Cessna A-37 Dragonfly

A-37, -37A and -37B ( Model 318E)

(data for -37B)

Origin: Cessna Aircraft Co, USA,

Type: Two-seat light strike aircraft.

Engines: Two 2.850lb (1293kg) thrust General Electric J85-17A single­shaft turbojets.

Dimensions: Span (over tip tanks) 35ft Ю^іп (1093m); length (not including refuelling probe) 29ft Зіп (8-92m); height 8ft 10Jin (2-7m). Weights: Empty 6,2111b (2817kg): loaded 14,0001b (6350kg). Performance: Maximum speed 507mph (816km/h) at 16,000ft (4875m): initial climb at gross weight 6,990ft (2130m)/min: service ceiling 41,765ft (12,730m): range (maximum weapons) 460 miles (740km), (maximum fuel) 1,012 miles (1628km).

Armament: One 7-62mm GAU-2B/A six-barrel Minigun in nose: eight wing pylon stations, two inners for up to 870lb (394kg), intermediate for 600lb (272kg) and outers for 500lb (227kg): maximum ordnance load 5,6801 b (2576kg).

History: First flight (XT-37) 12 October 1954: (YAT-37D) 22 October 1963: (A-37B) September 1967.

Users: (T-37) Brazil, Burma, Cambodia. Chile, Colombia, W Germany, Greece. Jordan, Pakistan, Peru, Portugal, Thailand, Turkey, US Air Force, Vietnam; (A-37) Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia (delivery embargoed at time of writing), Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Uruguay, US Air Force and National Guard, Vietnam (left by US forces).

Development: The Cessna Model 318 was the first American jet trainer. It entered production for the US Air Force as the T-37A, powered by two 920lb (417kg) thrust Continental J69 (licence-built Turbomeca Marbore) engines and with side-by-side ejection seats. All A models were subse-

Below: The A-37B Dragonfly has been sold to numerous air forces, especially those of South America. These are aircraft of (left) the Fuerza Аёгеа Ecuatoriana, (upper right) the Fuerza Aerea de Chile and (lower right) the Fuerza Aerea Uruguayana.

Cessna A-37 Dragonfly



Cessna A-37 DragonflyCessna A-37 Dragonfly

Three-view of A-37B Dragonfly, showing the almost grotesque array of possible stores.

Cessna A-37 Dragonfly

quently converted to the standard of the main production type, the T-37B, with J69-25 engines of 1,0251b (465kg) thrust. Export versions were designated T-37C, with provision for underwing armament. Production of the T-37 was completed in 1975 with more than 1,300 delivered to the USAF and 14 other air forces. It was logical to fit the much more powerful J85 engine and restress the airframe to carry greater loads in arduous combat duties. The work began in 1960 at the time of the upsurge of interest in Со-In (counter-insurgency) aircraft to fight "brushfire wars". Deliveries of A-37A aircraft converted from T-37 trainers began in May 1967 and a squadron of 25 had flown 10,000 combat missions in Vietnam in an exten­sive evaluation by early 1 968. The slightly more powerful A-37B is the definitive production version and by 1977 deliveries had exceeded 600. The A-37B is not pressurised, nor does it have ejection seats, but the dual pilots are protected by layered nylon flak curtains. The wealth of nav/com avionics and possible underwing stores is impressive and nearly all В models have a fixed nose refuelling probe.

Above: Yet another of the Latin American air arms to rely on the warlike Cessna is the Fuerza Aerea del Peru. A total of 36 are in service, all flown by Grupos 13 and 21 from the major FAP base at Chiclayo. Peru’s difficulties in procuring later attack aircraft from Western sources caused it to select the Sukhoi Su-22, which when delivered lacked adequate nav/attack avionics.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21

MiG-21, 21 F (S-107), 21 FA, 21 PF, 21 FL,

21 PFS, 21 PFM, 21 PFMA, 21 M, 21 R,

21 MF, 21SMT, 21 bis, 21 U, 21 US and 21 UM plus countless special versions. Several versions made in China as F-8

Origin: The design bureau named for Mikoyan and Gurevich: Soviet Union: licence-production as described in the text.

Type: Single-seat fighter: (PFMA and MF) limited all-weather multi-role: (R) reconnaissance: (U) two-seat trainer.

Engine: In all versions, one Tumansky single-shaft turbojet with after­burner: (-21) R-11 rated at 11,2401b (5100kg) with afterburner: (-21 F) R-11-F2-300 rated at 13,1201b (5950kg): (-21 FL, PFS, PFM and PFMA) R-11-G2S-300 rated at 13,6681b (6200kg): (-21 MF and derivatives) R-13-300 rated at 14,5001b (6600kg).

Dimensions: Span 23ft 5jin (7-15m): length (excluding probe) (-21) 46ft 11 in: (-21 MF) 48ft OJin (14-6m): height (little variation, but figure for MF) 14ft 9in (4’5m).

Weights: Empty (-21) 11,4641b (5200kg): (-21 MF) 12,3461b (5600kg): maximum loaded (-21) 18,7401b (8500kg): (-21 MF) 21,6051b (9800kg) (weight with three tanks and two K-1 ЗА, 20.725lb).

Performance: Maximum speed (MF, but typical of all) 1,285mph (2070km/h, Mach 2-1): initial climb (MF, clean) 36,090ft (11,000m)/min: service ceiling 59,050ft (18,000m): range (high, internal fuel) 683 miles (1100km): maximum range (MF, high, three tanks) 1,118 miles (1800km). Armament: See text.

Подпись:Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21Right: An early model, MiG-21 FL, on night-flying practice with the East German (LSK) air force. This sub-type is not equipped for night fighting, though with good ground guidance it might get into a firing position.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21

Above: Three-view of MiG-21 SMT ("Fishbed K") with four K-1 ЗА missiles.

History: First flight (E-5 prototype) late 1955: (production -21F) late 1957: service delivery early 1 958.

Users: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, E Germany, Flungary, India (licence-built), Indonesia (stored), Iraq, Laos, Mozambique, Nigeria,

N Korea, Poland, Romania, Somalia, Soviet Union, Sudan, S Yemen, Syria, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21
Development: Undoubtedly the most widely used combat aircraft in the world in the 1970s, this trim little delta has destablished a reputation for cost effectiveness and in its later versions it also packs a more adequate ►

multi-role punch. It was designed in the 18 months following the Korean War. While Sukhoi developed large supersonic fighters to rival the American F-100, the Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau, by now led only by Col-Gen Mikoyan (who died in 1970), concentrated on a small day interceptor of the highest possible performance. Prototypes were built with both swept and delta wings, both having powered slab tailplanes, and the delta was chosen for production. At least 30 pre-production aircraft had flown by the time service delivery started and the development effort was obviously considerable. The initial MiG-21 abounded in interesting features including Fowler flaps, fully powered controls, upward ejection seat fixed to the rear of the front-hinged canopy (which incorporated the whole front of the cockpit enclosure except the bullet-proof windshield) to act as a pilot blast-shield, and internal fuel capacity of only 410 gal. Armament was two 30mm NR-30 in long fairings under the fuselage, the left gun usually being replaced by avionics. Part of these avionics serve the two K-13 ("Atoll") missiles carried on wing pylons on the slightly more powerful 21 F. This had radar ranging, 515 gal fuel, broader fin, upward-hinged pitot boom attached under the nose (to prevent people walking into it) and two dorsal blade aerials. Czech-built aircraft (still called 21 F) did not have the rear-view windows in the front of the dorsal spine. The F was called "Fishbed C" by NATO and Type 74 by the Indian Air Force; it was also the type supplied to China in 1 959 and used as the pattern for the Chinese-built F-8. As the oldest active variant it was also the first exported or seen in the West, the Finnish AF receiving the 21 F-1 2 in April 1963.

At Tushino in 1961 the prototype was displayed of what became the 21 PF, with inlet diameter increased from 27in to 36in, completely changing the nose shape and providing room for a large movable centre-body housing the scanner of the R1 L (NATO "Spin Scan") Al radar. Other changes include deletion of guns (allowing simpler forward airbrakes), bigger main – wheels (causing large fuselage bulges above the wing), pitot boom moved above the inlet, fatter dorsal spine (partly responsible for fuel capacity of 627gal) and many electronic changes. All PF had an uprated engine, late models had take-off rocket latches and final batches had completely new

Подпись: i I'

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21Above: Though the latest type of combat aircraft so far permitted to the air force of Romania is the very limited MiG-21 PF, with ‘AA-2 Atoll’ IR-homing missiles, it is possible that an air-combat version of the Orao may appear. About 80 of all MiG-21 versions are believed to be in service with this country.

blown flaps (SPS) which cut landing speed by 25mph and reduced nose-up attitude for better pilot view. The FL was the export – PF (L = lokator. denoting R2L radar) with even more powerful engine. Like the F models rebuilt in 1963-64, this can carry the GP-9 gunpack housing the excellent GSh-23 23mm twin-barrel gun, has a still further broadened vertical tail and drag – chute repositioned above the jetpipe. The PFS was the PF with SPS blown flaps, while the PFM was a definitive improved version with another 19in added to the fin (final fillet eliminated), a conventional seat and side-hinged canopy, and large flush aerials in the fin. One-off versions were built to prove STOL with lift jets and to fly a scaled "analogue" of the wing of the Tu-144 SST. The very important PFMA. made in huge numbers, was the first multi­role version, with straight top line from much deeper spine (housing equipment and not fuel and holding tankage to 572gal), and four pylons for two 1,1001b and two 5511b bombs, four S-24 missiles and/or tanks or K-1 ЗА missiles. The 21M has an internal GSh-23 and since 1973 has been built in India as Type 88. The 21 R has multi-sensor reconnaissance internally and in pods and wing-tip ECM fairings, as do late models of the 21 MF, the first to have the new R-13 engine. The RF is the R-1 3-powered reconnaissance version. One of the few variants still in production is the SMT, with fuel restored to the spine and more comprehensive avionics including tail-warning radar.

Code-named "Mongol" and called Type 66 in India, the U is the tandem trainer, the US has SPS flaps and UM the R-13 engine and four pylons. Many other versions have been used to set world records. About 10,000 of all sub-types have been built, and in 1977 output was continuing at perhaps three per week in the Soviet Union, with a much lower rate, in India; in early 1976 N Korea was said to be also in production. Many of the early models of this neat fighter were sweet to handle and quite effective day dogfighters, but the majority of the subtypes in use have many adverse characteristics and severe limitations.

In late 1976 a new version appeared, the MiG-21 bis (Fishbed L); this is a cleaned-up and refined MiG-21 MF with Tacan-type navigation and other improvements.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-21

General Dynamics F-111

"TFX ", F-111 A to F-111F, EF-111A and FB-111A

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth (EF-111A, Grumman Aerospace), USA.

Type: Two-seat all-weather attack bomber: (EF) two-seat electronic warfare: (FB) two-seat strategic bomber.

Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney TF30 two-shaft afterburning turbofans, at following ratings: (F-111 A, C) TF30-3 at 18,5001b (8390kg): (D, E) TF30-9 at 19,6001b (8891 kg): (F) RF30-100 at 25,1001b (1 1,385kg): (FB) TF30-7 at 20,350lb (9230kg).

Dimensions: Span, 72-5° sweep (A, D, E, F) 31ft 11-yin (9-74m); (C, FB) 33ft 11 in (10-34m): span, 16° sweep (A, D, E. F) 63ft (19-2m); (C, FB) 70ft (21 -34m): length 73ft 6in (22 4m): height 17ft 1£in (5-22m). Weights: Empty (A, C) 46,1721b (20,943kg): (D, E, F) about 49,0001b (22,226kg): (FB) about 50,0001b (22,680kg): maximum loaded (A, 3) 91,5001b (41,500kg): (D, E, F) 99,000lb (44,906kg): (FB) 119,0001b (54,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean), Mach 2-2 at 35,000ft or above, or about 1,450mph (2335km/h): maximum speed at low level (clean) Mach 1 -2 or 800mph (1287km/h): maximum speed at maximum weight, subsonic at low level: service ceiling (clean) (A) 51,000ft (15,500m): (F) 60,000ft (18,290m): range on internal fuel (A, C) 3,1 65 miles (5093km). Armament: Internal bay for two 750lb (341kg) bombs or 20mm M-61 multi-barrel gun: eight underwing pylons for total of 31,5001b (14,290kg) of stores, inner pylons swivelling with wing sweep and outer four being fixed and loaded only with wing at 1 6°.

History: First flight 21 December 1 964: service delivery June 1967: first F-111 F with -100 engine, May 1973: EF-111A (Grumman ECM conversion) 1977.

Users: Australia, US Air Force. continued►

General Dynamics F-111

Below: An unusual view of an F-111 E, an interim version basically similar to the original F-111A but with enlarged engine inlet ducts (for a more powerful version of the TF30 afterburning turbofan which was never fitted). The main unit equipped with this sub – type is the 20th TFW based at RAF Upper Heyford, in England. Aircraft in normal operational service have a black radome, unlike that of this aircraft which was on test missions in the United States. Even today the F-111 is the only true all-weather tactical aircraft in service, apart from the US Navy A-6.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: Three-view of the FB-111A strategic bomber version.

General Dynamics F-111

Above: A gaily-painted development prototype of the EF-111A all – weather electronic-warfare aircraft, with canoe (belly) and fin aerials for the ALQ-99 EW (Electronic Warfare) installation. The EF-111A programme is being handled chiefly by Grumman.

Below: Considerably more powerful than any other type of F-111, the F-111 F is an excellent aircraft in all respects. All the examples of this sub-type in combat duty are serving with the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Lakenheath. England, where this photograph was taken in 1979 during training missions.

General Dynamics F-111

General Dynamics F-111

Development: Developed to meet a bold Department of Defense edict that a common type of "fighter" called TFX should be developed to meet all future tactical needs of all US services, the F-111A proved both a world – beater and a great disappointment. Thrown into the public eye by acrimo­nious disagreement over which bidder should get the production contract, it then stayed in the news through being grosslyoverweight, up in drag and suffering from severe problems with propulsion, structure and systems. Eventually almost superhuman efforts cleared the F-111A for service, overcoming part of the range deficiency by a considerable increase in internal fuel. The RAAF bought 24 F-111C with long-span wings and stronger landing gear and took delivery after they had been nine years in storage. The RAF ordered 50 similar to the C but with updated avionics, but this deal was cancelled. Only 141 low-powered А-models were built, the US Navy F-111 В fighter was cancelled, and the next batch was 94 of the E type with Improved intakes and engines (20th Tac Ftr Wing at Upper Fleyford, England). Then came the 96 F-111D with improved avionics (27th TFW in New Mexico) and finally the superb F-11’1 F with redesigned P-100 engine of greatly increased thrust and cheaper avionics (366 TFW, in Idaho). The heavier FB-111A, with the ability to carry six AGM-69A SRAM missiles externally, was bought to replace the ES-58 and early B-52 models in Strategic Air Command. Cost-inflation cut the FB order from 210 back to 76. With several RF and ECM conversions the total programme amounted to 539 plus 23 development prototypes. To keep the line open a further 12 were authorised in 1974 to be built at a low rate until 1976. 1

In 1979 the only work on F-111s was structural improvement of aircraft in service and Grumman’s conversion of surplus F-111 As to EF-111A standard with the ALO tac-jamming system of the EA-6B Prowler but without extra crew. Despite lack of funds it is hoped to rebuild 40 aircraft of this type to equip two USAF squadrons. The EF will not carry weapons, and will direct other aircraft. No aircraft has ever had worse luck or a worse press, and in combat in South East Asia the sudden loss of three of the first six aircraft was eventually found to be due to a faulty weld in the tailplane power unit. In fact all models of the F-111 are valuable machines with great range and endurance, excellent reliability and great ability to hit a point target in a first-pass strike, even in blind conditions. These aircraft are bombers, with much greater power and weight than four-engined bombers of World War II. It was un­fortunate they were loosely launched as "fighters".

Left: Apart from the much older and probably more vulnerable B-52 the only American strategic bomber is the FB-111A, one of which is seen here about to take fuel from a KC-135 tanker. It is carrying its usual armament of four SRAM missiles on the external pylons; if necessary a further two can be accommodated in an internal bay plus two (rarely, four) more on additional wing pylons.

General Dynamics F-111General Dynamics F-111
Below : Since the early 1970s General Dynamics has been proposing ‘stretched’ versions of the FB-111A as a new strategic bomber for USAF Strategic Air Command. This artist’s impression shows the FB-111 H, with longer fuselage, much greater fuel capacity, bogie main landing gears and two General Electric F101 engines (the same as used in the cancelled B-1 bomber). It would have been an extremely formidable aircraft with much greater radius of action than the somewhat limited FB-111A but was never built.


Jaguar GR.1 and T.2, Jaguar A and E, and Jaguar International

Origin: SEPECAT. consortium formed by British Aerospace (ВАС) and Dassault-Breguet, France.

Type: (GR.1, A and International (I.)) single-seat all-weather attack: (T.2 and E) dual operational trainer.

Engines: Two Rolls-Royce/ТигЬотёса Adour two-shaft augmented к turbofans: (except I.) 7.305lb (3313kg) Adour 102: (I.) 8.000lb (3630kg) Adour 804.

Dimensions: Span 28ft 6in (869m); length (except T.2, E) 50ft 11 in (15 52m); (T.2, E) 53ft 11 in (16-42m): height 16ft 1 iin (4-92m). Weights: Empty, classified but about 1 5,0001b (6800kg): "normal take-off" (ie, internal fuel and some external ordnance) 23,0001b (10,430kg): maximum loaded 34,000lb (15,500kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (lo, some external stores) 820mph (1320km/h. Mach 1-1), (hi, some external stores) 1.055mph (1700km/h. Mach 1-6): climb and ceiling, classified: attack radius, no external fuel, hi-lo-hi with bombs. 507 miles (81 5km): ferry range 2,614 miles (4210km). Armament: (A, E) two 30mm DEFA 553 each with 150 rounds: five pylons for total external load of 10,0001b (4536kg): (GR.1) as above but guns two 30mm Aden: (T.2) as above but single Aden. (International) wide range of options including increased external loads.

History: First flight (E) 8 September 1968: (production E) 2 November 1971: (production GR.1) 11 October 1972: squadron delivery (E, A) May 1972, (GR, T) June 1973.

Users: Ecuador, France, India, Oman, UK (RAF).

Development: Developed jointly by ВАС in Britain and Dassault-Breguet in France, to meet a joint requirement of the Armee de Г Air and RAF, the



Above: Three-view of Jaguar GR.1 without stores.

Jaguar is a far more powerful and effective aircraft than originally planned and has already demonstrated unmatched capabilities in service. The original idea was a light trainer and close-support machine, with 1,3001b

continued ►



XZ358 was one of the last of the 202 Jaguars delivered to the Royal Air Force. It is a GR.1 multi-role single-seater, pictured here making an afterburning takeoff in clean condition. By late 1980 almost all the aircraft in service will be fitted with more powerful Mk 104 engines of the same thrust as the Mk 804 fitted to the Jaguar International export version.

weapon load, but with British pressure this was upgraded to today’s out­standing aircraft whose only marketing problem is the fact that the French partner prefers aircraft which appear to be all-French (yet. in fact, Dassault makes only the same proportion of the Mirage F1 as it does of the Jaguar, namely, about 50 per cent). Despite this unhappy political scene the sheer merit of the Jaguar, and the enthusiastic missionary work done by its operating units in the Armee de I’Air and RAF, is gradually winning valuable orders, beginning with Ecuador and Oman in 1974. Further sales are likely with the more powerful International version now flying. The two basic single­seat versions share a common airframe but are totally different in equipment. The French A model has a simple twin-gyro platform, doppler, and a basic navigation computer; in 1977 an Atlis laser pod was being added. The RAF GR.1 has inertial navigation, head-up display, projected map display, radar height, integrated nav/attack system and laser ranger, as well as com­prehensive ECM and option of a multi-sensor reconnaissance pod. All versions can have nose radar, refuelling probe and the option of overwing pylons for light dogfight missiles (Jaguar development aircraft have flown with Matra Magics in these positions). Thanks to a dynamic programme of engine development Jaguar users have the option of various increased- thrust Adours, including the Mk 804 (Adour 26) fitted to the basic Jaguar International, and the even more powerful Adour 56 and 58 (in the 10,0001b, 4500kg class) which will be available from 1980. It is the intention of the RAF to select one of the uprated engines and convert all Jaguar engines to this standard, to gain even better field length and flight performance with large mission loads. By 1977 some 300 aircraft had been delivered, and several new customers were engaged in contract negotiation.

SEPECAT JaguarRight: This Jaguar International is one of ten single – seaters (as illustrated) and two two-seaters equipping No 8 Sqn of the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force. This unit is normally based at Thumrayt, in Dhofar province, and is dedicated to long-range ground attack with various weapons and to air combat with Magic missiles on overwing pylons.

Below: Test firing of a Matra 550 Magic close-range air-to-air missile from special overwing pylons added to a Jaguar retained for research and trials programmes by British Aerospace Warton Division. Another completed programme concerns fitting the Thomson-CSF Agave radar, and many other sensors are available as options.




Above: Fly-past by single-seat Jaguar A and two-seat Jaguar E aircraft of the 7e Escadre de Chasse, Агтёе de Г Air, normally based at St Dizier. This was the first Jaguar wing to be fully equipped in the French air force, with a strength of 35 single – seaters and 25 dual-control trainers with the conversion unit.

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

VTI-CIAR 93 Orao

Origin: Joint programme by Centrala Industriala Aeronautica Romana, Bucharest, Romania, and Vazduhoplovno-Techniki Institut, Zarkovo, Yugoslavia.

Type: Single-seat tactical attack.

Engines: Two 4,0001b (1814kg) thrust Rolls-Royce/Fiat Viper 632 single-shaft turbojets.

Dimensions: (Estimated) span 24ft 10in (7-56m); length 42ft 4in (12-9m): height 12ft 5in (3-78m).

Weights: (Estimated) empty 9,480lb (4300kg): loaded (fighter mission) 15,8751b (7200kg): maximum loaded 19,8501b (9000kg).

Performance: (Estimated) maximum speed, equivalent to about Mach 0-95 over wide height band (thus, about 700—720mph, 11 50km/h, clean at sea level): maximum speed with weapons, about 550mph (885km/h) at sea level: initial climb (clean) at least 15,000ft (4600m)/min: range on internal fuel (clean, high altitude) about 900 miles (1450km).

Armament: Two Nudelmann-Richter NR-30 30mm cannon, each with 125 rounds: centreline and underwing hardpoints, each reported to be rated at 500kg (maximum total external load, 4,840lb. 2200kg) for wide range of Yugoslav cluster bombs, frag bombs, h. e. and napalm (some retarded), rocket pods (12* 57mm) or photoflashes.

History: Start of design 1971: first flight believed August 1974: official demonstration 15 April 1975: service delivery, probably December 1976. Users: Romania, Yugoslavia.

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

Development: In 1971 the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia agreed to attempt to meet a common requirement of their air forces for a new tactical combat aircraft by building their own. The decision was speci­fically aimed to help the two countries become more independent of what had previously been a unique source of military equipment. It is significant that the necessary technical help to carry out what was a most challenging project for the two countries came from the West, especially from the UK (which provides engines and most of the airborne system-hardware, and has probably also assisted with the design and development phases). As no bilateral management organization has been announced observers call the project the "Jurom" (Jugoslavia/Romania), but its correct designation is given above (Orao means eagle).

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao

Above: Three-view of Orao prototype as at first showing in 1975.

The aircraft is intended to fulfil several important roles, especially tactical interdiction, close-air support (with laser ranger) and multi-sensor recon­naissance, A two-seat version is among the development batch of 11 aircraft, and several of these roles are judged to need a second crew­member (despite the payload/range limitation with aircraft of modest power). The two-seater will also fulfil the need for a trainer more advanced than the Soko Galeb. Later it is hoped to produce a fighter version, with afterburning engines and a lightweight multimode radar. From the start the Orao has been planned to operate from unpaved and relatively short airstrips, though the early pre-production machines did not have the expected slats and double-slotted flaps (but they did have a braking chute and soft-field tyres). By 1977 it was reported that all 11 development aircraft had flown (apparently some assembled in each country, but all bearing the joint VTI – CIAR designation) and that production deliveries were about to begin. If the partners achieve their objective of export sales it may enable work to go ahead on a modern air-combat fighter version with a restressed airframe, and possibly canards, twin vertical tails and double-shock variable inlets. There appears to be the potential in this joint effort for long-term competition for both East and West.

JuromVTI/CIAR-93 Orao
Below: The first Orao prototype, which flew in 1974. Since then development has been rather slow, though in 1980 it was believed that two further prototypes and nine pre-production machines (including a dual two-seater) were in the air. No announcement has been made by Rolls-Royce regarding a planned afterburning version of the Viper 632 for production Oraos.

Yakovlev Yak-36

Yak-36 "Forger A" and -36U ( ?)

"Forger B"

Origin: The design bureau of Aleksander S. Yakovlev, Soviet Union.

Type: Single-seat VTOL naval attack (and possibly reconnaissance) air­craft: ("Forger B") two-seat dual trainer.

Engines: One lift/cruise turbojet or turbofan of unknown type with estim­ated maximum thrust of 17,0001b (7710kg); two lift jets of unknown type t with estimated thrust of.5,600lb (2540kg) each.

Dimensions (estimated): Span 25ft (7-6m): length (A) 49ft 3in (15 0m),

(B) 58ft (17•7m); height 1 3ft 3in (4 0m): width with wings folded 14ft 10in (4-51 m).

Weights (estimated): Empty 12,0001b (5450kg) (B slightly heavier): maximum loaded 22,0501b (10,000kg). r

Performance (estimated): Maximum speed at sea level 722mph (1160 km/h, Mach 0-95): maximum level speed at optimum height 860mph (1380km/h, Mach T3): service ceiling about 50,000ft (15,250m): radius on hi-lo-hi attack mission without external fuel, not greater than 200 miles (320km).

Armament: Contrary to early reports there appears to be no internal gun: four pylons under the non-folding wing centre section carry gun pods, reconnaissance pods, ECM payloads, bombs, missiles (said to include AA-2 "Atoll" AAM and AS-7 "Kerry" ASM) and tanks. Maximum external load, about 4,000lb (1814kg). (B two-seater) none seen.

History: First flight probably about 1971: service delivery possibly 1975.

User: Soviet Union (AV-MF).

Development: At the 1967 show at Domodedovo a single V/STOL jet-lift research aircraft gave a convincing display of hovering and transitions.

Called "Freehand" by NATO, it was at first thought to be the Yak-36, but this is now believed to be the service designation of the combat aircraft carried above Kiev, the first of the large Soviet carriers (officially classed as anti-submarine cruisers) which also carry ASW helicopters and an un­precedented array of shipboard weapons. The "Freehand", of which fewer than ten are thought to have been built, conducted trials from a specially built platform on the carrier Moskva’ It provided information to assist the

Yakovlev Yak-36

Yakovlev Yak-36

design of the Yak-36, which probably has the same large lift turbofan engine plus aft-angled lift jets behind the cockpit. To take off, the three engines must be used together and a vertical ascent made, the main nozzles being rotated to about 100° to balance the rearward thrust of the lift jets. STOL takeoffs are not thought to be possible, neither is Viffing (vectoring in forward flight) to increase combat manoeuvrability. The design is simple, though one wonders why the wing was mounted in the mid-position instead of the much’lighter solution of putting it above the main engine. The latter has plain inlets with a row of auxiliary doors as on the Harrier, but supersonic speed at height is judged possible in the clean condition. Other features include Fowler flaps, large ailerons on the folding outer wings, wingtip and tail control nozzles, a ram inlet duct in the dorsal spine, rear airbrakes, a large vertical tail with dielectric tip, and a dielectric nosecap probably covering a small ranging radar. The "Forger" В has a completely different tandem-seat nose angled downwards and a lengthened rear fuselage to preserve directional stability. The development squadron aboard Kiev on her shakedown cruise from the Nikolayev yard to Murmansk flew intensively, and observers especially noted the repeated precision of take-offs and landings, indicating ship guidance. Even this aircraft is almost certainly an interim type..

Yakovlev Yak-36
Below: ‘Forger-A’ photographed operating from Kiev in 1976; some examples of this basic single-seat version lack the row of auxiliary inlet doors between the inlet and painted flag.

Dassault Mirage FI

Mirage F1 .C

Origin: Avions Marcel Dassault/Breguet Aviation. France, in partnership with A6rospatiale, with Fairey and SABCA, Belgium, and CASA, Spain: licence production in S Africa managed by Armaments Development and Production Corporation,

Type: Single-seat multimission fighter.

Engine: (FI C) 1 5,8731b (7200kg) thrust (maximum afterburner)

SNECMA Atar 9K-50 single-shaft augmented turbojet: (F1.E) 18,7401b (8500kg) thrust (maximum afterburner) SNECMA M53-02 single-shaft augmented by-pass turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 27ft 6Jin (8-4m); length (F1.C) 49ft 2^in (15m): (F1.E) 50ft 11 in (15.53m): height (F1.C) 14ft 9in (4-5m); (F1.E) 14ft 10ii’n (4.56m).

Weights: Empty (F1.C) 16,3141b (7400kg): (F1.E) 17,8571b (8100kg): loaded (clean) (F1.C) 24.030lb (10,900kg): (F1.E) 25.450lb (11,540kg): (maximum) (F1.C) 32.850lb (14,900kg): (FI. E) 33,5101b (15,200kg). Performance: Maximum speed (clean, both versions) 91 5mph (1472km/h) (Mach 1 -2) at sea level, 1,450mph (2335km/h) (Mach 2-2) at altitude (with modification to cockpit transparency and airframe leading edges F1 .E capable of 2-5): rate of climb (sustained to Mach 2 at 33,000ft) (F1.C) 41,930-47,835ft (12,780-14,580m)/min: (F1.E) above 59.000ft (18,000m)/ min: service ceiling (F1 C) 65,600ft (20,000m): (F1 E) 69,750ft (21,250m): range with maximum weapons (hi-lo-hi) (F1.C) 560 miles (900km): (F1.E) 621 miles (1000km): ferry range (F1.C) 2.050 miles (3300km): (F1.E) 2,340 miles (3765km).

Armament: (Both versions), two 30mm DEFA 5-53 cannon, each with 135 rounds: five Alkan universal stores pylons, rated at 4,500lb (2000kg) on centreline, 2.800lb (1350kg) inners and 1,1001b (500kg) outers: launch rails on tips rated at 2801b (120kg) for air-to-air missiles: total weapon load 8,820lb (4000kg). Typical air combat weapons, two Matra 550 Magic or Sidewinder on tips for close combat, one/two Matra 530 with infrared or radar homing, and one/two Matra Super 530 for long-range homing with large changes in height. Wide range of weapons for surface attack, plus optional reconnaissance pod containing cameras, SAT Cyclope infrared linescan and EMI side-looking radar.

History: First flight (FI -01) 23 December 1966: (pre-production F1-02) 20 March 1969: (production F1 ,C) 1 5 February 1 973: (F1-M53, prototype for proposed F1 ,E) 22 December 1974: (F1.B trainer) 26 May 1976: service delivery (F1 C) 14 March 1973.

Dassault Mirage FI
Below: Though it has a much smaller wing than delta Mirages this F1 ,C of the 5e Escadre de Chasse carries more and lands slower.

Dassault Mirage FI

Three-view of the F1.C with Matra R 530s and Sidewinders.

Users: Ecuador. Egypt, France, Greece, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, S Africa, Spain.

Development: Recognising that the Mirage III family would eventually have to be replaced, the French government awarded Dassault a develop­ment contract for a successor in February 1964. This aircraft was the large Mirage F2, in the 20 ton (clean) class and powered by a TF306 turbofan engine. It broke away from the classic Mirage form in having a high-mounted conventional swept wing with efficient high-lift slats and flaps, used in conjunction with a slab tailplane. It flew on 12 June 1966. Dassault, however, had privately financed a smaller version of the F2, called F1, sized to be powered by a single’ Atar engine. This became increasingly attractive and effort was progressively transferred to it from the F2. It went supersonic on its fourth flight and. though it later crashed, the Armee de I’Air decided to buy 100 as replacements for the original Mirage INC interceptor and Vautour NN. Thus was launched an aircraft which in most ways marks a tremendous advance on the tailless delta.

Thanks to the far higher efficiency of the new wing the field lengths and take-off and landing speeds are lower than for the delta Mirages, even though the weights are greater and the wing area much less. Increased thrust comes from the latest Atar engine and among the many less obvious advances are the Cyrano IV multi-mode radar and integral tankage for 45 per cent more fuel (trebling patrol endurance and doubling ground-attack mission radii). Combat manoeuvrability in many situations was increased by as much as 80 per cent and the all-round performance of the new fighter was outstanding. Sales to Israel were prohibited, but orders were soon placed by South Africa and Spain, the former also buying a manufacturing licence. More recently the F1 was chosen by several Middle East countries and many more sales seem certain.

In 1967 the French engine company, SNECMA, began the design of a completely new engine for the Super Mirage. To test the engine the F1 was an obvious choice, and the combination could not fail to be of interest in its own right. The M53 engine confers benefits in acceleration, climb, manoeuvrability and range and, to make up a more modern package, Dassault-Breguet proposed the fully modular Cyrano IV-100 radar and the SAGEM-Kearfott SKN 2603 inertial navigation system, as well as the SFENA 505 digital autopilot of the F1 .C. The result is the F1 ,E, which from early 1974 was strongly, but unsuccessfully, pressed on overseas custo­mers, particularly Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway (which agreed a common objective in replacing their F-104Gs). The Armee de I ‘Air did not want the F1 .E, but had agreed to buy a limited quantity had it been chosen by the four NATO nations. Two M53-powered prototypes were flown, but the M53-engined version was shelved in 1975. Today four versions are in production: (C) the basic aircraft, so far chosen by all customers: (E) the C with more advanced avionics (no longer offered with the M53 engine), chosen by Libya: (A) simplified avionics for low-level attack, for Libya and South Africa: (B) two-seater, for Kuwait and Libya.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23

MiG-23, -23S and -23U ("Flogger")

Origin: The design bureau named for Mikoyan and Gurevich, Soviet Union: no production outside the Soviet Union yet reported.

Type: (-23S, Flogger B) single-seat all-weather interceptor with Flogger E export variant of unknown designation: (-23U, Flogger C) dual-control trainer and ECM platform.

Engine: One Tumansky afterburning turbofan, believed to be an R-29B rated at 17.6401b (8000kg) dry and 25,3501b (11,500kg) with afterburner. Dimensions: (Estimated) Span (72° sweep) 28ft 7in (8-7m), (16°) 47ft 3in (14-4m): length (export) 53ft (16-16m). (S, U) 55ft 1 iin (16-80m); height 1 3ft (3-96m).

Weights: (Estimated) empty 17,5001b (7940kg): loaded (clean or fighter mission) 30,0001b (13.600kg): maximum permissible 33,0001b (15,000kg). Performance: Maximum speed, clean, 840mph (1 350km/h, Mach 1 -1) at sea level: maximum speed with missiles, at altitude, 1,520mph (2445km/h, Mach 2-3): service ceiling about 61,000ft (18,600m): combat radius (hi-lo-hi) about 600 miles (966km).

Armament: (-23S) one 23mm GSh-23 twin-barrel gun on ventral centreline, plus various mixes of air/air missiles which usually include one or two infra-red or radar-homing AA-7 "Apex" and/or infra-red or radar-homing AA-8 "Aphid", the latter for close combat: (-23U) none reported.

History: First flight, probably 1965: (first production aircraft) believed 1970: service delivery, believed 1971.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23
Users: Algeria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ethiopia, East Germany, Iraq, Libya, Poland, Soviet Union, Syria. continued►

Above: Three-view of MiG-23S, with side view of MiG-23U trainer (lower right).

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23

Left: A MiG-23S or ‘Flogger-B’ air-combat fighter of the Soviet air force, probably from an IA-PVO air-defence unit.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23
Below: Night training by PVO unit equipped with MiG-23S. This example, with missile pylons tantalisingly empty, is taxiing with wings swept, which may be standard procedure with such aircraft.

Development: Revealed at the 1967 Moscow Aviation Day, the prototype swing-wing MiG-23 was at first thought to be a Yakovlev design, though it appeared in company with a jet-lift STOL fighter having an identical rear fuselage and tail and strong MiG-21-like features (though much bigger than a MiG-21). Over the next four years the Mikoyan bureau greatly developed this aircraft, which originally owed something to the F-111 and Mirage G. By 1971 the radically different production versions, the -23S fighter and -23U trainer, were entering service in quantity, and by 1975 several hundred had been delivered to Warsaw Pact air forces and also to Egypt Today Egypt is believed no longer to operate the type, but large deliveries have been made to other countries. The MiG-27 attack version is described separately.

There are three main versions. The first to enter service was the MiG-23S all-weather interceptor, with powerful highly-afterburning engine, "High Lark" nose radar (said in 1973 by the then Secretary of the USAF to be "comparable with that of the latest Phantom") and, almost certainly, a

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23Above: Called ‘Flogger-E’ by NATO, this specially simplified version of MiG-23 is the only one cleared for export. This example is one of 50 serving at El Adem with the Libyan Republic Air Force, and photographed by a passenger in a Western airliner. Very similar aircraft in service with the Soviet Union created an excellent impression on a visit to Finland in 1978. They carried no missiles, laser or doppler.

Right: Taken from a Soviet film, this unusual view of a MiG-23S again shows that it is apparently normal to have the wings swept on the ground. According to the US Department of Defense this ‘Flogger-B’ version is the first Russian aircraft "with a demonst­rated capability to track and engage targets flying below its own altitude". About 1,000 were in PVO service by 1980,

laser ranger and doppler navigator. ECM and other EW equipment is markedly superior to anything fitted in previous Soviet aircraft, and ap­parently as good as comparable installations in Western fighters (other than the F-1 5).

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-23
Several hundred S models are in service with the IA-PVO and Warsaw Pact air forces, and they are replacing the Su-9 and -11 and Yak-28P. Missiles are carried on a centreline pylon (which often carries a drop-tank instead), on pylons under the inlet ducts and under the fixed wing gloves (centre section). For overseas customers a simplified sub-type is in produc­tion, with the same high-Mach airframe and systems as the -23S fighter but lacking the latter’s radar (NATO calls this model "Flogger E" but the Soviet designation was unknown as this book went to press). The third MiG-23 so far seen is the tandem two-seat -23U, used for conversion training and as an ECM and reconnaissance platform. This again has the fighter’s high­speed airframe and systems, but has not been seen with any weapons or delivery systems.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Grumman A-6A, B,C, E, EA-6Aand В and KA-6D

Origin: Grumman Aerospace, USA,

Type:(A-6A, В, С, E) two-seat carrier-based all-weather attack: (EA-6A) two-seat ECM/attack; (EA-6B) four-seat ECM; (KA-6D) two-seat air­refuelling tanker.

Engines: (Except EA-6B) two 9,3001b (4218kg) thrust Pratt £t Whitney J52-8A two-shaft turbojets: (EA-6B) two 11,2001b (5080kg) J52-408. Dimensions: Span 53ft (16-15m): length (except EA-6B) 54ft 7in (16 64m); (EA-6B) 59ft 5in (1811m): height (A-6A, A-6C, KA-6D) 15ft 7in (4-75m): (A-6E, EA-6A and B) 16ft 3in (4-95m).

Weights: Empty (A-6A) 25.684lb (11,650kg): (EA-6A) 27,769lb

(12,596kg): (EA-6B) 34,5811b (15,686kg): (A-6E) 25.630lb (11,625kg): maximum loaded (A-6A and E) 60.626lb (27,500kg): (EA-6A) 56,500lb (25.628kg): (EA-6B) 58,500lb (26,535kg),

Performance:Maximum speed (clean A-6A) 685mph (1102km/h) at sea level or 625mph (1006km/h, Mach 0-94) at height: (EA-6A) over 630mph, (EA-6B) 599mph at sea level: (A-6E) 648mph (1043km/h) at sea level: initial climb (A-6E. clean) 8,600ft (2621 m)/min: service ceiling (A-6A) 41,660ft (12,700m): (A-6E) 44,600ft (13,595m): (EA-6B) 39,000ft (11,582m): range with full combat load (A-6E) 1,077 miles (1733km), ferry range with external fuel (all) about 3,100 miles (4890km). Armament: All attack versions, including EA-6A, five stores locations each rated at 3,6001b (1633kg) with maximum total load of 15,0001b (6804kg): typical load thirty 5001b (227kg) bombs: (EA-6B, KA-6D) none.

History: First flight (YA2F-1) 19 April I960: service acceptance of A-6A 1 February 1963: first flight (EA-6A) 1963: (KA-6D) 23 May 1966: (EA-6B) 25 May 1 968: (A-6E) 27 February 1 970: final delivery 1975. User: USA (Navy, Marine Corps).

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Development: Selected from 11 competing designs in December 1957, the Intruder was specifically planned for first-pass blind attack on point surface targets at night or in any weather. Though area ruled, the aircraft (originally designated A2F) was designed to be subsonic and is powered by two straight turbojets which in the original design were arranged with tilting jetpipes to help give lift for STOL (short takeoff and landing). Despite its considerable gross weight – much more than twice the empty weight and heavier than most of the heavy World War II four-engine brombers—the

Above: Three-view of A-6E, with side views of EA-6A (centre) and EA-6B (bottom).

Intruder has excellent slow-flving qualities with full span slats and flaps. The crew sit side-by-side under a broad sliding canopy giving a marvellous view in all directions, the navigator having control of the extremely compre­hensive navigation, radar and attack systems which are integrated into DIANE (Digital Integrated Attack Navigation Equipment). In Vietnam the A-6A worked round the clock making pinpoint attacks on targets which could not be accurately bombed by any other aircraft until the arrival of the F-111. The A-6E introduced a new multi-mode radar and computer and supplanted earlier versions in Navy and Marine Corps squadrons. The EA-6A introduced a valuable group of ECM (electronic countermeasures), while retaining partial attack capability, but the extraordinary EA-6B is a totally redesigned four-seat aircraft where the entire payload comprises the most advanced and comprehensive ECM equipment ever fitted to a tactical aircraft, part of it being carried in four external pods with windmill generators to supply electric power. The latest addition to attack versions was TRAM (Target Recognition Attack Multisensor), a turreted electro-optical/infra-red system matched with laser-guided weapons. In 1 977 Grumman was building new Prowlers and the last A-6Es, and converting A-6A models to the latest E standard. In the course of 1977 the first Intruders were to be modified to fire the Harpoon active-seeker missile.

Left: An A-6E Intruder of a crack Marine unit, / 3 VMA(AW)-242, popularly called The Bats’.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler

Below left: Together with a handful of USAF F-111As the Grumman A-6 series were the only tactical aircraft able to operate at night or in bad weather during the tragic war in Vietnam. These A-6As from USS Constellation are seen each laying down a dozen 1,0001b retarded bombs.

Grumman А-б Intruder and Prowler
Below: A-6A trials aircraft from Naval Ordnance Test Station carrying Condor missile.

Shenyang F-6 bis

F-6bis (NATO code name "Fantan A”)

Origin: State Aircraft Factory. Shenyang, People’s Republic of China. Type: All-weather fighter, attack and reconnaissance aircraft.

Engines: Two axial turbojets with afterburners (see text).

Dimensions (estimated): Span 33ft 5in (10 2m); length 50ft (15-25m); height 11ft (3-35m).

Weights: (estimated) Empty 13,6701b (6200kg): loaded (clean) 20,2851b (9200kg), (maximum) 23,6001b (10,700kg).

Performance (estimated): Maximum speed, clean (sea level) about 760mph (1225km/h. Mach 1), (high altitude) about 1,190mph (191 Okm/h. Mach 1-8): combat radius (hi-lo-hi, two bombs, two tanks) 500 miles (800km).

Armament: Not known, but almost certainly includes internal guns, external stores pylons for tanks and ordnance and comprehensive ECM equipment.

History: First flight, possibly 1968; service delivery, probably early 1970s. Users: People’s Republic of China (AF, Navy), Egypt (?).

Development: Obviously derived from the F-6, the Chinese-built MiG – 19SF, the F-6bis represents the first (enforced) attempt by the Shenyang – based home industry to produce combat aircraft independently. Despite extreme difficulties caused by a lack of industrial backing and skilled labour, the production of nationally developed aircraft was forced on the PRC (People’s Republic of China) by its isolation from technically advanced nations and imminence of the Soviet threat. The excellent qualities of the MiG-19 basic design eventually led to the F-6 being chosen for development in preference to the F-7. the illegally manufactured MiG-21 PF. During the 1960s the Shenyang F-6bis took shape as an enlarged F-6 with lateral inlet ducts feeding direct to the two engines (a Chinese illustration suggests that the mid-wing has been retained, with ducts above and below), leaving the nose free for a large search radar of unknown type. The sketch referred to showed no wing cannon, but the two 30mm NR-30s of the F-6 have probably been retained in view of the great length of inlet duct ahead of the wing, interfering with pilot view. The inlets are apparently simple and non­variable, efficient at low level but limiting high-altitude Mach number. The radar could be a derivative of the "Spin Scan B" as used in later North Vietnamese MiG-21 PF fighters sent via China, but in the author’s opinion

Shenyang F-6 bis

is more likely to be a copy of the much more powerful AWG-10 or APQ-109 fitted to Phantoms of the late 1960s. Whether the PRC has also copied Sparrow and/or Sidewinder is problematical.

In his Fiscal Year 1977 report the US SecDef (then Donald Rumsfeld) described the "Fantan-A" as a principal tactical aircraft of the PRC Navy: earlier it was known to be in service with the PRCAF. Compared with the F-6 it should be a considerably more effective machine, provided engine power has risen at least in proportion to the weight. Some Western reports suggest that the engines are the Tumansky RD-9B-811. of 8.270lb (3750kg) maximum thrust: in the author’s view an equally plausible possibility is that the bigger and more powerful R-11 engine of the F-7 (13,1201b, 5950kg) could have been chosen. Indeed use of this engine in the F-9 might in some degree explain the early termination of Chinese production of the F-7. As this book went to press little is known of the F-6bis and it could even be subject to severe problems and limitations. It should in any case not be confused with the entirely different combat aircraft (believed to be a twin – engined delta) which will be powered by the Chinese-assembled Rolls – Royce Spey.

Below left: A line-up of F-6bis attack aircraft of the Air Force of the People’s Liberation Army of China.

Below: Bombs falling from the wing pylons of an F-6bis which also appears to have open weapon-bay doors (also seen at left).