APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’

Russian spacecraft were given “tail numbers” during construction. Luna spacecraft were given the designation Ye followed by a number indicating the design senes and a second number indicating the serial number of the particular spacecraft under construction, 1 e. Ye-3 No.2 was the second spacecraft built in the third design series of lunar spacecraft. Sometimes a letter was attached to indicate a modification to the original design, such Ye-2A No. l. After successful translunar injection, the spacecraft were renamed “Luna”.

The designation scheme for planetary spacecraft was somewhat different. The early 1960-1961 spacecraft were simply designated 1M or IV for the first design series of Mars or Venus spacecraft. The next generation were a common design for both Mars and Venus and were designated as follows:

Example: 3MV-1 No.3

First number: Serial number of design (3rd major design series)

Second set of letters: Spacecraft targets (MV = Mars, Venus common design)

Third number: Mission modification number:

1 — Venus Entry Mission

2 – Venus Flyby Mission

3 – Mars Entry Mission

4 – Mars Flyby Mission

Fourth number: Serial number of vehicle (No.3, or third to be built)

The spacecraft were renamed after successful departure from earth orbit as “Venera” (for Venus) or “Mars” spacecraft.

A few 3MV planetary spacecraft were built for engineering test flights and were given “ІА” designations including a failed Mars test flight 3MV-1A No.2 on Nov 11, 1963, and a failed Venus test flight 3MV-1A No.4A on Feb 19, 1У64. Oddly, the Zond 3 Mars spacecraft, 3MV-4 No.3, wras not given a “1A” designation, but carried out a successful flyby test at the Moon before failing to reach Mars distance.

Three 3MV Mars spacecraft, one entry probe (3MV-3 No. l) and two flyby spacecraft (3MV-4 No.4 and No.6) that missed their launch window in 1964 were modified as Venus spacecraft and launched in 1965. Their original construction as Mars missions accounts for their anomalous tail numbers.

There is confusion in the literature over the tail numbers assigned by OKB-1 to the early Luna, Venera and Mars spacecraft before Lavochkin assumed responsibility. The most authoritative original source for Mars and Venus spacecraft is Chertok. The most authoritative secondary source for all spacecraft is Siddiqi’s Deep Space Chronicle. There remain some inconsistencies between these and other sources in the literature. We have attempted to reconcile all these sources to the extent possible through communications with both Asif Siddiqi and Timothy Vatfolomeyev, and on this basis have chosen to use the tail number designations given in Chertok.

W. T. Huntress and M. Y. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer Praxis Hooks 1, DOl 10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1,

.© Springer Scienee+Bustness Media, LLC 2011

Подпись: 416 Appendices

Launch date

T,/v

Mass (kg)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Luna

Soviet Lunar Missions

Ye-1 series (OKB-l)

Sep 23, 1958

Tama

-360

OKB-l

Ye-1 No. l

Tamar Tmpaclor

fb

Oct 11, 1958

Luna

~ 560

OKB-l

Ye-1 No.2

Lunar Impact or

fb

Dec 4, 1958

Luna

-360

OKB-l

Yc-1 N o. 3

Lunar Impact or

fb

Jan 2, 1959

Luna

361.3

OKB-l

Ye-1 no. 4

Luna 1

Lunar Impact or

ft

Jim 18. 1959

Luna

— 390

OKB-l

Ye-1 A No.5

Lunar Impact or

fb

Sep 12, 1959

Tama

390.2

OKB-l

Ye-1 A No.7

T. una 2

Tamar Tmpaclor

s

Ye-2,3 series (OKB-l)

Oct 4. 1959

Luna

278.5

OKB-l

Ye-2A No. l

Luna 3

Oircumlunar Flyby

s

Apr 15, 1960

Tama

9

OKB-l

Ye-3 No. l

Oirc uni lunar Flyby

flL

Apr 19, 1960

Tama

9

OKB-l

Ye-3 No.2

Oircumlunar Flyby

fb

Yc-6 Scries (OKB-l)

Jan 4, 1963

Molniya

1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.2

[Sputnik 25J

Lunar Lander

fi

Feb 3, 1963

Molniya

1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.3

Tamar Lander

fb

Apr 2, 1963

Molniya

1,422

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.4

Luna 4

Lunar Lander

fe

Mar 21, 1964

Molniya-M

-1,420

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.6

Lunar Lander

fu

Apr 20, 1964

Molniya-M

— 1.420

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.5

Lunar Lander

fu

Mar 12, 1965

Molniya

– 1.470

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.9

Cosmos 60

Lunar Lander

fi

Apr 10, 1965

Molniya

~ 1,470

OKB-l

Ye-6 No.8

Lunar Lander

fu

May 9. 1965

Molniya-M

1.476

OKB-l

Ye-6 No. 10

Tama 5

Tamar Lander

ft

Jun 8, 1965

Molniya-M

1,442

OKB-l

Yc-6 No.7

Luna 6

Lunar Lander

le­

Ocl 4, 1965

Molniya

1,506

OKB-l

Yc-6 No. 11

Luna 7

Lunar Lander

ft

Dec 3, 1965

Molniya

1,552

OKB-l

Yc-6 No. 12

Luna 8

Lunar Lander

ft

 

Jan 31. 1966

Molniya-M

1,538

NPO-L

Ye-6M No.202/13

Luna 9

Lunar Lander

s

Mar 1, 1966

Molniya-M

~ 1.580

NPO-L

Ye-6S No.204

Cosmos 111

Lunar Or biter

fi

Mar 31. 1966

Molniya-M

1.582

NPO-L

Ye-6S No.206

Luna 10

Lunar Orbiler

•S

Aug 24, 1966

Molniya-M

1,640

NPO-L

Yc-6LF No.101

Luna 11

Lunar Orbiler

s

Ocl 22, 1966

Molniya-M

1,620

NPO-L

Yc-6LF No. 102

Luna 12

Lunar Orbiler

s

Dec 21. 1966

Molniya-M

1,620

NPO-L

Ye-6M No.205/14

Luna 13

Lunar Lander

s

May 16, 1967

Molniya-M

-1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6LS No. Ill

Cosmos 159

Lunar Or biter Test Flight

til

Feb 7, 1968

Molniya-M

-1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6LS No. 112

Lunar Or biter

til

Apr 7, 1968

Molniya-M

1.700

NPO-L

Ye-6T. S No. 113

Luna 14

Lunar Orbiler

•S

Yc-8 scries (NPO-L)

Feb 19. 1969

Proton-D

-5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.201

Lunar Lander/Rover

fll

Jun 14, 1969

Prolon-D

-5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No. 402

Lunar Sample Return

fu

Jul 13, 1969

Prolon-D

5.667

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No. 401

Luna 15

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Sop 23, 1969

Prolon-D

– 5,700

NPO-L

Yc-8-5 No.403

Cosmos 300

Lunar Sample Return

til

Ocl 22, 1969

Prolon-D

– 5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.404

Cosmos 305

Lunar Sample Return

ill

Feb 6, 1970

Proton-D

-5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.405

Lunar Sample Return

fll

Sep 12. 1970

Proton-D

5.727

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No.406

Luna 16

Lunar Sample Return

s

Nov 10. 1970

Prolon-D

5.660

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.203

Luna 17

Lunar Lander/Rover

•S

Sep 2. 1971

Prolon-D

5.750

NPO-L

Ye-8-5 No, 407

Luna 18

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Sep 28, 1971

Prolon-D

5,700

NPO-L

Yc-8LS No.202

Luna 19

Lunar Orbiler

s

Fob 14, 1972

Prolon-D

5,750

NPO-L

Yc-8-5 No.408

Luna 20

Lunar Sample Return

s

Jan 8, 1973

Proton-D

5.700

NPO-L

Ye-8 No.204

Luna 21

I. u nar I. ander/ R over

s

May 29, 1974

Proton-D

5,700

NPO-L

Ye-8LS No.206

Luna 22

Lunar Or biter

s

Ocl 28, 1974

Prolon-D

5.795

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.410

Luna 23

Lunar Sample Return

ft

Ocl 16, 1975

Prolon-D

-5.800

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.412

Lunar Sample Return

fu

Aug 9. 1976

Prolon-D 1

5.795

NPO-L

Ye-8-5M No.413

Luna 24

Lunar Sample Return

s

Zond

Soviet lunar test missions

Sep 27, 1967

Prolon-D

-5.375

TsKBF. M

7K-T.1 No.4T.

Oirc uni 1 unar/R el urn

fb

Nov 22. 1967

Prolon-D

-5.375

TsKBF. M

7K-T.1 No.5L

Circimilu nar/Ret urn

fll

Mar 2, 1968

Prolon-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.6L

Zond 4

Lunar Distance;Return

ft

 

Подпись: Appendix B. USSR lunar and planetary spacecraft families 417

Подпись: 418 Appendices

Launch date

L/V

Mass (kg)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Apr 22, 1968

Proton-D

-5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.7L

Ci r cu m 1 u n ar / R ct u г n

fu

Sep 14, 1968

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.9L

Zond 5

( A rcu ml u па r / Rot u rn

s

Nov 10, 1968

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No,12L

Zond 6

Circum 1 unar / Return

It

Jan 20, 1969

Prolon-D

-5,375

TsKBEM

7K-T.1 No. l3T,

Circum 1 un ar/R et urn

fu

Feb 2L 1969

N-l

6,900

TsKBEM

7K-L1S No.3S

Or biter./Return

ib

Jul 3, 1969

N-l

6,900

TsKBEM

7K-L1S No.5L

Or biter./Return

ib

Aug 7. 1969

Prolon-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No. ll

Zond 7

Circu mlunar/Re turn

s

Oct 20, 1970

Proton-D

5,375

TsKBEM

7K-L1 No.14

Zond 8

Ci reu tn 1 u nar/ Rctu rn

s

Nov 23, 1972

N-l

9,500

TsKBEM

7K-LOK No. fiA

Orbiler/Return

lb

Mars

Soviet Mars missions

1M series (OKB-l)

Oct 10, 1960

Molniya

650

OKB-l

1M No. l

Mars Flyby

Ги

Oct 14, 1960

Molniya

650

OKB-l

1M No.2

Mars Flyby

iu

2MV combination Mars-Venus series (OKB-l)

Oct 24. 1962

Molniya

-900

OKB-l

2MV-4 No.3

Mars Flyby

fi

Nov L 1962

Molniya

893.5

OKB-l

2MV-4 No.4

Mars 1

Mars Fly by-

fc

Nov 4, 1962

Molniya

1,097

OKB-l

2MV-3 No. l

Mar s Atm/SuiT Probe

il

3MV combination Mars-Venus series (OKB-l)

Nov 11,1963

Molniya

-800

OKB-l

3MV-1A No.2

Cosmos 21

Test Flight

П

Nov 30, 1964

Molniya

950

OKB-l

3MV-4 No.2

Zond 2

Mars Flyby

i’e

Jul 18, 1965

Molniya

960

OKB-l

3MV-4 No.3

Zond 3

Test Flight with Lunar Flyby

p

NPO-L Proton series

Mar 27. 1969

Proton-D

4.850

NPO-L

M-69 No.521

Mars Or biter

iu

Apr 2, 1969

Prolon-D

4.850

NPO-L

M-69 No.522

Mars Or biter

ib

May 10. 1971

Proton-D

4,549

NPO-L

M-71 No. 170

Cosmos 419

Mars Orbitcr

fi

May 19. 1971

Proton-D

4,650

NPO-L

M-71 No.171

Mars 2

Mars Or biter/Lander

P

 

APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’
Подпись: Appendix B. USSR lunar and planetary spacecraft families 419

Подпись: 420 Appendices

Launch date

L/V

Mass (ks)

Builder

Spacecraft

Mission name

Mission type

Result

Jan 10, 1969

Molniya-M

1,138

NPO-L

2V No.331

Venera 6

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Aug 17, 1970

Molniya-M

1,180

NPO-L

3V No.630

Venera 7

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Aug 22, 1970

Molniya-M

– 1,180

NPO-L

3V No.631

Cosmos 359

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

П

Mar 27, 1972

Molniya-M

1,184

NPO-L

3V No.670

Venera 8

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

s

Mar 31, 1972

Molniya-M

-1,180

NPO-L

3V No.671

Cosmos 482

Venus Atm/Surf Probe

fl

NPO-L Proton series

Tun 8, 1975

Proton-D

4,93 6

NPO-L

4V-1 No.660

Venera 9

Venus Orbiter/ Lander

s

Jun R 1975

Proton-D

5,033

NPO-L

4V-1 No.661

Venera 10

Venus Orbiter/ Lander

s

Sep 9, 1978

Proton-D 1

4,450

NPO-L

4V-1 No.360

Venera 11

Venus Flyby/Lander

s

Sep 14, 1978

Proton-D 1

4,461

NPO-L

4V-1 No.361

Venera 12

Venn s FI у by /1 /and ei*

s

Oct 30, 1981

Proton-D 1

4,363

NPO-L

4V-1M No.760

Venera 13

Venn s FI у by /1 /and er

s

Nov 4, 1981

Proton-D 1

4,363

NPO-L

4V-1M No,761

Venera 14

Ven us FI у by/Izander

s

Tun 2, 1983

Proton-D 1

5,250

NPO-L

4V-2 No.860

Venera 15

Venus Orbiter

s

Jun 1, 1983

Proton-D 1

5,300

NPO-L

4V-2 No.861

Venera 16

Venus Orbiter

s

Dec 15, 1984

Proton-D 1

4,924

NPO-L

5VK. No.901

Vega 1

Venus Balloon & Lander Halley Flyby

s

s

Dec 21, 1984

Proton-D 1

4,926

NPO-L

5VK No.902

Vega 2

Venus Balloon & Lander TTalley Flyby

s

s

 

1. Mass column lists mass at launch

2. Result Codes:

fh

fu

fi

ic

ft

P

booster failure upper stage failure

interplanetary trajectory injection failure failure in transit during cruise failure at the target partial success

success

APPENDIX A. EARLY SPACECRAFT ‘TAIL NUMBERS’
Подпись: Appendix CL USSR lunar mission record

4^

to

 

Automated tests of lunar Soyuz spacecraft

Successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Zoncl 5 C і г си ml u nar; Return

1968

Zond 4 Lunar Distan ce/Return

1%8

7K-L1 No.4L Zond Circumlunar

1967

Zond 7 Circiunlunar/Rcturn

1969

Zond 6 Circumlunar/Return

1968

7K-L1 No.5L Zond Circumlunar

1967

Zoud 8 Circumlunar/Return

1970

7K-L1 No.7L Zond Circumlunar

1968

7K-L1 No. l3L Zond Circumlunar

1969

7K-L1S No.3S Zond Or hi ter/Return

1969

7K-L1S No.5L Zond Orhiter/Return

1969

7K-LOK No.6A Soyuz Orhiter/Return

1972

Dates are for launch

 

Подпись: Appendices

Successes

Post-launch failures

1,aundi failures

Pioneer 4 Flyby [parlialj

1959

Ranger 3 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 0 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 7 impact or

1964

Ranger 4 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 1 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 8 Impact or

1905

Ranger 5 Hard Lander

1962

Pioneer 2 Orbiter

1958

Ranger 9 Impact or

1905

Ranger 0 Impact or

1964

Pioneer 3 Flyby

1958

Surveyor 1 Lander

1966

Surveyor 2 Lander

1966

Atlas-Able 4 Orbiter

1959

Tamar Orbiter 1

1966

Surveyor 4 Lantler

1967

Atlas-Able P-З Orbiter

1959

Lunar Orbiter 2

1966

Atlas-Able P-30 Orbiter

1960

Lunar Orbiter 3

1967

Atlas-Able P-31 Orbiter

1960

Lunar Orbiter 4

1907

Ranger 1 Deep Space Test*

1961

Lunar Orbiter 5

1907

Ranger 2 Deep Space Test*

1961

Surveyor 3 Lander

1967

Surveyor 5 Lander

1967

Surveyor 6 Lander

1967

Surveyor 7 Lander

1968

Clementine Orbiter

1994

Lunar Prospector Orbiter

1998

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

2009

Подпись: Appendix C2. USA robotic lunar mission record 423Dales are lor launch * test launch

Подпись: 424 Appendices

Partial successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Mars 2 Orbilcr [lander failed]

1971

Mars 1 Flyby

1962

1M No. l Flyby

1960

Mars 3 Orbilcr [lander failed]

1971

Zond 2 Flyby

1964

1M No.2 Flyby

1960

Mars 5 Orbitcr [short lived]

1973

Zond З* [success at the Мост]

1965

2MV-4 No.3 Flyby (Sputnik 22)

1962

Mars 6 Flyby/Lander [descent data only]

1973

Mars 4 Or biter

1973

2MV-3 No. l Probe (Sputnik 24)

1962

Phobos 2 Orbiter/Landers [failed at Phobos]

1988

Mars 7 Fly by/lander

1973

3MV-1A No.2 Probe* (Cosmos 21)

1963

Phobos 1 Or biter/T binders

1988

M69-1 Orbiter

1969

M69-2 Orbilcr

1969

M71-S Orbitcr

1971

Mars 96 Orbitcr/Landers

1996

 

Successes

Post-launch failures

Launch failures

Mariner 4 Flyby

1964

Mars Observer Orbiter

1992

Mariner 3 Flyby

1964

Mariner 6 Flyby

1969

Mars Climate Orbiter

1998

Mariner 8 Orbiter

1971

Mariner 7 Flyby

1969

Mars Polar Lander/Penetrators

1999

Mariner 9 Orbiler

1971

Viking 1 Orbi ter/T zander

1975

Viking 2 Orb iter/Lander

1975

Mars Global Surveyor Orbiler

1996

Mars Path tinder Lander

1996

Mars Odyssey Orbiter

2001

Spirit Rover

2003

Opportunity Rover

2003

Phoenix Lander

2005

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

2007

Dates are lor launch

 

Подпись: Appendix D2* USA Mars mission record 425

Подпись: 426 Appendices

Successes

Pnsl-launclt failures

Launch failures

Venera 4 Atm/Surf Probe [lost in atm]

1967

Venera 1 Impact or

1961

1VA No. l Impact or (Sputnik 7)

1961

Venera 5 Atm/Surf Probe [imploded]

1969

Zond 1 Atm/Surf Probe

1964

2MV-1 No.3 Atm/Surf Probe (Sputnik 19)

1962

Venera 6 Atm/Surf Probe [imploded]

1969

Venera 2 Flyby

1965

2MV-1 No.4 Atm/Surf Probe (Sputnik 20)

1962

Venera 7 Aim/Surf Probe

1970

Venera 3 Alm/Surf Probe

1965

2MV-2 No. l Flyby (Sputnik 21)

1962

Venera 8 Aim/Surf Probe

1972

3MV-1A No.4A Alm/Surf Probe*

1964

Venera 9 Orbilcr/Landcr

1975

3MV-1 No.5 Alm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 27)

1964

Venera 10 Orbiter/Landcr

1975

3MV-4 No.6 Flyby (Cosmos 96)

1965

Venera 11 Flvby/Lander [imager failed]

1978

IV N0.311 Atm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 167)

1967

Venera 12 Flyby/Lander [imager failed]

1978

3V No.631 Atm/Surf Probe (Cosmos 359)

1970

Venera 13 Flyby/Lander

1981

3V No.671 Alm/Surf Probe Cosmos 482)

1972

Venera 14 Flyby/Lander

1981

Venera 15 Orbiter

1983

Venera 16 Orbiter

1983

Vega 1 Flyby/Lander/Balloon

1984

Vega 2 Flyby/Lander/Balloon

1984

 

Successes

Post-launch failures Launch failures

Mariner 2 Flyby Mariner 5 Flyby Mariner 10 Flybv Pioneer 12 Or biter Pioneer 13 Biis/Probes(3) Magellan Orbiter Galileo Flyby Cassini Flyby

1962 (None) Mariner 1 Flyby 1962

1967

1973

1978

1978

1989

1989

1997

Dales arc for launch

[1] To measure the temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction on the surface, and to measure the chemical composition of the atmosphere around the planet

[2] To achieve soft landings at chosen sites and take pictures of the surface to study the terrain and vegetation

[3] To measure the composition, bearing strength and properties of the soil

[4] To measure the radiation levels and magnetic field at the surface

[5] To detect any traces of micro-organisms in the soil

[6] To study the upper atmosphere

[7] To compile a detailed thermal radiation map from orbit

[8] To fly past Phobos and Deimos while in Mars orbit and take pictures to define their shape, size and albedo

[9] To photograph Mars from orbit in order to understand the nature of the seas’ and canals’ and to acquire information on seasonal changes.

These were extraordinarily demanding objectives for a program that had endured six failed missions since 1960 and had yet to achieve anything at all at Mars. In one bold leap, compelled by competition with the US and enabled by the Proton-K launcher, the Soviets would attempt the first Mars orbiters and landers at a launch

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