General Dynamics F-16

Model 401, YF-16, F-16A, F-16B

Origin: General Dynamics/Fort Worth, USA, with widespread sub­contract manufacture in Europe and European assembly of aircraft for European customers (see text).

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber; (B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.000lb (10,885kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 two-shaft afterburning turbofan.

Dimensions: Span (no Sidewinders) 31ft Oin (9-45m), (with Sidewinders) 32ft 10in (10 01m); length (excl probe) (YF-16) 46ft 6in, (F-16A) 47ft7-7in (14-52m); height (F-16) 16ft 5-2in (5 01m).

Weights: Empty (YF) about 12,0001b (5443kg); (F) about 14,8001b (6733kg); maximum gross (YF) 27,0001b (12,245kg); (F) 33,0001b (14,969kg).

Performance: Maximum speed, Mach 1 -95, equivalent to about 1,300mph (2090km/h); initial climb (YF) 40,000ft (12.200m)/min; service ceiling about 60,000ft (18,300m); range on internal fuel in interception mission, about 1.300 miles (2100km): attack radius at low level with maximum weapon load, 120 miles (193km); attack radius with six Mk 82 bombs, 339 miles (546km).

Armament: One 20mm M61 multi-barrel cannon on left side of fuselage; nine pylons for total external load of up to 15,2001b (6895kg) (YF, seven pylons for total of 11,500lb. 5217kg).

History: First flight (YF) 20 January 1974; service delivery, scheduled for mid-1 978.

Users: Belgium, Denmark, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, US Air Force.

Development: One of the most important combat aircraft of the rest of the century was started merely as a technology demonstrator to see to what degree it would be possible to build a useful fighter that was significantly smaller and cheaper than the F-1 5. The US Air Force Lightweight Fighter (LWF) programme was not intended to lead to a production aircraft but merely to establish what was possible, at what cost. Contracts for two prototypes of each of the two best submissions were awarded in April 1972, the aircraft being the General Dynamics 401 and a simplified Northrop P.530. As the YF-16 and YF-17 these aircraft completed a programme of competitive evaluation, as planned, in 1974. By this time the wish of four European members of NATO – Belgium, Holland, Denmark and Norway – to replace their F-104Gs with an aircraft in this class had spurred a total revision of the LWF programme. In April 1974 it was changed into the Air Combat Fighter (ACF) programme and the Defense Secretary, James►

General Dynamics F-16

Three-view drawing of production F-16A (nozzle open).


General Dynamics F-16

Above: This picture of an F-16 prototype tangling with an RF-4 Phantom emphasizes the contrast in sizes of these classic aircraft, both fighters’ which became multi-role platforms. As this book went to press there was no RF-16 dedicated recon type.

Below: One of the eight development F-16s is seen here formating at low speed on a photo aircraft, having to fly at a large nose-up attitude in consequence. The wingtip AIM-9J (to be AIM-9L in production machines) missile is mounted nose-down.


General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16

This splendid photograph, taken from the front seat of a TF-104G, shows (left) an F-16A with centreline tank and wingtip AIM-9L Advanced Sidewinder missiles, and (right) a two-seat F-16B with two 308-gal (1400 litre) underwing tanks and AIM-9J missiles on the tips. The photograph was secured in the summer of 1979 during multinational operations with the RNorAF in Norway.

General Dynamics F-16

Schlesinger, announced that 650 of the winning design would be bought for the USAF, a number later raised to 1.388. In December 1974 the YF-16 was chosen as the future ACF (announced the following month) and in June 1975, after protracted and tortuous discussions, it was chosen by the four European countries. As an aircraft the F-16 is exciting. It has a flashing performance on the power of the single fully developed engine (the same as the F-15) fed by a simple fixed-geometry inlet. Structure and systems are modern, with control-configured vehicle (CCV) flight dynamics, quad-redundant electrically signalled controls (fly-by-wire), graphite – epoxy structures and a flared wing/body shape. Pilot view is outstanding and he lies back in a reclining Escapac seat and flies the aircraft through a sidestick controller. In the nose is an advanced pulse-doppler radar suitable for attack or interception missions and armament can be carried for both roles, though the basic design was biased strongly in favour of air-to-air missions in good weather at close range. It remains to be seen to what degree the F-16 can be modified to make it a better ground attack, recon­naissance or all-weather interceptor aircraft. Main contractors include Westinghouse (radar), M arcon і – El I iott (HUD-sight and portions of flight – control system), Westinghouse and Delco (computers), Kaiser (radar and electro-optical display) and Singer-Kearfott (inertial system). In 1977 the USAF still intends to purchase 650 aircraft, mainly for use in Europe; in 1976 it set up a European System Programme Office to manage the project.

Above; Takeoff of the first Belgian F-16B assembled by SABCA. Below: A grey-painted development (pre-production) F-16A.

General Dynamics F-161 I


and began work on the support depot. Orders are still subject to change, but the planned totals are: Belgium, 90 F-16A and 12 F-16B, with 14 aircraft on option; Denmark 48 (probably 40+8). and 10 on option; the Netherlands, 84, plus 18 on option; Norway, 72 (no options). In July 1976 General Dynamics finally signed co-production contracts with major companies in Belgium and Holland, specifying schedules and output rates, of parts for 564 aircraft, a total that would increase with further F-16 sales. Aircraft will be assembled by General Dynamics (USAF), Fairey/SABCA (Belgium and Denmark) and Fokker-VFW (Netherlands and Norway); Kongsberg in Norway has a $1 63m co-production deal with Pratt & Whitney on more than 400 engines (all engines will be assembled by P & WA). Since early 1976 Turkey has been negotiating to join the European consortium (which has no formal title) and to buy up to 100 aircraft. In September 1976 Congress announced the sale to Iran of 160, costing $3-8 billion; it is doubtful that Iran can participate in manufacture. In December 1976 the first of eight development aircraft flew at Fort Worth, and delivery to the USAF is to begin in August 1978. Up to October 1976 $286 million had paid for basic development and flight test; Fiscal Year 1977 voted $620 million for the first 16 production aircraft, and FY78 is expected to provide $1,128 million. USAF buy in the next four years (1978-81) is planned to be 89, 145. 175 and 180, a total to that date of 605. First flight in Europe is planned to be at Schiphol (Fokker-VFW, Amsterdam) in July 1 979.

General Dynamics F-16

General Dynamics F-16
Above: An F-16A development aircraft (curiously, without tail number visible) with nose-mounted instrumentation and tandem triple-ejector racks each carrying two pairs of bombs only.

Saab 35 Draken

J35A, В, D and F, Sk35C, S35E and export versions

Origin: Saab-Scania AB, Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (J35) single-seat all-weather fighter-bomber: (Sk35) dual trainer; (S35) single-seat all-weather reconnaissance.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM6 (licence-built Rolls-Royce Avon with SFA afterburner): (А, В, C) 15.0001b (6804kg) RM6B; (D, E, F and export) 17,1101b (7761kg) RM6C.

Dimensions: Span 30ft 10in (9 4m); length 50ft 4in (15 4m) (S35E, 52ft); height 12ft 9in (39m).

Weights: Empty (D) 16,0171b; (F) 18,1801b (8250kg), maximum loaded (A) 18,2001b; (D) 22.6631b; (F) 27,0501b (12,270kg); (F-35) 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (D onwards, clean) 1,320mph (21 25km/h, Mach 2-0), (with two drop tanks and two 1,0001b bombs) 924mph (1487 km/h, Mach 1 -4); initial climb (D onwards, clean) 34.450ft (10,500m)/min; service ceiling (D onwards, clean) about 65,000ft (20,000m); range (internal fuel plus external weapons, typical) 800 miles (1300km), (maximum fuel) 2,020 miles (3250km).

Armament: (A) two 30mm Aden M/55 in wings, four Rb 324 (Side­winder) missiles; (B) as A plus attack ordnance to maximum of 2,200lb (1000kg); (C) none; (D) as В; (E) usually none but provision as A; (F) one 30mm Aden plus two Rb27 Falcon (radar) and two Rb28 Falcon (infra-red) missiles, plus two or four Rb324; (F-35) two 30mm Aden plus nine stores pylons each rated at 1,0001b (454kg) all usable simultaneously, plus four Rb324.

History: First flight 25 October 1 955; (production J35A) 15 February 1958; final delivery (35XS) 1975, (Danish TF-35) 1976.

Users: Denmark, Finland, Sweden (RSAF).

Development: Again in advance of any other country in Western Europe, the Saab 35 was designed in 1949-51 as an all-weather supersonic fighter able to use small airfields. Erik Bratt and his team arrived at the unique "double delta" shape after studying different ways of packaging the fuel and equipment, the best arrangement being with items one behind the other

Saab 35 Draken

Saab 35 DrakenRight: One of the last of more than 600 Drakens was this TF – 35XD, one of six of this versatile two-seat dual-control version to be supplied to the Danish air force in 1968-73 along with 20 of the formidable 35XD single-seat version.

Saab 35 Draken

Above: Three-view of the Falcon-armed J35F ("Filip” to the Swedish Air Force).

giving a long aircraft of very small frontal area. In 1960 attack wing F13 found the A (Adam) simple to fly and maintain, sensitive in pitch and yet virtually unbreakable. В (Bertil) was more complex, with S7 collision-course fire control integrated with the Swedish Stril 60 air defence environment. Most Sk35C trainers were converted Adams. D (David) was first to reach Mach 2, despite continual increases in weight mainly due to fuel capacity raised from 493 to 680 gallons. E (Erik) carries French OMERA cameras and in 1973 was updated with external British Vinten night/low-level pods. F (Filip) is an automatic interceptor with Ericsson (Hughes basis) radar of pulse-doppler type. Production was closed at 606 with 40 multi-role F-35/RF-35/TF-35 aircraft for Denmark and 12 XS for Finland assembled by Valmet Oy.

Saab 35 DrakenSaab 35 Draken
Left: The first version to enter service was the J35A, popularly called ‘Adam’ in the Swedish air force. This example, one of the first to be delivered to F13 (the Bravalla Flygflottilj) at Norrkoping in March 1960, is seen with Rb 324 Sidewinders in place.

IAI Kfir

Kfir and Kf ir-C2

Origin: Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel.

Type: Single-seat fighter bomber.

Engine: One 17,900lb (81 20kg) thrust General Electric J79-17 single-shaft turbojet with afterburner.

Dimensions: Span 26ft 11-Jin (822m): length approximately 54ft (16-5m): height 1 3ft 11-jin (4-25m).

Weights: Empty 14,9601b (6785kg): loaded (fighter mission, half internal fuel, two Shafrir) 20,4701b (9305kg): maximum loaded 32,1 20lb (14,600kg). Performance: (Fighter configuration): maximum speed 850mph

(1370km/h, Mach 112) at sea level, 1,550mph (2495km/h, Mach 2-35) at altitude: initial climb 40,000ft (1 2.200m)/min: service ceiling, 55,000ft (16,765m): range on internal fuel 700 miles (1125km).

Armament: Two 30mm DEFA 553 cannon, each with 150 rounds: external weapon load up to 8,500lb (3855kg), normally including one ECM pod and two Shafrir air/air missiles.

History: First flight, prior to 1 974: service delivery, prior to 1 975.

Users: Argentina (Atar-powered Dagger version), Israel.

IAI Kfir

Development: In the 1950s the beleaguered state of Israel looked prin­cipally to France for its combat aircraft and it was mainly with Israeli partner­ship that Dassault was able to develop the original Mirage NIC as a combat type. In the fantastic Six-Day War of 5-10 June 1967 the Israeli Mirage IIICJ starred as the most brilliantly flown combat aircraft of modern times: but Dassault was angrily told by Gen de Gaulle not to deliver the improved Mirage 5 attack aircraft which had been developed for Israel and already paid for. With this history it was a foregone conclusion that Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) at Lod Airport should be directed to apply their great technical expertise to making Israel more self-sufficient in combat aircraft and, in particular, to devising an improved IAI development of the Mirage which could be built in Israel. By 1 971 there were reports of a Mirage powered by the J79 engine, supposedly named Barak (Lightning), and such aircraft were even said to have participated in quantity in the 1973 Yom Kippur war. On 14 April 1975 the truth (some of it) escaped when tight Israeli security relented briefly at the public unveiling of the Kfir (Lion Cub). Described as one of the cheapest modern combat aircraft, the Kfir is not a remanufactured IIICJ – though the prototypes were – but a new multi-role fighter bomber making a significant advance over previous delta Mirages. The engine is considerably more powerful and necessitated redesign of the fuselage and addition of a ram-cooling inlet ahead of the fin. The shorter engine results in a shorter rear fuselage, but the nose is much lengthened and .equipped with

Подпись: Above: Three-view of IAI Kfir C2.

comprehensive avionics. The entire flight-control and weapon delivery system is by IAI companies and a generation later than that even of the Mirage F1. Though the Kfir did not mature in time to participate in the 1973 war, IAI did clear a number of locally built Atar-powered machines called Neshers which took part in that conflict. The Kfir has continued to develop considerably since entering service in early 1975, and by mid-1976 – when about one-third of the planned force of over 100 were in service — details were released of the Kfir-C2. This incorporates a sharply swept fixed fore­plane above the wing-root leading edge, dogtooth extensions to the outer wings and small fences on each side of the nose. The C2 has improved takeoff and landing and considerably better flight manoeuvrability. All Kfirs are believed to have one autopilot channel with electric "fly by wire" signalling. Production rate is about four per month, and in 1976 IAI an­nounced that it would welcome export orders, at a unit price (without support or spares) of only about $4 5 million. Discussions were then in progress with Austria and certain S. American countries.

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Vought A-7A to К and TA-7C and H

Origin: Vought Systems Division of LTV. Dallas. USA.

Type: Single-seat attack bomber (carrier – or land-based): (ТА) dual trainer.

Engine: (A) one 11,350lb (51 50kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney TF30-6 two – shaft turbofan: (В. C) 12,2001b (5534kg) TF30-8: (D) 14.2501b (6465kg) Allison TF41-1 (Rolls-Royce Spey derivative) of same layout: (E) 15.0001b (6804kg) TF41 -2.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 9in (1T80m): length 46ft 1Jin (14-06m): (ТА) 48ft 2in (14-68m): height 16ft Ofin (4-90m); (ТА) 1 6ft 5in (5m).

Weights: Empty (A) 1 5,904!b (7214kg): (D) 19,781 lb (8972kg): maximum loaded (A) 32,500lb (14,750kg): (D) 42.000lb (19.050kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (all single-seat versions, clean) 698mph (1123km/h) at low level: climb and ceiling, not reported (seldom relevant): tactical radius with weapon load, typically 715 miles (1150km): ferry range with four external tanks, typically 4,100 miles (6600km).

Armament: (A, B) two 20mm Colt Mk 12 in nose: six wing and two fuselage pylons for weapon load of 15,0001b (6804kg). (D, E) one 20mm M61 Vulcan cannon on left side of fuselage with 1,000-round drum: external load up to theoretical 20,000lb (9072kg).

History: First flight 27 September 1965: service delivery October 1966: first flight of D. 26 September 1968.

Users: Greece, Pakistan, USA (Air Force, Navy).

Development: Though derived from the Crusader, the Corsair II is a totally ►

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Vought A-7 Corsair II

Left: An A-7A Corsair II serving during the Vietnam conflict with VA-195 Navy attack squadron embarked aboard USS Kitty Hawk. No longer in service.

Below left: A-7Es of the Carrier Air Group embarked aboard USS America. The A-7E is the most numerous type in Fleet Attack Squadrons.


Vought A-7 Corsair II


Vought A-7 Corsair II
different aircraft. By restricting performance to high subsonic speed, structure weight was reduced, range dramatically increased and weapon load multiplied by about 4. Development was outstandingly quick, as was production. Vought built 1 99 A-7A, used in action in the Gulf of Tonkin on 3 December 1967, followed by 196 В models. The C designation was used for the first 67 E models which retained the TF30 engine. In 1966 the Corsair II was adopted by the US Air Force, the A-7D having the superior TF41 engine, Gatling gun and more complete avionics for blind or automatic weapon delivery under all conditions, with head-up display and inertial/

Vought A-7 Corsair IIVought A-7 Corsair II
Above: A-7E Corsair lls from USS Enterprise (nearest camera) and Coral Sea an older carrier now stripped of her wing and replaced in the Atlantic Fleet by Carl Vinson. Today nearly all the E-models are being equipped with pods under the right wing containing a FUR (forward-looking infra-red) with a new Marconi raster/HUD (head-up display) in the cockpit. This is greatly augmenting their capability to attack at night.

Left: By far the greatest number of A-7 Corsair lls are those in service with the US Air Force, nearly all of them being of the A-7D type (the first to have the TF41 engine). These examples were serving with TAC (Tactical Air Command) but most have now been passed on to the Air National Guard. In 1980 Vought began building the new two-seat A-7K combat – capable trainer for ANG units.

doppler navigation. By late 1976 over 480 had been delivered, with reduced production continuing. The Navy adopted the same model, with an even more powerful TF41. and by late 1976 about 540 E models had been built, bringing output to well over 1,400 within a decade. Vought funded develop­ment of a tandem-seat YA-7H, and is converting 81 В and C into the dual TA-7C. Greece is receiving 60 A-7H, similar to the D but without the on­board starter or flight-refuelling receptacle, at a price of $259-2 million. Pakistan accepted sale of 110. on condition (it was reported) it did not buy a nuclear reactor offered by France!

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145

ВАС 145 and Strikemaster

Origin: Hunting/BAC (now British Aerospace), UK.

Type: Two-seat light tactical aircraft and trainer.

Engine: 3,4101b (1547kg) thrust Rolls-Royce Viper 535 turbojet. Dimensions: Span 36ft 10in (11 -23m); length 33ft 8iin (10-27m); height 10ft 11£in (3-34m).

Weights: Empty 6,270lb (2840kg): loaded (clean) 9,200lb (4170kg): maximum 11,5001b (5210kg).

Performance: Maximum speed 481 mph (774km/h): maximum speed at sea level 450mph (726km/h); initial climb (max fuel, clean) 5,250ft (1600m)/min: service ceiling 44,000ft (13,410m): ferry range 1,615 miles (2600km): combat radius with 3,3001b weapon load 145 miles (233km). Armament: Two 7-62mm FN machine guns fixed firing forwards with 550 rounds each: wide range of stores to maximum of 3,0001b (1 360kg) on four underwing strongpoints.

History: First flight (Jet Provost) 16 June 1954: (Strikemaster) 26 October 1 967: first delivery 1968.

Users: (Jet Provost) Iraq, Kuwait, Rhodesia, S Yemen, Sri Lanka, Sudan, UK, Venezuela: (Strikemaster) Ecuador, Kenya, Kuwait, New Zealand, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sudan, S Yemen.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145
Development: The Percival Provost basic trainer flew in February 1950. Hunting then produced a jet version, and flew this in June 1954. Subse­quently the Hunting (later ВАС) Jet Provost became a successful basic trainer made in great numbers for the RAF and many overseas countries, and more powerful pressurised versions are still one of BAC’s current products. From this was developed the ВАС.145 multi-role trainer/attack aircraft, which in turn was developed into the highly refined Strikemaster. With a

more powerful Viper engine, the Strikemaster proved to be a great world­wide success. It has side-by-side ejection seats, and the ability to operate from the roughest airstrip whilst carrying a combat load three times a typical bomber’s load in the 1930s and any desired equipment fit. The Strikemaster has set a world record for the number of repeat orders placed by its export customers. In early 1977 there were no plans to install the most powerful Viper, the Mk 632, because this would reduce time between overhauls and increase cost without meeting any requirement expressed by a customer. In 1973-76 ВАС refurbished 177 RAF Jet Provosts, in the course of which VOR, DME and ILS were installed.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145
Left: One of the 16 Strikemaster Mk 88s serving in a light strike and training role with RNZAF No 14 Sqn based at Ohakea.

Below left: Kuwait is one of the several states whose Strikemasters — in this case designated Mk 83 – have seen real action.

Below: Another air force whose Strikemasters have been fully used is the Sultan of Oman’s; note bomb and Sura rockets on this Mk 82.

ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145



ВАС (ВАе) Strikemaster and 145

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19

MiG-19, -19S, -19SF (Lim-7, S-105, F-6), -19PF and -19PM; NATO name "Farmer"

Origin: The design bureau named for Mikoyan and Gurevich, Soviet Union: licence-production as described in the text.

Type: Single-seat fighter (PF, PM, all-weather interceptor).

Engines: (-19, -19S) two 6,700lb (3,040kg) thrust (afterburner rating) Mikulin AM-5 single-shaft afterburning turbojets: (-19SF, PF, PM) two 7,1651b (3250kg) thrust (afterburner) Klimov RD-9B afterburning turbojets. Dimensions: Span 29ft 6Jin (9m): length (S, SF, excluding pitot boom) 42ft 11 iin (13-08m): (-19PF, PM) 44ft 7in; height 13ft 2Jin (4-02m). Weights: Empty (SF) 12,6981b (5760kg): loaded (SF, clean) 1 6,7551b (7600kg): (maximum, SF) 19,1801b (8700kg): (PM) 20,9441b (9500kg). Performance: Maximum speed (typical) 920mph at 20,000ft (1480km/h, Mach 1-3): initial climb (SF) 22,640ft (6900m)/min; service ceiling’(SF) 58.725ft (17,900m): maximum range (high, with two drop tanks) 1,367 miles (2200km).

Armament: See text

History: First flight, September 1953: service delivery early 1955: first flight (F-6) December 1 961.

Users: Afghanistan, Albania, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, E Germany (not operational), Flungary, Indonesia (in storage), Iraq, N Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Tanzania (F6), Vietnam, Zambia (F6).

Development: With the MiG-19 the Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau established itself right in the front rank of the world’s fighter design teams. The new fighter was on the drawing board as the I-350 before even the MiG-15 had been encountered in Korea, the five prototypes being ordered on 30 July 1 951, Maj. Grigori Sedov flew the first aircraft on 18 September 1953 on the power of two non-afterburning AM-5 engines giving only 4,4101b thrust each. Nevertheless, despite the high wing loading and bold sweep angle of 55° (at 25% chord), the MiG-19 handled well, large fences and Fowler flaps giving satisfactory low-speed control. With afterburning engines the MiG-19 became the first Russian supersonic fighter and it was put into production on a very large scale, rivalling that of the MiG-15 and -17, despite a 100 per cent increase in price. After about 500 had been delivered the MiG-1 9S (stabilizator) supplanted the early model with the fixed tail – plane and manual elevators replaced by a fully powered slab. At the same time the old armament (unchanged since MiG-15 and -17) was replaced by three of the new 30mm NR-30 guns, one in each wing root and one under the right side of the nose. A large ventral airbrake was also added. In 1956 the AM-5 engine was replaced by the newer and more powerful RD-9.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19
Right: Few of this specialized missile­armed interceptor version (the MiG – 19PM, which unlike earlier MiG fighters was not made in Poland) remain in service with the PWL (Polish Air Force).

increasing peak Mach number from 1-1 to 1 -3. The new fighter was desig­nated MiG-19SF (forsirovanni. increased power), and has been built in very large numbers. Total production possibly exceeds 10,000. including licence-manufacture as the Lim-7 in Poland. S-105 in Czechoslovakia and F-6 in China. The corresponding MiG-19PF (perekhvatchik. interceptor) has an Izumrud Al radar (called "Scan Odd" by NATO) in a bullet carried on the inlet duct splitter, with the ranging unit in the upper inlet lip, changing the nose shape and adding 22in to the aircraft length. The final production version was the MiG-19PM (modifikatsirovanni), with guns removed and pylons for four early beam-rider air-to-air missiles (called "Alkali" by NATO). All MiG-19s can carry the simple K-1 ЗА missile (the copy of Side­winder. called "Atoll" by NATO) and underwing pylons can carry two 176 gal drop tanks plus two 5511b weapons or dispensers. Perhaps sur­prisingly. there has been no evidence of a two-seat trainer version of this fine fighter, which in 1960 was judged obsolescent and in 1970 was fast being reappraised as an extremely potent dogfighter. Part of the understand­ing of the MiG-19’s qualities has resulted from its purchase in large numbers by Pakistan as the F-6 from the Chinese factory at Shenyang. The notable features of the F-6 were its superb finish, outstanding dogfight man­oeuvrability and tremendous hitting power of the NR-30 guns, each projectile having more than twice the kinetic energy of those of the Aden or DEFA of similar calibre. Though China soon ceased making the MiG-21 the F-6 remains in production, and has been developed into the F-6bis.

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-19

Left: Very large numbers of many versions of F-6 (Chinese-built MiG-19) are used by the air force of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. This is a regular F-6 single-seat tactical machine, but some versions — notably the TF-6 dual-control trainer — are wholly of Chinese design and have no counterpart in the Soviet Union. The F-6 was also the basis for the much heavier and more powerful F-6bis, called ‘Fantan-A’ by NATO.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

F-106A and F-106B

Origin: General Dynamics/Convair. USA.

Type: (F-106A) single-seat all-weather interceptor; (F-106B) operational trainer.

Engine: One 24.500lb (11,130kg) thrust Pratt & Whitney J75-17 two – shaft afterburning turbojet.

Dimensions: Span 38ft 3J1n (11 -67m); length (both) 70ft 8j|in (21 -55m); height 20ft 3Jin (6-1 5m).

Weights: (A) empty 23,646lb (10,725kg); maximum loaded 38,2501 b (17,350kg).

Performance: (Both) maximum speed 1,525mph (2455km/h, Mach 2-31); initial climb about 30,000ft (9144m)/min; service ceiling 57,000ft (17,375m); range with drop tanks (A) 1,700 miles (2735km); combat radius, about 600 miles (966km).

Armament: One internal 20mm M-61 multi-barrel cannon; internal weapon bay for air-to-air guided missiles, with typical load comprising one AIR-2A and one AIR-2G Genie rockets and two each of AIM-4E, -4F or 4G Falcons.

History: First flight (aerodynamic prototype) 26 December 1956; (F-106В) 9 April 1958, production delivery July 1 959 to July 1 960.

User: USA (ANG, USAF).

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Development: Originally designated F-102B, the 106 was a natural development of the F-102A with new engine and avionics. By redesigning from scratch to the supersonic Area Rule the fuselage was made much neater and more efficient than that of the earlier aircraft and the more power­ful engine resulted in a peak speed approximately twice as fast. The Hughes MA-1 fire control, though no bulkier or heavier than that of the 102, was far more capable and integrated with the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defence system covering the continental United States in an

automatic manner, the pilot acting as a supervisory manager. Though bought in modest numbers, the 106 has had an exceptionally long life­span in the USAF Aerospace Defense Command front-line inventory. At several times the Improved Manned Interceptor program (IMI) has pointed the need for a replacement with longer-range look-down radar and long – range missiles, and much research has been done with the Lockheed YF-12 (described later). At present no replacement, other than the multi­role F-1 5, is in sight and the F-106 and tandem-seat F-106B force (respec­tively numbering originally 277 and 63) will continue until at least 1980. They have been repeatedly updated, with improved avionics, infra-red sensors, drop tanks, flight refuelling and a Gatling gun.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart

Left: An F-106A Delta Dart of the 460th FIS, a unit later withdrawn from the Aerospace Defense Command active inventory. Despite repeated updating these well-liked interceptors are beginning to show their age, and plans dating back to the late 1960s for their replacement involved special versions of F-15 and F-14.

General Dynamics F-ІОб Delta Dart
Left: A recent photograph of one of the remaining F-106A all- weather interceptors, which equip six home-based Air Divisions each comprising a single 18-aircraft squadron.

Saab 37 Viggen

AJ37, JA37, SF37, SH37 and Sk37

Origin: Saab-Scania AB. Linkoping, Sweden.

Type: (AJ) single-seat all-weather attack: (JA) all-Weather fighter: (SF) armed photo-reconnaissance: (SH) armed sea surveillance: (SK) dual trainer.

Engine: One Svenska Flygmotor RM8 (licence-built Pratt & Whitney JT8D two-shaft turbofan redesigned in Sweden for Mach 2 and fitted with SFA afterburner): (AJ. SF, SH and Sk) 25,9701b (11,790kg) RM8A: (JA) 28,086lb (12,750kg) RM8B.

Dimensions: Span of main wing 34ft 9^in (10’6m): length (AJ) 53ft 5jin (1 6-3m): (JA37 with probe) 53ft 11 in: height 18ft 4J-in (5-6m).

Weights: Not disclosed, except AJ37 "normal armament" gross weight of 35.275lb (16,000kg).

Performance: Maximum speed (clean) about 1,320mph (2135km/h, Mach 2), or Mach 1 -1 at sea level: initial climb, about 40,000ft (12,200m)/ min (time from start of take-off run to 32,800ft—10,000m. = 100sec): service ceiling, over 60,000ft (18,300m): tactical radius with external stores (not drop tanks), hi-lo-hi profile, over 620 miles (1000km).

Armament: Seven pylons (option: nine) for aggregate external load of 13,2001b (6000kg), including Rb04E or Rb05A missiles for attack, and Rb27, Rb28 and Rb324 missiles for defence. In addition the JA37 has a 30mm Oerlikon KCA gun and will carry "new long – and short-range missiles for air-to-air interception": Skyflash is being evaluated.

History: First flight 8 February 1967: (production AJ) 23 February 1971: service delivery (AJ) June 1971.

User: Sweden (RSAF).

Saab 37 Viggen
Development: Yet again blazing a trail ahead of other nations, the Royal Swedish Air Board planned System 37 in 1958—61 as a standardized weapon system to be integrated with the Stril 60 air-defence environment of radars, computers and displays. Included in the system is a standard platform (in this case a supersonic manned aircraft) produced in five

Saab 37 Viggen

Three-view of JA37, with side view (centre) of SK37 trainer.

versions each tailored to a specific task. Thanks to a unique configuration with a 400 sq ft wing preceded by a canard foreplane with trailing-edge flaps, the Viggen (Thunderbolt) has outstanding STOL (short take-off and landing) performance and excellent turn radius at all speeds. Efficient and prolonged operations are possible from narrow strips 500m (1,640ft) in length, such as stretches of highway. Equipment in all versions includes headup display, autothrottle/speed control on approach, no-flare landing autopilot and thrust reverser. The AJ operates camouflaged in attack wings F7, F15 and F6. with production continuing in 1 977 on a mix of AJ, SF. SH ►

Now in service with the Flygvapen FI 3 wing at Norrkoping, the JA37 is an outstanding all-weather fighter, seen here with belly gun pod, instrumentation pod, two BAe Dynamics Sky Flash missiles and three Swedish-made RB24 Sidewinder missiles.

Saab 37 Viggen

Подпись: and Sk models. At the beginning of the year about 145 had been delivered of the total orders for 1 80 of these versions. During 1 976 Viggens in RSAF service were grounded until the cause of inflight structural (wing) failures had been fully explained and aircraft rectified. Apart from this the Viggen hasSaab 37 Viggenproved as outstanding as it looked on paper in the 1960s, and even today no other Western European aircraft can rival it for radar performance, flight performance and short field length in all weathers. The latest Viggen variant, the JA37, is considerably different, with a new engine, very powerful gun. UAP 1023 pulse-doppler radar, digital automatic flight control system and extremely advanced inertial measurement and central computer systems. The development effort for the JA37 rivals that for the complete original aircraft, but with the help of a fleet of special-purpose test aircraft (some new and most rebuilds of early AJ and other models) the JA was cleared for production in 1976. By the start of 1 977 most of the initial batch of 30 were on the line, and service delivery is due in 1978. Eventually 200 are to equip eight squadrons.

Saab 37 Viggen

Above: Afterburning takeoff of one of the original AJ37 attack aircraft.


Left: A display of weapons in front of an AJ37, with RB04E missiles on the aircraft.


Below: The SK37 is the tandem-seat dual­control trainer, able to carry AJ37 weapons.


Saab 37 ViggenSaab 37 Viggen

Nesher (Eagle)

Nesher (Eagle)
When General De Gaulle instructed Dassault not to deliver the Mirage 5 aircraft ordered and paid for by Israel, and developed by Dassault specifically for the Israeli Air Force, IAI was assigned the task of making Israel in­dependent of French help. The ultimate result was the Kfir (see above ),but as an interim measure IAI produced a copy of the Mirage 5 with Atar 9C engine. The prototype is reported to have flown in October 1969. Deliveries began in 1972, and about 40 Neshers are said to have participated in the October 1973 war.

Vought F-8 Crusader

Vought F-8A to F-8J, RF-8,

DF-8 and QF-8

Origin: Vought Systems Division of LTV, Dallas, USA.

Type: Originally single-seat carrier-based day fighter (see text).

Engine: One Pratt & Whitney J57 two-shaft turbojet with afterburner; (A, B, F. L) 16,2001b (7327kg) J57-12; (С, K) 16,9001b (7665kg) J57-16; others, 18,0001b (8165kg) J57-20A. About 100 F-8J re-engined with P&W TF30-420 afterburning turbofan, rated at 19,6001b (8891kg). Dimensions: Span 35ft 8in (10-87m); (E, J) 35ft 2in; length 54ft 3in (16-54m); (E, J) 54ft 6in; height 1 5ft 9in (4-80m).

Weights: Empty (C) about 17,0001b (7710kg); (J) 19,7001b (8935kg); maximum loaded (C) 27,5501b (12,500kg); (J) 34,0001b (15,420kg). Performance: Maximum speed, clean, at altitude (A, B, L, FI) 1,01 3mph, (RF-8A) 982mph; (RF-8G) 1,002mph; (С, K. J) 1.105mph (1780km/h. Mach 1Q8); (E) 1,135mph; (D) 1,230mph; initial climb (typical) 21,000ft (6400m)/min; service ceiling, from 38.400ft for J to 42,900ft (1 3,100m) for D; combat radius, from 368 miles for С, К to 440 miles (708km) for J and 455 miles (732km) for D.

Armament: (А, В, C) four 20mm Colt Mk 12 cannon each with 84 rounds; one Sidewinder on each side and 32 folding-fin rockets in belly pack; (D) four 20mm plus four Sidewinder; (E, H, J) four 20mm plus four Sidewinder plus 12 Mk 81 bombs, or two Bullpups or eight Zuni rockets; (K. L) as J but 144 rounds per gun; RF versions, none.

History: First flight (XF8U-1) 25 March 1955: (production F-8A) Novem­ber 1956; service delivery 25 March 1957; final delivery 1965.

Users: France, Philippines, USA (Naval Reserve).

Vought F-8 Crusader

Development: This outstanding carrier-based fighter, notable for its variable-incidence wing, outperformed the F-100 on the same engine, besides having 1,1 65gal internal fuel! Exceeding Mach 1 on the level on the first flight the F8U (as it then was) was rapidly developed for carrier service, and for 12 years was a popular combat aircraft of the US Navy and Marines.

Three-view of F-8J, a remanufactured F-8E now in use with the US Naval Reserve.

Altogether 1,259 were built, plus two prototypes, and in 1966—71 446 were rebuilt to a later standard (B to L, C to К. E to J and D to H). The continual process of improvement added all-weather radar, improved autopilot and weapon-delivery systems. air/groUnd weapons and, in the 42 F-8E(FN) for the French Navy, slower approach for small carriers. Variants include RF reconnaissance, DF drone RPV and QF RPV-control aircraft; a single dual trainer was also built. Many rebuilt versions remain in combat service, with long life ahead; total Crusader flight time exceeds 3,000,000hr.

Vought F-8 CrusaderVought F-8 Crusader
Left: An F-8L, one of the long­life remanufactured versions, formerly serving with the USMC (squadron VMF-321).

Below. Rebuilt Crusader, probably an F-8J, serving with VF-201 US Navy fighter squadron. In 1980 French F-8E(FN) fighters were being replaced by the Super Etendard attack aircraft, and the only remaining user is the 7th Tactical Fighter Squadron of the Philippines Air Force.

Vought F-8 Crusader