability handling training with the Empire Test Pilot’s School.

In 1977 BAe introduced the upgraded Hawk Series 50 export version. The Series 50 is powered by a 23.1-kN (5,200-lb) Adour 851 turbofan which
increased the Hawk’s range and payload perfor­mance significantly. Series 50 Hawks are fitted with four underwing pylons and an improved cockpit (including a new weapons control panel). The Hawk Series 50 was sold to Finland (57 Hawk Mk 51/51A aircraft), Indonesia (20 Mk 53), and Kenya (12 Mk 52) The Finnish Hawks were assembled locally by Valmet.

The follow-or Hawk Series 60 export version introduced a 25.4-kN (5,700-lb st) Mk 861 Adour engine, and an ‘advanced wing’ with additional leading-edge fences and revised flaps. Operating weights, range and performance were boosted compared to the Series 50 and the Series 60 air­craft had built-in provision for IR-guided air-to-air missiles (such as the AIM-9 and R.550).

Customers for the Hawk Series 60 include Abu Dhabi (16 Mk 63/Mk 63C aircraft), Dubai [nine Mk 61), Korea (20 Mk 67). Kuwait (12 Mk 64), Saudi Arabia (50 Mk 65/Mk 65A), Switzerland (20 Mk 66) and Zimbabwe (13 Mk 60/Mk 60A Korea’s Hawk Mk 67s are a unique ‘long-nosed1 version, similar to the Hawk 100, with nose-wheel steering. The Swiss Hawks were assembled locally by F&W The related Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) T-45 is described under a separate entry.

Подпись: Saudi Arabia is the largest export customer for the first-generation Hawks with a fleet of 50 Hawk Mk 65/65AS delivered between 1987 and 1997. Specification: BAE SYSTEMS Hawk T. Mk 1 Powerplant. one 23.1-kN (5.200-ib) flolls – Reyce/Turbomeca Adour Mk 871 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9.39 m {30 ft 9X in); length 10.775 m (34 ft 4/f ink height 3.93 m <13 ft И in)

Weights: empty 4400 kg (9.700 lb); maximum take-off 5700 kg (12,56611)1 Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ 1065 kmh 1661 mph): maximum rate of climb at sea level 3600 m (11.800 ft) per minute; sarvice ceiling 13545 m (44,500 ft); combat radios 638 km (397 miles) with gun pod. two AIM-9s and four 500-lb bombs Armament: one centreline 30-mm ADEN cannon; maximum ordnance 3000 kg (6,614 lb)

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he success of the Hawk in the export market convinced British Aerospace (now BAE SYSTEMS) to develop more capable versions for advanced training and front-line combat missions. The first of these to emerge was the Hawk Series 100, an enhanced ground-attack version of the Hawk Series 60. While largely similar to езгііег aircraft, the Hawk 100 introduced an uprated Adour Mk 871 turbofan, an increased span wing (with combat manoeuvre flaps, wingtip missile launch rails and six stores stations), a lengthened nose housing an optional FUR and/or laser rangefinder, an advanced cockpit with HUDWAC, MFDs and HOTAS and attack-optimised avionics. A single 30-mm ADEN gun pod is an optional fitting on the fuselage centreline in place of a further stores station.

The first flight of the (converted) prototype came on 21 October 1987 The first production prototype flew on 29 February 1992. The launch customer for the Hawk 100 was Abu Dhabi, n 1989. Customers to date include Abu Dhabi (18 Mk 102 aircraft), Indonesia (e’ght Mk 109). Malaysia (10 Mk 108) and Oman (four Mk 103).

BAE SYSTEMS has developed a follow-on version of the Hawk 100, the Hawk LIFT (Lead-In Fighter Trainer). This version has a three-screen digital cockpit and other improved onboard systems. The launch customer was South Africa, in 1998, with an order for 24 aircraft. Similar advanced trainers (but not True LIFT aircraft) are being acquired by Canada


The Hawk 200 provides affordable and effective combat power, in a compact package. These aircraft are Omani Hawk Mk 203s.

(18 Mk 115, local designation CT-155.1 and Australia (33 Mk 127. ocal designation A27).

The single-seat Hawk 200 variant retains the Hawk 100’s engine, combat wing and stores capability, but has a redesigned forward fuselage for a single cockpit, a Lockheed Martin AN/APG-66H radar in a reprofiled nose, and two 25-mm ADEN cannon. For self-protection the Hawk 200 is fitted with the Sky Guardian 200 radar warning system and chaff/flare dispensers. The Hawk 200 can be fitted with an air-to-air refuelling probe

A prototype first flew on 24 April 1987, but the full mission fit was first applied to the third develop­ment aircraft, which flew on 13 February 1992. The Hawk 200 can undertake air defence, close air support, battlefield interdiction, anti-shipping and photo-reconnaissance missions. Oman became the launch customer, in 1990, but the first production- standard aircraft was delivered to Malaysia, in 1994. Hawk 200 customers include Indonesia (32 Mk 209 aircraft). Malaysia (18 Mk 208) and Oman (12 Mk 203).

The most obvious external changes on the Hawk 100 are its extended ‘chisel’ nose and wingtip air-to-air missile launchers.


image63Specification: BAE SYSTEMS Hawk 200 Powerplant: one 26-kN 15,845-lb) Rolls – Royce/Turbomcca Adour Mk 371 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 3.39 m (30 ft 9Л in); ength 10,95 m!35 ft 11 in); height 4,13 m (13 ft 6 К in)

Weights: empty 4440<g (9,810 lb); maximum take-off 91QD kg (20.051 lb|

Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ 10Б5 kmh (661 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 3503m (11,510 ft) per minute: service ceiling 13715 m (45,000 ft); ferry range 2528 km (1570 miles) with two drop tanks Armament: ore centreline ЗО-глт ADEN cannon, maximum ordnance 3000 kg (6,614 lb)

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Подпись: Specification: BAE SYSTEMS/Boeing Harrier GR.Mk 7 Powerplant: one 96.75-kN (21.750-lb) Rolls- Royce Pegasus Mk 105 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9 25 m (30 4 in); length 1453 m (47 ft 3 in), height 3 55 m (11 ft 1% in) Weights: operating amply 7124 kg (15.705 lb); maximum take-off 14515 kg (32.000 lb) for CTO or 8754 kg (19.300 lb) for VT0 Performance: maximum level speed 1030 kmii (677 mph); take-off run 524 m (1,720 ft |; range 870 km (650 miles) Armament: two ADEN 25-mm revolver cannon in underfuselage pods with 100 rpg. maximum ordnance 6.003 kg (13235 lb)
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During ihe late 1970s BAe (now BAE SYSTEMS) initiated independent development of an advanced Harrier. This was abandoned and the Harrier GR. Mk 5 designation was used instead for a licence-built version of the McDonnell Doug as (Boe’rg) AV-8B Harrier II (described separately). for which British Aerospace was a sub-contractor. Two pre-series and 60 production aircraft were ordered, with the first (pre-series) flying in April 1985. Numerous detail differences from the AV-8B were specified by the RAF, with indigenous equipment such as ejection seats, self-defence systems and avionics.

Problems with several systems imposed e two – year delay on RAF service entry and the aircraft were accepted lacking major equipment items, including the new 25-mm ADEN cannon, Zeus ECM system and missile approach warning system. Initial RAF deliveries began in May 1987 and the first squadron was declared operational in November 1989. Nineteen GR. Mk 5s were completed to an interim GR. Mk 5A standard, with provision Jor GR. Mk 7 avionics, and were delivered stra ght into storage to await conversion to full night-attack standard. All remaining GR. Mk 5/5As have now been converted to GR. Mk 7 standard.

The RAF’s two-seat Harrier T. Mk 10s are operated by No. 20(R) squadron which handles the operational conversion task for RAF Harriers.


GR. Mk 7s deployed for operations over Iraq during Operation Warden were painted in this temporary grey finish on fop of their regular camouflage.

The Harrier GR. Mk 7 is the RAF equivalent of the Night Attack AV-8B. Its nose is fitted with a TV/laser target seeker/tracker of the Angle Rate Bombing Sot, and a FLIR is mounted in the housing above. Two forward hemisphere antennas for the Zeus ECM system are located under the nose The Harrier GR. Mk 7 has an NVG-compatibie cockpit with a digital colour map. The RAF ordered 34 new-build"GR. Mk 7s in 1988 and a converted pre­series aircraft was first flown as such in November 1989. The first production GR. Mk 7 was delivered in May 1990 and operational service began in late 1992. Along with the new-build aircraft, 41 Harrier GR. Mk 5s and 19 GR. Mk 5As were converted to GR. Mk 7 standard – between 1990 and 1994. The first GR. Mk 7 unit was No. IV Scuadron, which re­equipped in September 1990. As a result of operations over Bosnia RAF Harriers have been given a useful reconnaissance caoability using the Vinten GP-1 camera pod.

To augment the GR. Mk 7 force the RAF also acquired 13 two-seat Harrier T. Mk 10 trainers, based on the same next-generation airframe, with common (fully-operational) systems to the GR. Mk 7. The T. Mk 10 prototype first flew on 7 April 1994 and the type entered service in March 1995.

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Developed from the RAF’s Harrier GR. Mk 3, the Sea Harrier FRS. Mk 1 introduced a redesigned forward fuselage and nose fitted with a Ferranti Blue Fox radar, a new canopy and raised cockpit for improved view, end a 96.3-kN (21,492- b st! Pegasus Mk 104 engine. Avionics changes included addition of an auto-pilot, в revised nav/ attack system and a new HUD. An initial order was placed in 1975 for 24 FRS. Mk 1s and a single T. Mk 4A trainer. The first operational squadron (No. 899 Sqn) was commissioned in April 1980 and two units (Nos 800 and 801 Sqns) were subsequently deployed during the Falklands War where they served with distinction, scoring 23 confirmed victories.

Post-Falkland attrition replacements and further orders subsequently took total RN procurement up to 57 FRS. Mk 1s and four trainers (including three T. Mk 4Ns). Improvements included revised wing pylons for carriage of four AIM-9Ls (on twin launch mils}, larger-capacity drop tanks and installation of an improved Blue Fox radar and RWR. In 1978, the Indian Navy became the second Sea Harrier opera­tor, ordering a total of 24 FRS. Mk 51s and four T. Mk 60 trainers.

A mid-life update was initiated in 1985 to refine the Sea Harrier as a more capable interceptor. BAe (now BAE SYSTEMS) converted two FRS. Mk is to serve as FRS. Mk 2 prototypes, with the first flying in September 1988, Despite the addition of an extra equipment bay and a recootoured nose to house


The Royal Navy’s Fleet Air Arm has two front-line Sea Harrier FA. Mk 2 squadrons, Nos. 800 and No. 801 Sqns, plus the training Squadron No 899.

the Blue Vixen multi-mode pulse-Doppler radar (giving compatibi ity with the AIM-120 AMRAAM), the FRS. Mk 2 is actually nearly 0.61 m (2 ft) shorter overall due to the elimination of the FRS. Mk 1’s pitot probe. The cockpit introduces new multi-func­tion CRT displays and HQTAS controls. The FRS. Mk 2 designation was changed to F/A. Mk 2 in May 1994 and then to the current FA. Mk 2 in 1995.

Two development aircraft were built, with the first flying on September 1988. The contract for the modification of 29 existing FRS. Mk Is to Sea Harrier FA. Mk 2 standard was signed in December 1988, and was followed by a further tour aircraft in 1994. Another 18 new-build FA. Mk 2s were also acquired, and delivered between 1995 and 1998. Seven T. Mlk 4/4N trainers have been converted to Sea Harrier T. Mk 8 standard, to meet the require­ment for FA. Mk 2 training. In August 1994 No. 899 San embarked four FA. Mk 2s aboard HMS Invincible for operations over Bosnia, and No, 801 Sqn made the first full deployment of the FA. Mk 2 in January 1995, aboard HMS Illustrious.

The Sea Harrier T. Mk 8 trainer is an upgraded version of the earlier T. Mk 4 fitted with some of the systems of the FA. Mk 2 – though it lacks a radar.


Specification: BAE SYSTEMS Sea Harrier FA. Mk 2 Powerplant: one 95.64-kN (21,500-lb} Rolls – Royce Pegasus Mk 106 turbofan Dimensions: span 7.70 m (25 ft 3 in); length 14.17 m (46 ft 6 in); height 3.71 m (1? ft 2 in) Weights: operating empty 6616 kg 114,585 lb): maximum take-off 11884 kg (26700 lb), ST0 Performance: maximum level speed 1144 kmh [711 mph); service ceiling 15545 m (51,000 ft); combat radius 750 km (460 mfles) on ahi-hi-hi interception mission with four AAMs

Armament two 30-mm ADEN cannon in under-fuselage pods, maximum ordnance 3224 kg (7108 ib)

 

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United Kingdom

Northrop Grumman F-14 Tomcat Naval strike fighter

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The US Navy’s F-14 fleet is gradually being scaled back and many famed fighter squadrons have been disbanded as a result

 

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esigned as a successor to the F-4 in the fleet air defence role, the Grumman F-14A Tomcat was conceived to engage and destroy targets at extreme range using the AWG-9 fire control system and AIM-54 Phoenix missiles. It remains the US Navy’s standard carrier-based interceptor. The first development aircraft flew on 21 December 1970. Deliveries to the Navy began in October 1972. with the first operational cruise in 1974.

Problems with the F-14A’s TF-30 turbofan were a key factor in the development of re-engined and upgraded Tomcat variants. One airframe was fitted with F4Q1-PW-4Q0S and tested as the F-14B as early as 1973-74. This aircraft later re-emerged as the F-14B Super Tomcat with F101DFE engines. This engine was developed into the GE F100-GE – 400 turbofan, which was selected to power improved Tomcat variants. Two re-engined variants were proposed: the F-14A-1- was to be an interim type, while the F-14D would introduce improved digital avionics Subsequently, the F-l4A(Plus) was redesignated as the F-14B, 38 new-build examples being joined by 32 F-14A rebuilds by 1988. These incorporated some avionics changes, including a modernised fire control system, new radios, upgraded RWRs, and various cockpit changes.

The first new-build F-14D made its first flight on 9 February 1990. The F-14D added digital radar pro­cessing and displays to the AWG-9, resulting in a designation change to APG-71. and a dual under­nose TCS/IRST sensor pod. Other improvements include NACES ejection seats, and AN/ALR-67 RWR equipment Defence cuts resulted in the service receiving only 37 new-build aircraft, with deliveries beginning in 1990. Deliveries of rebuilt F-14D rebuilds finished at 110, in 1995. A proposed Tomcat 21 strike fighter lost out against the F/A – 18E/F Super Hornet.

In late 1990 the air-ground potential of the F-14 began to be exploited as the Bombcat’ entered the fleet, albeit with ‘dumb’ bombs only. LGBs were cleared for use in 1994 and in September 1995 VF-41 dropped them in action against Bosnian Serb forces. LANTIRN has been integrated with the F-14 allowing self-designation for LGBs, and has seen action over Yugoslavia and Iraq, Other new Bombcat weapons include JDAM and JSOW.

From 2002, the F-14 will be progressively replaced by the F/A-18F Super Hornet, and will be completely phased out by 2010, Until then, the F-14 continues to be upgraded, most recently with a Digital Flight Control System (DFCS).

Подпись: VF-102 ‘Diamondbacks' operates the F-14B, one of five F-UB Tomcat squadrons currently active in the overall US Navy Tomcat force. Specification: Northrop Grumman F-140 Powerpjant: two 102.75-kN (23,100-lb) General Electric F110-GE-400 Turbofans Dimensions: wing span 19.54 m (64 ft VA in) spread, 11.65 m (38 ft 2У in| swept and 10.15 m (33 ft ЗУ, in) overswept; length 19.10 m (62 ft 8 in); height 4.88 m (16 ft)

Weights: empty 18951 kg (41,780 lb); maximum take-off 33724 kg [74,349 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 1997 kmh (1,241 mph): max rate of climb at sea level more than 9145 m [30,000 ft) per minute; service ceiling more than 16150 m (53.000 ft); combat radius on a CAP 1994 km [1,239 miles) Armament: one M61 Vulcan 20-mm cannon; maximum ordnance 6577 kg (14,500 lb)