Reflections and Lessons Learned

The HSR, industry, and Tupolev team completed a remarkable proj­ect that accentuated the best possibilities of international cooperation. Against a backdrop of extreme challenges in the Russian economy, at a time when the value of the ruble declined over 80 percent from the time USPET arrived in Russia until it departed, all participants worked with a sense of commitment and fraternity. The Tupolev team members were not assured of any pay in those trying days, yet they maintained a cordial and helpful attitude. Typical of their hospital­ity, Sergei Borisov gave his only video playback receiver and some of his cherished airshow tapes to the Americans for entertainment in the aus­tere KGB sanitarium. Though food shortages existed at that time, one of the translators, Mikhail Melnitchenko, had the USPET team to his apartment for dinner. Borisov, Pukhov, and several other Tupolev officials hosted a visit by the team to the Russian Air Force Museum one week­end. Everywhere the Americans went, they were greeted with hospital­ity. Scarcity of such basic materials as paper did not affect the Tupolev professionals in the least and left the Americans with a new apprecia­tion for their good fortune. Despite challenges, the Tupolev personnel produced a magnificent airplane.

Подпись: 15Many lessons have been presented throughout this essay. Certainly, the political nature of this joint project resulted in some experimental data not being required and never being analyzed. The abrupt cancel­lation of the HSR program and the climate of NASA in the late 1990s did not allow the proper utilization of this valuable and costly data. The concept of the HSR ITD teams did not contribute to an efficient method of engineering work. Full team consensus was required on decisions, resulting in far too much time being expended to make even minor ones. The size and diversity of the HSR program led to inefficiencies, as each participant had specific interests to consider. It would take a far more in-depth study than presented here to determine if there was a fair return on investment, but there is little doubt that the HSR program did not achieve its primary purpose: to develop technologies leading to a commercially successful HSCT. However, despite this dour assess­ment, the benefits derived from the HSR program will certainly pro­vide additional payback in the coming years. That payback will likely be seen in technology transfer to the subsonic air transport fleet in the near term and to another HSCT concept or supersonic business jet in the far term. Should the United States ever embark on a national aero­nautics program of the scope of HSR, it is hoped that the profound les­sons learned from the HSR program will be applied. Regardless of the aerospace community’s inability to produce a HSCT design and take it from the drawing board to the flight line, all of those involved in the Tu-144LL flight experiments should take pride in the work they accom­plished, when two former adversaries joined to complete their project goals against a background of prodigious challenges.

1 . James R. Hansen, Engineer in Charge: a History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958, NASA SP-4305 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1987), p. 76.

[2] Theodore von Karman, Aerodynamics (New York: Dover Publications, 2004 ed.), pp. 86-91 .

[3] Terry Zweifel, "Optimal Guidance during a Windshear Encounter,’ Scientific Honeyweller (Jan. 1989), p. 110.

[4] Integrated Publishing, "Meteorology: Low-Level Wind Shear,’ http://www. tpub. com/ weather3/6-15.htm, accessed July 25, 2009.

[5] National Center for Atmospheric Research, "T-REX: Catching the Sierra’s Waves and Rotors,’ http://www. ucar. edu/communications/quarterly/spring06/trex. jsp, accessed July 21, 2009.

[6] T. Theodore Fujita, "The Downburst, Microburst, and Macroburst,’ Satellite and Mesometeorol – ogy Research Project [SMRP] Research Paper 210, Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, NTIS Report PB-148880 (1985).

[7] For microbursts and NASA research on them, see the recommended readings at the end of this paper by Roland L. Bowles, Kelvin K. Droegemeier, Fred H. Proctor, Paul A. Robinson, Russell Targ, and Dan D. Vicroy.

[8] NASA has undertaken extensive research on wind shear, as evidenced by numerous reports listed in the recommended readings section following this study. For introduction to the subject, see NASA Langley Research Center, "Windshear," http://cea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/Windshearhtml, accessed July 30, 2009; Integrated Publishing, "Meterology: Low-Level Wind Shear," http://www. tpub. com/weather3/6-15.htm, accessed July 25, 2009; Amos A. Spady, Jr., Roland L. Bowles, and Herbert Schlickenmaier, eds., Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems, Second Combined Manufacturers and Technological Conference, two parts, NASA CP-10050 (1 990);

U. S. National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Avi­ation, Low Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983); and Dan D. Vicroy, "Influence of Wind Shear on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airplanes," NASA TP-2827 (1988).

[9] Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois-Champaign, "Jet Stream," http:// ww2010.atmos. uiuc. edu/%28Gh%29/guides/mtr/cyc/upa/jet. rxml, accessed July 25, 2009. Lightning aspects of the thunderstorm risk are addressed in an essay by Barrett Tillman and

John Tillman in this volume.

1 0. Statistic from Emedio M. Bracalente, C. L. Britt, and W. R. Jones, "Airborne Doppler Radar Detection of Low Altitude Windshear," AIAA Paper 88-4657 (1988); see also Joseph R. Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2003-4529 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2003), p. 1 85; NASA Langley Research Center, "Windshear," http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/RAIS/Windshearhtml, accessed July 30, 2009.

1 1. U. S. Department of Energy, "Ask a Scientist," http://www. newton. dep. anl. gov/aas. htm, accessed Aug. 5, 2009.

1 2. BBC News, "Jet Streams in the UK," http://www. bbc. co. uk/weather/features/ understanding/jetstreams_uk. shtml, accessed July 30, 2009; M. P. de Villiers and J. van Heerden, ‘Clear Air Turbulence Over South Africa," Meteorological Applications, vol. 8 (2001), pp.

119-1 26; T. L. Clark, W. D. Hall, et al., "Origins of Aircraft-Damaging Clear-Air Turbulence During the 9 December 1992 Colorado Downslope Windstorm: Numerical Simulations and Comparison with Observations," Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 57 (Apr. 2000), p. 20.

1 3. National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Investigation Press Release: United Air­lines Flight 826," http://www. ntsb. gov/Rressrel/1997/971230.htm, accessed July 30, 2009.

1 4. Aviation Safety Network, "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747 Tokyo,’ htp://aviation-safely. net/database/record. php? id=19971228-0, accessed July 4, 2009.

[15] U. S. Department of Energy, "Ask a Scientist,’ http://www. newton. dep. anl. gov/aas. htm, accessed Aug. 20, 2009.

1 6. M. D. Klaas, "Stratocruiser: Part Three,’ Air Classics (June 2000), at hitp://findartides. com/p/ articles/mi_qa3901/is_200006/ai_n891 1736/pg_2/, accessed July 8, 2009.

1 7. Ned Rozell, Alaska Science Forum, "Amazing flying machines allow time travel,’ http://www. gi. alaska. edu/Sciencehorum/ASF17/1727.html, accessed July 8, 2009.

1 8. U. S. Weather Service, "Wind Gust,’ http://www. weather. gov/forecasts/wfo/dehnitions/ defineWindGust. html, accessed Aug. 1, 2009.

1 9. Richard P. Hallion, Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age from Antiquity Through the First World War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 161.

[20] J. C. Hunsaker and Edwin Bidwell Wilson, "Report on Behavior of Aeroplanes in Gusts,’ NACA TR-1 (1917); see also Edwin Bidwell Wilson, "Theory of an Airplane Encountering Gusts,’ pts. II and III, NACA TR-21 and TR-27 (1918).

[21] For an example of NACA research, see C. P. Burgess, "Forces on Airships in Gusts,’ NACA TR-204 (1925). These—and other-airship disasters are detailed in Douglas A. Robinson, Giants in the Sky: A History of the Rigid Airship (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1 973).

[22] Ludwig Prandtl, "Some Remarks Concerning Soaring Flight,’ NACA Technical Memorandum No. 47 (Oct. 1921), a translation of a German study; Howard Siepen, "On the Wings of the Wind,’ The National Geographic Magazine, vol. 55, no. 6 (June 1929), p. 755. For an example of later research, see Max Kramer, "Increase in the Maximum Lift of an Airplane Wing due to a Sudden Increase in its Effective Angle of Attack Resulting from a Gust,’ NACA TM-678 (1 932), a translation of a German study.

[23] Walter Georgii, "Ten Years’ Gliding and Soaring in Germany,’ Journal of the Royal Aeronauti­cal Society, vol. 34, no. 237 (Sept. 1930), p. 746.

[24] Siepen, "On the Wings of the Wind,’ p. 771.

[25] Ibid., pp. 735-741; see also B. S. Shenstone and S. Scott Hall’s "Glider Development in Ger­many: A Technical Survey of Progress in Design in Germany Since 1922,’ NACA TM No. 780 (Nov. 1935), pp. 6-8.

[26] See also James R. Hansen, Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Labora­tory, 1917-1958, NASA SP-4305 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1987), p. 181; and Hansen, The Bird is on the Wing: Aerodynamics and the Progress of the American Airplane (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2003), p. 73.

[27] Ibid., p. 73; for Rhode’s work on maneuver loads, see R. V. Rhode, "The Pressure Distribution over the Horizontal and Vertical Tail Surfaces of the F6C-4 Pursuit Airplane in Violent Maneuvers,’ NACA TR-307 (1929).

[28] For example, C. H. Dearborn and H. W. Kirschbaum, "Maneuverability Investigation of the F6C-3 Airplane with Special Flight Instruments,’ NACA TR-369 (1 932); and Philip Donely and Henry A. Pearson, "Flight and Wind-Tunnel Tests of an XBM-1 Dive Bomber,’ NACA TN-644 (1938).

[29] George W. Gray, Frontiers of Flight: the Story of NACA Research (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948), p. 173.

[30] Ibid., p. 174; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, p. 468. NACA researchers created the gust tunnel to provide information to verify basic concepts and theories. It ultimately became obsolete because of its low Reynolds and Mach number capabilities. After being used as a low-velocity instrument laboratory and noise research facility, the gust tunnel was dismantled in 1 965.

[31] Philip Donely, "Effective Gust Structure at Low Altitudes as Determined from the Reactions of an Airplane," NACA TR-692 (1940); Walter G. Walker, "Summary of V-G Records Taken on Transport Airplanes from 1932 to 1942," NACA WRL-453 (1942); Donely, "Frequency of Occurrence of Atmospheric Gusts and of Related Loads on Airplane Structures," NACA WRL-121 (1944); Walker, "An Analysis of the Airspeeds and Normal Accelerations of Martin M-130 Air­planes in Commercial Transport Operation," NACA TN-1693 (1948); and Walker, "An Analysis of the Airspeed and Normal Accelerations of Douglas DC-2 Airplanes in Commercial Transport Operations," NACA TN-1754 (1948).

[32] Donely, "Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes,’ NACA TR-997 (1950); Walker, "Gust Loads and Operating Airspeeds of One Type of Four-Engine Transport Airplane on Three Routes from 1949 to 1953,’ NACA TN-3051 (1953); and Kermit G. Pratt and Walker, "A Revised Gust-Load Formula and a Re-Evaluation of V-G Data Taken on Civil Transport Airplanes from 1933 to 1950,’ NACA TR-1206 (1954).

[33] For example, E. T. Binckley and Jack Funk, "A Flight Investigation of the Effects of Compressibility on Applied Gust Loads,’ NACA TN-1937 (1949); and Harvard Lomax, "Lift Developed on Unrestrained Rectangular Wings Entering Gusts at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds,’ NACA TN-2925 (1953).

[34] Jack Funk and Richard H. Rhyne, "An Investigation of the Loads on the Vertical Tail of a Jet – Bomber Airplane Resulting from Flight Through Rough Air,’ NACA TN-3741 (1956); Philip Donely, ‘Safe Flight in Rough Air,’ NASA TMX-51662 (1964); W. H. Andrews, S. P. Butchart, T. R. Sisk, and D. L. Hughes, "Flight Tests Related to Jet-Transport Upset and Turbulent-Air Penetration,’ and R. S. Bray and W. E. Larsen, "Simulator Investigations of the Problems of Flying a Swept-Wing Transport Aircraft in Heavy Turbulence,’ both in NASA LRC, Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems, NASA SP – 83 (1 965); M. Sadoff, R. S. Bray, and W. H. Andrews, "Summary of NASA Research on Jet Trans­port Control Problems in Severe Turbulence,’ AIAA Paper 65-330 (1 965); and Richard J. Wasicko, ‘NASA Research Experience on Jet Aircraft Control Problems in Severe Turbulence,’ NASA TM-X – 60179 (1966).

[35] Thomas L. Coleman and Emilie C. Coe, "Airplane Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence for Altitudes Between 20,000 and 55,000 Feet Over the Western part of the United States," NACA RM-L57G02 (1957); and Thomas L. Coleman and Roy Steiner, "Atmospheric Turbulence Measure­ments Obtained from Airplane Operations at Altitudes Between 20,000 and 75,000 Feet for Several Areas in the Northern Hemisphere," NASA TN-D-548 (1960).

[36] Eldon E. Kordes and Betty J. Love, "Preliminary Evaluation of XB-70 Airplane Encounters with High-Altitude Turbulence," NASA TN-D-4209 (1967); L. J. Ehernberger and Betty J. Love, "High Alti­tude Gust Acceleration Environment as Experienced by a Supersonic Airplane," NASA TN-D-7868

(1975). NASA’s supersonic cruise flight test research is the subject of an accompanying essay in this volume by William Flanagan, a former Air Force Blackbird navigator.

[37] Joseph W. Jewel, Jr., "Tabulations of Recorded Gust and Maneuver Accelerations and Derived Gust Velocities for Airplanes in the NSA VGH General Aviation Program," NASA TM-84660 (1983).

[38] Robert W. Miller, "The Use of Airborne Navigational and Bombing Radars for Weather-Radar Operations and Verifications,’ Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 28, no. 1 (Jan.

1 947), pp. 19-28; H. Press and E. T. Binckley, "A Preliminary Evaluation of the Use of Ground Radar for the Avoidance of Turbulent Clouds,’ NACA TN-1 864 (1948).

[39] W. Frost and B. Crosby, "Investigations of Simulated Aircraft Flight Through Thunderstorm Outflows,’ NASA CR-3052 (1978); Norbert Didden and Chi-Minh Ho, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California, "Unsteady Separation in a Boundary Layer Produced by an Impinging Jet,’ Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 160 (1985), pp. 235-236.

[40] See, for example, Paul A. Robinson, Roland L. Bowles, and Russell Targ, "The Detection and Measurement of Microburst Wind Shear by an Airborne Lidar System,’ NASA LRC, NTRS Report 95A87798 (1993); Dan D. Vicroy, "A Simple, Analytical, Axisymmetric Microburst Model for Downdraft Estimation,’ NASA TM-104053 (1991); and Vicroy, "Assessment of Microburst Models for Downdraft Estimation,’ AIAA Paper 91-2947 (1991).

[41] Hansen, The Bird is on the Wing, p. 207.

[42] William J. Cox, "The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Wind Shear Investigations,’ in Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 1976 Report to the Aerospace Profession: Proceedings of the Twentieth Symposium of The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Beverly Hills, CA, Sept. 22-25, 1976, vol.

1 3, no. 2 (Lancaster, CA: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 1 976).

[43] National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Iberia Lineas Aereas de Espana (Iberian Airlines), McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30, EC CBN, Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, December 17, 1973,’ Report NTSB-AAR-74-14 (Nov. 8, 1974).

[44] "Aviation: A Fatal Case of Wind Shear,’ Time (July 7, 1975); National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Eastern Air Lines Inc. Boeing 727-225, N8845E,

John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica, New York, June 14, 1975,’ Report NTSB-AAR-76-8 (Mar. 12, 1976); Edmund Preston, Troubled Passage: The Federal Aviation Administration during the Nixon-Ford Term, 1973-1977 (Washington, DC: FAA, 1987), p. 197.

[45] U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Continental Airlines Inc, Boeing 727-224, N88777, Stapleton International Airport, Denver, Colorado, August 7, 1 975,’ Report NTSB-AAR-76-14 (May 5, 1976).

[46] National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Allegheny Airlines, Inc., Douglas DC-9, N994VJ, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 23, 1976,’ Report NTSB-AAR-78-2 Jan. 19, 1978).

[47] For various perspectives on the multiagency research spawned by these accidents, see Amos A. Spady, Jr., Roland L. Bowles, and Herbert Schlickenmaier, eds., Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems, Second Combined Manufacturers and Technological Conference, two parts, NASA CP-10050 (1990).

[48] NASA Langley Research Center, "Windshear,’ http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/Windshear html, accessed July 30, 2009.

[49] Preston, Troubled Passage, p. 1 97.

[50] Ibid., pp. 197-198; Cox, "Multi-Dimensional Nature,’ pp. 141-1 42. Anemometers are tools that originated in the late Middle Ages and measure wind speed. The first anemometer, a deflection anemometer, was developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Several new varieties, including cup, pressure, and sonic anemometers, have emerged in the intervening centuries.

[51] Dennis W. Camp, Walter Frost, and Pamela D. Parsley, Proceedings: Fifth Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems, Mar. 3 1 – Apr.. 2, 1981, NASA CP-2192 (1981).

[52] National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Pan American World Airways, Clipper 759, N4737, Boeing 727-235, New Orleans International Airport, Kenner, Louisiana, July 9, 1982," Report NTSB-AAR-83-02 (Mar. 21, 1983).

[53] Ibid., p. ii.

[54] "Wind Shear Study: Low-Altitude Wind Shear,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology (Mar. 28,

1 983), p. 32. One outcome was a seminal report completed before the end of the year by the National Academy’s Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, Low Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1 983).

[55] Sheldon Baron, Bolt Baranek, et al., Analysis of Response to Wind-Shears using the Optimal Control Model of the Human Operator, NASA Ames Research Center Technical Paper NAS2-0652 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1979).

[56] J. R. Connell, et al., "Numeric and Fluid Dynamic Representation of Tornadic Double Vortex Thunderstorms," NASA CR-171023 (1980).

[57] National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, Low Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation (Washington, DC: National Acad­emy Press, 1983), pp. 14-15; Roland L. Bowles, "Windshear Detection and Avoidance: Airborne Systems Survey,’ Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Honolulu, HI (New York: IEEE Publications, 1990), p. 708; H. Patrick Adamson, "Development of the Advance Warning Airborne System (AWAS),’ paper presented at the Fourth Combined Manufacturers’ and Technologists’ Airborne Windshear Review Meeting, Turbulence Prediction Systems, Boulder, CO, Apr. 14, 1992. JAWS program research continued into the 1990s.

[58] John McCarthy, "The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project,’ in Camp, Frost, and Parsley, Proceedings: Fifth Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation,

pp. 91-95; and Weneth D. Painter and Dennis W. Camp, "NASA B-57B Severe Storms Flight Program,’ NASA TM-84921 (1983).

[59] Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, "About the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR),’ http://www. stanford. edu/group/ctr/about. html, accessed Oct. 3, 2009. For Illiac IV and its place in computing history, see Paul E. Ceruzzi, A History of Modern Computing (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1999), pp. 196-197.

[60] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 188.

[61] National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Delta Air Lines, Inc., Lockheed L-101 1-385-1, N726DA, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Texas, August 2, 1985,’ Report NTSB-AAR-86-05 (Aug. 15, 1986). See also James Ott, "Inquiry Focuses on Wind Shear As Cause of Delta L-101 1 Crash,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology (Aug. 1 2, 1 985), pp. 16-19; F. Caracena, R. Ortiz, and J. Augustine, "The Crash of Delta Flight 191 at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport on 2 August 1 985: Multiscale Analysis of Weather Conditions,’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Report TR ERL 430-ESG-2 (1987); T. Theodore Fujita, "DFW Microburst on August 2, 1 985,’ Satellite and Mesometeorology Research Project Research Paper 217, Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, NTIS Report PB-86-1 31 638 (1 986).

[62] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 188.

[63] Wallace M. Gillman, "Industry Terms of Reference,’ in Spady, et al., eds., Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems, pt. 1, p. 16.

[64] Lane E. Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer: Two Decades with NASA Langleys 737 Flying Labora­tory,, NASA SP 4216 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1994), p. 41.

[65] NASA Langley Research Center, "NASA Facts On-line: Making the Skies Safe from Wind – shear,’ http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/Windshear. html, accessed July 15, 2009. For subsequent research, see for example Roland L. Bowles, "Windshear Detection and Avoidance: Airborne Systems Survey,’ Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Honolulu,

HI (New York: IEEE Publications, 1990); E. M. Bracalente, C. L. Britt, and W. R. Jones, "Airborne Doppler Radar Detection of Low Altitude Windshear,’ AIAA Paper 88-4657 (1988); Dan D. Vicroy, ‘Investigation of the Influence of Wind Shear on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aircraft Using a Vortex-Lattice Method,’ NASA LRC, NTRS Report 88N17619 (1988); Vicroy, "Influence of Wind Shear on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airplanes,’ NASA TP-2827 (1988); "Wind Shear Study: Low-Altitude Wind Shear,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology (Mar. 28, 1983);

Terry Zweifel, "Optimal Guidance during a Windshear Encounter,’ Scientific Honeywell (Jan.

1 989); Zweifel, "Temperature Lapse Rate as an Adjunct to Windshear Detection,’ paper presented at the Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems Third Combined Manufacturer’s and Technologist’s Conference, Hampton, VA, Oct. 16-18, 1990; Zweifel, "The Effect of Windshear During Takeoff Roll on Aircraft Stopping Distance’ NTRS Report 91N11699 (1990); Zweifel,

‘Flight Experience with Windshear Detection,’ NTRS Report 91 N1 1684 (1990).

[66] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 1 89.

[67] NASA Langley Research Center, "NASA Facts On-line: Making the Skies Safe from Wind – shear,’ http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/Windshear. html, accessed July 15, 2009.

[68] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 192; Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer, ch. 5.

[69] For SVS research, see the accompanying essay in this volume by Robert Rivers.

[70] Hansen, The Bird is on the Wing, p. 211.

[71] Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer, ch. 5.

[72] P. Douglas Arbuckle, Michael S. Lewis, and David A. Hinton, "Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat,’ Paper 96-5.7.1,20th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Sorrento, Italy, 1996; see also Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer, ch. 5.

[73] Fred H. Proctor, David A. Hinton, and Roland L. Bowles, "A Windshear Hazard Index,’ NASA LRC NTRS Report 200.001.16199 (2000). Specific excess thrust is thrust minus the drag of the airplane, divided by airplane’s weight. It determines the climb gradient (altitude gain vs. horizon­tal distance), which is expressed as у = (T – D) / W, where у is the climb gradient, T is thrust, D

is drag, and W is weight. See Roger D. Schaufele, The Elements of Aircraft Preliminary Design (Santa Ana: Aries Publications, 2000), p. 1 8, and Arbuckle, Lewis, and Hinton, "Airborne Systems Technology Application,’ p. 2.

[74] Roland L. Bowles’s research is enumerated in the recommended readings; for a sample, see his "Reducing Wind Shear Risk Through Airborne Systems Technology,’ Proceedings of the 17th Con­gress of the Int’l Congress of Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, Sept. 1990; and Roland L. Bowles and Russell Targ, "Windshear Detection and Avoidance-Airborne Systems Perspective,’ NASA LRC, NTRS Report 89A1 3506 (1988).

[75] Bowles, "Reducing Wind Shear Risk Through Airborne Systems Technology,’ Proceedings of the 17th Congress of the International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, Sept. 1990; Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/trailblazer/SP-4216/chapter5/ ch5.html, accessed Aug. 1, 2009, "Vertical Wind Estimation from Horizontal Wind Measurements: General Questions and Answers,’ NASA-FAA Wind Shear Review Meeting, Sept. 28, 1993.

[76] Chambers, Concept to Reality, pp. 190, 197. Bowles’s subsequently received numerous accolades for his wind shear research, including, fittingly, the Langley Research Center H. J.E. Reid Award for 1993 (shared with Fred Proctor) and AIAA Engineer of the Year Award for 1994.

[77] Ernest G. Baxa, "Clutter Filter Design Considerations for Airborne Doppler Radar Detection of Wind Shear," 527468, N91-1 1690, Oct. 19, 1988.

[78] "Technology for Safer Skies," http://erjsc. nasa. gov/SEH/pg56s95.html, accessed Dec. 1 1, 2009, p. 3.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Russell Targ, "CLASS: Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor and Windshear Avoidance,’ Electro-Optical Sciences Directorate, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Oct. 1990.

[81] H. Patrick Adamson, "Development of the Advance Warning Airborne System (AWAS),’ Fourth Combined Manufacturers and Technologists’ Airborne Windshear Review Meeting, Turbulence Prediction Systems, Boulder, CO, Apr. 14, 1992.

[82] Terry Zweifel, "Temperature Lapse Rate as an Adjunct to Windshear Detection,’ paper pre­sented at the Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems Third Combined Manufacturers’ and Technologists’ Conference, Hampton, VA, Oct. 16-18, 1990.

[83] "Technology for Safer Skies,’ http://er. jsc. nasa. gov/SEH/pg56s95.html, accessed Dec. 1 1, 2009.

[84] Emedio M. Bracalente, C. L. Britt, and W. R. Jones, "Airborne Doppler Radar Detection of Low Altitude Windshear," AIAA Paper 88-4657 (1988); and David D. Aalfs, Ernest G. Baxa, Jr., and Emedio M. Bracalente, "Signal Processing Aspects of Windshear Detection," Microwave Journal, vol. 96, no. 9 (Sept. 1993), pp. 76, 79, 82-84, available as NTRS Report 94A1 2361 (1993); and Chambers, Concept to Reality, pp. 1 93, 1 95. Radar details are in S. D. Harrah,

E. M. Bracalente, P. R. Schaffner, and E. G. Baxa, "Description and Availability of Airborne Doppler Radar Data," in NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL Progress in Electromagnetics Research Sympo­sium (PIERS) (Pasadena: JPL, 1993), p. 262, NTIS ID N94-20403 05-32.

[85] "Technology for Safer Skies."

[86] D. Vicroy, "Vertical Wind Estimation from Horizontal Wind Measurements," NASA-FAA Wind Shear Review Meeting, NASA Langley Research Center, Sept. 28, 1993.

[87] "Making the Skies Safe from Windshear."

[88] The team consisted of wind shear Program Manager Roland Bowles, Deputy Program Manager Michael S. Lewis, research engineers Emedio "Brac" Bracalente and David Hinton, research pilots Lee H. Person, Jr., and Kenneth R. Yenni, crew chief Michael Basnett, and lead electronics techni­cian Artie D. Jessup, supported by others.

[89] Emedio Bracalente, "Doppler Radar Results," and Charles L. Britt and Emedio Bracalente, "NASA Airborne Radar Wind Shear Detection Algorithm and the Detection of Wet Microbursts in the Vicinity of Orlando, Florida," both presented at the 4th Combined Manufacturers’ and Technologists’ Airborne Wind Shear Review Meeting, Williamsburg, VA, Apr. 4-16, 1992, NTIS Reports Nos. N93-19595 and N93-1961 1 (1992).

[90] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 195.

[91] Ibid., p. 198. See also "Report of the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation,’ Low Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983), pp. 14-15; Roland L. Bowles, "Windshear Detection and Avoidance: Airborne Systems Survey,’ Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Honolulu, HI (New York: IEEE Publications, 1990), p. 708; Michael S. Lewis, et al., "Design and Conduct of a Windshear Detection Flight Experiment,’ AIAA Paper 92-4092 (1992).

[92] Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer.

[93] "Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems,’ Second Combined Manufacturers and Technological Conference, NASA CP-10050.

[94] Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer, pp. 5-48.

[95] "Technology for Safer Skies.’

[96] V. E. Delnore, ed., Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems: Fifth and Final Com­bined Manufacturers’ and Technologists’ Conference, NASA CP-10139, pts. 1-2 (1994).

[97] Vicroy, NASA-FAA Wind Shear Review Meeting, "Vertical Wind Estimation from Horizontal Wind Measurements: Results of American in-service Evaluations,’ Sept. 28, 1993.

[98] G. F. Switzer, J. V. Aanstoos, F. H. Proctor, and D. A. Hinton, "Windshear Database for Forward­Looking Systems Certification,’ NASA TM-10901 2 (1993); and Charles L. Britt, George F. Switzer, and Emedio M. Bracalente, "Certification Methodology Applied to the NASA Experimental Radar System,’ paper presented at the Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems’ 5th and Final Combined Manufacturers’ and Technologists’ Conference, pt. 2, pp. 463-488, NTIS Report 95N13205 (1994).

[99] "Making the Skies Safer from Windshear."

1 00. Quotes from National Transportation Safety Board, "Aircraft Accident Report: Flight Into Terrain During Missed Approach: US Air Flight 1 016, DC-9-31, N954VJ, Charlotte-Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, July 2, 1994," Report NTSB-AAR-95-03 (Apr. 4, 1995), p. vi.

1 01. Ibid., pp. 15 and 85. As the NTSB report makes clear, cockpit transcripts and background signals confirmed the failure of the Honeywell system to alert the crew.

1 02. "Technology for Safer Skies’; "Making the Skies Safer From Windshear."

1 03. Fred H. Proctor, "The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modeling Effort in Support of an Opera­tional Aircraft Spacing System,’ AIAA Paper 98-0589 (1998).

1 04. Julio T. Bacmeister and Max J. Suarez, "Wind-Stress Simulations and Equatorial Dynamics in an AGCM [Atmospheric-land General Circulation Model],’ NASA Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project, pts. I-II (June 6, 1 999), NTIS CASI ID 200.101.00385.

[105] Scott Braun and Chung-Lin Shie, "Improving Our Understanding of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Through Knowledge of the Saharan Air Layer: Hope or Hype?’ Bulletin of the American Meteoro­logical Society (Aug. 14, 2008).

[106] Stanford University, "About the Center for Turbulence Research,’ http://www. stanford. edu/ group/ctr/about. html, accessed Oct. 4, 2009.

[107] Public Law 108-176 (2003).

[108] Ibid.

[109] Section 3, DOT 163.

1 10. Section 3, DOT 171.

[111] Section 3, DOT 171.

1 . Statement of Air Commodore Andrew P. N. Lambert, RAF, to Richard P. Hallion, Nov. 15, 2009, referring to his experiences on Operation Deny Flight, in 1993, when he was Officer Commanding 23 Squadron and former OC of the RAF Phantom Top Gun school.

[113] M. A. Uman, The Lightning Discharge (New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1987); Franklin A. Fisher and J. Anderson Plumer, "Lightning Protection of Aircraft," NASA RP-1008 (1977); Michael J. Rycroft, R. Giles Harrison, Keri A. Nicoll, and Evgeny A. Mareev, "An Overview of Earth’s Global Electric Circuit and Atmospheric Conductivity," Space Science Reviews, vol. 1 37, no. 104 (June 2008).

[114] Data from weather archive at http://www. newton. dep. anl. gov/askasci/wea00/wea00239. htm, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[115] Joseph R. Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2003 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2003), p. 173.

[116] NOAA Online School for Weather, "How Lightning is Created,’ at http://www. srh. noaa. gov/ jetstream/lightning/lightning. htm, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[117] Richard Hasbrouck, "Mitigating Lightning Hazards,’ Science & Technology Review (May 1996), p. 7.

[118] Civil Aeronautics Board, Accident Investigation Report on Loss of DC-3A NC21789, Aug. 31, 1940, p. 84; Donald R. Whitnah, Safer Skyways: Federal Control of Aviation, 1926-1966 (Ames, IA: The Iowa State University Press, 1966), p. 157; "Disaster: Death in the Blue Ridge,’ Time, Sept. 9, 1940.

[119] Roger E. Bilstein, Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles, NASA SP-4206 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1980), p. 374.

[120] U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Air Commerce, Robert W. Knight, The Hindenburg Accident: A Comparative Digest of the Investigations and Findings, with the American and Trans­lated German Reports Included, Report No. 1 1 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1938).

[121] E. Philip Krider, "Benjamin Franklin and the First Lightning Conductors,’ Proceedings of the International Commission on History of Meteorology (2004).

1 1. Heinrich Koppe, "Practical Experiences with Lightning Discharges to Airplanes,’ Zeitschrift fur Flugtechnik undMotorluftschiffahrt, vol. 24, no. 21, translated and printed as NACA Technical Memorandum No. 730 (Nov. 4, 1933), p. 1.

[123] Ibid., p. 7.

[124] Ibid., p. 14.

1 4. National Bureau of Standards, "Protection of Nonmetallic Aircraft from Lightning,’ High Voltage Laboratory, Advance Report 3110 (Sept. 1943).

1 5. National Bureau of Standards, "Electrical Effects in Glider Towlines,’ High Voltage Laboratory, Advance Restricted Report 4C20 (Mar. 1944), p. 47.

1 6. L. P. Harrison, "Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions,’ U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, DC (May 1 946), pp. 58-60.

[128] Ibid., pp. 91-95.

1 8. Quotes from Paul T. Hacker, "Lightning Damage to a General Aviation Aircraft: Description and Analysis," NASA TN-D-7775 (1974).

[130] Edward Miller, "1964 Rough Rider Summary of Parameters Recorded, Test Instrumentation, Flight Operations, and Aircraft Damage," USAF Aeronautical Systems Division (1965), DTIC AD 061 5749, at http://oai. dtic. mil/oai/oai? verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier= AD0615749, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[131] J. Anderson Plumer, "Investigation of Severe Lightning Strike Incidents to Two USAF F-106A Aircraft," NASA CR-165794 (1981).

[132] Capt. Lonny K. McClung, USN (ret.), e-mail to authors, May 2009.

[133] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 175.

[134] Literature on NASA’s NF-106B program is understandably extensive. The following are particu­larly recommended: J. H. Helsdon, "Atmospheric Electrical Modeling in Support of the NASA F-106 Storm Hazards Project,’ NASA CR-179801 (1986); V. Mazur, B. D. Fisher, and J. C. Gerlach, Lightning Strikes to a NASA Airplane Penetrating Thunderstorms at Low Altitudes,’ AIAA Paper 86­0021 (1986); R. M. Winebarger, "Loads and Motions of an F-106B Flying Through Thunderstorms, NASA TM-87671 (1986).

[135] Rosemarie L. McDowell, "Users Manual for the Federal Aviation Administration Research and Development Electromagnetic Database (FRED) for Windows: Version 2.0,’ Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Report DOT/FAA/AR-95/1 8 (1998), p. 41; and R. L. McDowell, D. J. Grush, D. M. Cook, and M. S. Glynn, "Implementation of the FAA Research and Development Electromagnetic Database,’ in NASA KSC, The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, vol. 2 (1991). Fittingly, the NASA Langley NF-106B is now a permanent exhibit at the Virginia Air and Space Museum, Hampton.

[136] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 181; NASA News Release, "NASA Lightning Research on ABC 20/20,’ Dec. 1 1, 2007, at http://www. nasa. gov/topics/aeronautics/features/ fisher-2020.html, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[137] Felix L. Pitts, Larry D. Lee, Rodney A. Perala, and Terence H. Rudolph, "New Methods and Results for Quantification of Lightning-Aircraft Electrodynamics,’ NASA TP-2737 (1 987), p. 1 8.

[138] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 182. This NF-106B, NASA 816, is exhibited in the Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, VA.

[139] B. P. Kuhlman, MJ. Reazer, and P. L. Rustan, "WC-1 30 Airborne Lightning Characterization Program Data Review," USAF Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (1984), DTIC ADA150230, at http://oai. dtic. mil/oai/oai? verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA150230, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[140] Otha H. Vaughan, Jr., "NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program-Research in Atmospheric Elec­tricity from an Instrumented U-2 Aircraft," NASA TM-82545 (1983); Vaughn, "NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program-Atmospheric Electricity Research: An Overview Report on the Optical Lightning Detection Experiment for Spring and Summer 1983," NASA TM-86468 (1984); Vaughn, et al., ‘Thunderstorm Overflight Program," AIAA Paper 80-1934 (1980).

[141] Richard Blakeslee, "ER-2 Investigations of Lightning and Thunderstorms,’ in NASA MSFC, FY92 Earth Science and Applications Program Research Review (Huntsville: NASA MSFC, 1 993), NRTS 93-N20088; Doug M. Mach, et al., "Electric Field Profiles Over Hurricanes, Tropical Cyclones, and Thunderstorms with an Instrumented ER-2 Aircraft,’ paper presented at the International Confer­ences on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE), International Commission on Atmospheric Electricity, Beijing, China, Aug. 13-17, 2007, NTRS 2007.003.7460.

[142] Centre d’Essais Aeronautique de Toulouse, "Measurement of Characteristics of Lightning at High Altitude,’ a translation of CEAT, "Mesure des caracteristiques de la foudre en altitude,’ Test No. 76/650000 P.4 (May 1979), NASA TM-76669 (1981); Harold D. Burket, et al., "In-Flight Lightning Characterization Program on a CV-580 Aircraft.’ Wright-Patterson AFB Flight Dynamics Lab (June 1988); Martin A. Uman, The Art and Science of Lightning Protection (Cambridge: Cam­bridge University Press, 2008), p. 155; McDowell, "User’s Manual for FRED,’ pp. 5, 49.

[143] Notes of telephone conversation, Richard P. Hallion with Richard A. Goldberg, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Sept. 10, 2009, in author’s possession. Goldberg had begun his scientific career studying crystallography but found space science (particularly using sounding rockets) much more exciting. His perception of the upward flow of electrodynamic energy was, as he recalled, "in the pre-sprite days. Sprites are largely insignificant anyway because their duration is so short."

[144] Although this was not the first time drones had been used for measurements in hazardous environments. Earlier, in the heyday of open-atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons, drone aircraft such as Lockheed QF-80 Shooting Stars were routinely used to "sniff’ radioactive clouds formed after a nuclear blast and to map their dispersion in the upper atmosphere. Like the electromagnetic research over a quarter century later, these trials complemented sorties by conventional aircraft such as the U-2, another atomic monitor.

[145] For Altus background, see Richard Blakeslee, "The ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): A UAV-Based Investigation of Thunderstorms,’ paper presented at the Technical Analysis and Applications Center Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Annual Symposium, Las Cruces, NM, Oct. 30-31, 2001; and Tony Kim and Richard Blakeslee, "ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES),’ paper presented at the Technical Analysis and Applications Center Conference, Santa Fe, NM, Oct. 28-30, 2002.

[146] G. J. Bryan, "Static Electricity and Lightning Hazards, Part II,’ NASA Explosive Safety Executive Lecture Series, June 1965, NTRS N67-15981, pp. 6-10, 6-11.

[147] Bilstein, Stages to Saturn, pp. 374-375.

[148] R. Godfrey, et al., "Analysis of Apollo 1 2 Lightning Incident,’ NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, MSC-01540 (Feb. 1970), NTIS N72-73978; L. A. Ferrara, "Analysis of Air-Ground Voice Contacts During the Apollo 12 Launch Phase,’ NASA CR-1 10575 (1970).

[149] Glenn E. Daniels, "Atmospheric Electricity Criteria Guidelines for Use in Space Vehicle Develop­ment,’ NASA TM-X-64549 (1970), pp. 1-2.

[150] NASA JSC Shuttle Lightning Protection Committee, "Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Criteria Document,’ NASA JSC-07636 (1973); for studies cited by NASA as having particular value, see K. B. McEachron and J. H. Hayenguth, "Effect of Lightning on Thin Metal Surfaces,’ Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, vol. 61 (1942), pp. 559-564; and R. O. Brick, L. L. Oh, and S. D. Schneider, "The Effects of Lightning Attachment Phenomena on Aircraft Design,’ paper presented at the 1970 Lightning and Static Electricity Conference, San Diego, CA, Dec. 1970.

[151] William M. Druen, "Lightning Tests and Analyses of Tunnel Bond Straps and Shielded Cables on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster,’ NASA CR-193921 (1993).

[152] HJ. Christian, et al., "The Atlas-Centaur Lightning Strike Incident,’ Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 94 (Sept. 30, 1989), pp. 1 3169-1 3177; John Busse, et al., "AC 67 Investigation Board Final Report,’ NASA Video VT-200.007.8606 (May 11, 1987); NASA release, "Light­ning and Launches,’ Apr. 22, 2004, http://www. nasa. gov/audience/foreducators/9-12/ features/F_Lightning_and_Launches_9_12.html, accessed Nov. 30, 2009; Virginia P. Dawson and Mark D. Bowles, Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002, NASA SP-2004-4230 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2004), p. 234.

[153] J. J. Jones, et al., "Aircraft Measurements of Electrified Clouds at Kennedy Space Center,’ Final Report, parts I and II (Apr. 27, 1990), NTIS N91 14681-2; and J. Weems, et al., "Assessment and Forecasting of Lightning Potential and its Effect on Launch Operations at Cape Canaveral

Air Force Station and John F. Kennedy Space Center,’ in NASA, KSC, The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, vol. 1, NASA CP-3106 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1991).

[154] D. L. Johnson and W. W. Vaughan, "Analysis and Assessment of Peak Lightning Current Prob­abilities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center,’ NASA TM-2000-2101 31 (1999), p. 10.

[155] D. E. Rowland, et al., "Propagation of the Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse Through the E – and F-region Ionosphere and the Generation of Parallel Electric Fields,’ American Geophysical Union (May 2004).

[156] The global aerospace industry has also pursued such research. For example, British Aerospace modeled lightning strikes and direct and indirect phenomena (including EMPs), current flow through composite material representing a wing or tail, field ingression within the airframe, and coupling to wiring and avionics systems. See BAE Systems, "Lightning, Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and Electro­static Discharge (ESD)," 2009, at http://www. baesystems. com/ProductsServices/ss_tes_atc_emp_ esd. html, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[157] M. C. Kelley, et al., "LF and MF Observations of the Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse at Iono­spheric Altitudes," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 24, no. 9 (May 1997), p. 1111.

[158] N. J. Stevens, et al., "Insulator Edge Voltage Gradient Effects in Spacecraft Charging Phenom­ena," NASA TM-78988 (1978); Stevens, "Interactions Between Spacecraft and the Charged – Particle Environment," NASA Lewis [Glenn] Research Center, NTRS Report 79N24021 (1979); Stevens, "Interactions Between Large Space Power Systems and Low-Earth-Orbit Plasmas," NASA, NTRS Report 85N22490 (1985).

[159] G. B. Hillard and D. C. Ferguson, "Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (Jan. 2004).

[160] R. A. Marshall, et al. "Early VLF perturbations caused by lightning EMP-driven dissociative attach­ment,’ Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, Issue 21, (Nov. 1 3, 2008).

[161] Michael J. Rycroft, R. Giles Harrison, Keri A. Nicoll, and Evgeny A. Mareev, "An Overview of Earth’s Global Electric Circuit and Atmospheric Conductivity,’ Space Science Reviews, vol. 1 37, no. 104 (June 2008).

[162] T. E. Aldrich, et al., "Bioelectromagnetic effects of EMP: Preliminary findings,’ The Smithsonian/ NASA Astrophysics Data System (1988); Aldrich, et al., "Bioelectromagnetic Effects of EMP: Prelimi­nary Findings,’ NASA Scientific and Technical Information, Report 1988STIN 8912791A (June 1988).

[163] J. D. Colvin, et al., "An Empirical Study of the Nuclear Explosion-Induced Lightning Seen on Ivy Mike,’ Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 92, Issue D5 (1987), pp. 5696-571 2.

[164] Chambers, Concept to Reality, at http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/RAIS/Concept2Reality/lightning. html, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[165] C. C. Easterbrook and R. A. Perala, "A Comparison of Lightning and Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Response of a Helicopter,’ presented at the Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, NTIS N85-16343 07-47 (Dec. 1984).

[166] U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Air Regulations (Washington, DC: FAA, 2009), FAR 23.867.

[167] U. S. Patent Olson composite aircraft structure having lightning protection. 4,352,1 42 (Sept. 28, 1982).

[168] D. C. Ferguson and G. B. Hillard, "Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines,’ NASA TP-2003-21 2287 (2003).

[169] The development of the composite aircraft is the subject of a companion essay in this volume.

[170] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 1 84.

[171] United States Patent 51 32168, "Lightning strike protection for composite aircraft structures.’

[172] "Lightning Strike Protection for Composite Aircraft,’ NASA Tech Briefs (June 1, 2009).

[173] F. Webster and T. D. Smith, "Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems,’ in NATO, AGARDograph, No. 300, vol. 21, in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series (2001), p. 3.

[174] C. M. Belcastro, "Assessing Electromagnetic Environment Effects on Flight Critical Aircraft Control Computers,’ NASA Langley Research Center Technical Seminar Paper (Nov. 17, 1997), at http://www. ece. odu. edU/~gray/research/abstracts. html#Assessing, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[175] Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Electromagnetic Hazards Group, "Lightning Strike Suscep­tibility Tests on the AIM-9 Missile," AFFDL-TR-78-95 (Aug. 1978), p. 23.

[176] M. Dargi, et al., "Design of Lightning Protection for a Full-Authority Digital Engine Control, Lightning Technologies, Inc., NTIS N91-32717 (1991).

[177] J. A. Plumer, W. A. Malloy, and J. B. Craft, "The Effects of Lightning on Digital Flight Control Systems,’ NASA, Advanced Control Technology and its Potential for Future Transport Aircraft (Edwards: DFRC, 1976), pp. 989-1008; C. R. Jarvis and KJ. Szalai, "Ground and Flight Test Experience with a Triple Redundant Digital Fly By Wire Control System,’ in NASA LRC, Advanced Aerodynamics and Active Controls, NIST N81-19001 10-01 (1981).

[178] James E. Tomayko, Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA’s Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project, NASA SP-2000-4224 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2000).

[179] Chambers, Concept to Reality, "Lightning Protection and Standards,’ at http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/Concept2Reality/lightning. html, accessed Nov. 30, 2009.

[180] D. L. Johnson and W. W. Vaughan, "Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Space Shuttle Operations" (Huntsville: NASA MSFC, 1999), p. 3, at http://ntrs. nasa. gov/ archive/nasa/casi. ntrs. nasa. gov/199.900.09077_199.843.2277.pdf, accessed Nov. 30, 2009; C. C. Goodloe, "Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles," NASA TM – 209734 (1999).

1 . Edmund Preston, FAA Historical Chronology, Civil Aviation and the Federal Government 1926-1996 (Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration).

[182] NATCA: A History of Air Traffic Control (Washington, DC: National Air Traffic Controllers Asso­ciation, 2009), p. 16.

[183] Alex Roland, Model Research: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 1915-1958, NASA SP-4103 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1985).

[184] Roland, Model Research, p. 57.

[185] Part 21 Aircraft Certification Procedures for Products and Parts, Federal Aviation Regulations (Washington, DC: FAA, 2009).

[186] Aeronautical information Manual: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures (Washington, DC: FAA, 2008).

[187] Preston, FAA Chronology, p. 108.

[188] Ibid., p. 109.

[189] William H. Andrews, Stanley P. Butchart, Donald L. Hughes, and Thomas R. Sisk, "Flight Tests Related to Jet Transport Upset and Turbulent-Air Penetration,’ Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems, NASA SP-83 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1965).

[190] Ibid.

1 1. Philip Donely, "Safe Flight in Rough Air," NASA TM-X-51662 (Hampton, VA: NASA, 1964).

1 2. Micheline Maynard, "Bird Hazard is Persistent for Planes," New York Times (Jan. 19, 2009).

1 3. John L. Seubert, "Activities of the FAA Inter-Agency Bird Hazard Committee’ (Washington, DC: FAA, 1968).

[194] Maynard, "Bird Hazard is Persistent for Planes."

1 5. M. S. Hirschbein, "Bird Impact Analysis Package for Turbine Engine Fan Blades," 23rd Struc­tures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 10-12, 1982.

1 6. E. B. Dobson, J. J. Hicks, and T. G. Konrad, "Radar Characteristics of Known, Single Birds in Flight," Science, vol. 159, no. 3812 Jan. 19, 1968), pp. 274-280.

1 7. Bruno Bruderer and Peter Steidinger, "Methods of Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Bird Migration with a Tracking Radar," Animal Orientation and Navigation (Washington, DC: NASA, 1972), pp. 151-167.

1 8. Andy Pasztor and Susan Carey, "New Focus Put on Avoiding Bird Strikes," Wall Street journal (Jan. 26, 2009), p. A3.

[199] J. N. Sivo, W. H. Robbins, and D. M. Stretchberry, "Trends in NASA Communications Satellites," NASA TM-X-68141 (1972).

[200] A. N. Engler, J. F. Nash, and J. D. Strange, "Applications Technology Satellite and Communica­tions Technology/Satellite User Experiments for 1967-1980 Reference Book," NASA CR-165169- VOL-1 (1980).

[201] F. W. Jefferson, "ATS-1 VHF Communications Experimentation," FAA 0444707 (1970).

[202] "VHF Ranging and Position Fixing Experiment using ATS Satellites,’ NASA CR-1 25537 (1971).

[203] C. E. Billings, E. S. Cheaney, R. Hardy, and W. D. Reynard, "The Development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System,’ NASA RP-1 1 14 (1986), p. 3.

[204] C. E. Billings, "Aviation Safety Reporting System,’ p. 6.

[205] "Horns and Hollers,’ CALLBACK From NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System, No. 359 (Nov. 2009), p. 2.

[206] "NAOMS Reference Report: Concepts, Methods, and Development Roadmap’ Battelle Memo­rial Institute (2007).

[207] Michael W. McGreevy, "Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery,’ NASA TM-2001-21091 3 (2001), p. 4.

[208] Glenn Sakamoto, "Intelligent Data Mining Capabilities as Applied to Integrated Vehicle Health Management,’ 2007 Research and Engineering Annual Report (Edwards, CA: NASA, 2008), p. 65.

[209] Sara Graves, Mahabaleshwa Hegde, Ken Keiser, Christopher Lynnes, Manil Maskey, Long Pham, and Rahul Ramachandran, "Earth Science Mining Web Services,’ American Geophysical Union Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 15-19, 2008.

[210] Preston, FAA Chronology, p. 1 88.

[211] D. G. Moss, P. F. Rieder, B. P. Stapleton, A. D. Thompson, and D. B. Walen, "MLS: Airplane System Modeling," NASA CR-165700 (1981).

[212] Jon E. Jonsson and Leland G. Summers, "Crew Procedures and Workload of Retrofit Concepts for Microwave Landing System," NASA CR-1 81700 (1989).

[213] S. Hart, J. G. Kreifeldt, and L. Parkin, "Air Traffic Control by Distributed Management in a MLS Environment," 13th Conference on Manual Control, Cambridge, MA, 1977.

[214] H. Q. Lee, PJ. Obrien, L. L. Peach, L. Tobias, and F. M. Willett, Jr., "Helicopter IFR Approaches into Major Terminals Using RNAV, MLS and CDTI," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 20 (Aug. 1983).

[215] M. M. Poulose, "Terrain Modeling for Microwave Landing System," IEEE Transactions on Aero­space and Electronic Systems, vol. 27 (May 1991).

[216] M. M. Poulose, "Microwave Landing System Modeling with Application to Air Traffic Control Automation," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 29, no. 3 (May-June 1992).

[217] "Navigating the Airways," Spinoff (Washington, DC: NASA, 1999), p. 50.

[218] Brian Evans, "MLS: Back to the Future?" Aviation Today (Apr. 1, 2003).

[219] R. G. Moore, "A Proof-of-Principle Getaway Special Free-Flying Satellite Demonstration," 2nd Symposium on Space Industrialization (Huntsville, AL: NASA, 1984), p. 349.

[220] Charles A. Bonsall, "NUSAT Update," The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenters Symposium (Greenbelt, MD: NASA, 1987), p. 63.

[221] FAA, "National Plan for Civil Aviation Human Factors: An Initiative for Research and Applica­tion" (Washington, DC: FAA, 1990).

[222] Preston, FAA Chronology, p. 301.

[223] Irving Statler, "APMS: An Integrated Set of Tools for Measuring Safety,’ ISASI Flight Recorder Working Group Workshop, Santa Monica, CA, Apr. 16-18, 1996.

[224] Statler, "The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety,’ World Aviation Congress, Anaheim, CA,

Sept. 28-30, 1998.

[225] "Improving Airline Safety," Spinoff (Washington, DC: NASA, 1 998), p. 62.

[226] Jaiwon Shin, "The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview,’ NASA TM-2000-209810 (2000).

[227] Lisa E. Jones, "Overview of the NASA Systems Approach to Crashworthiness Program,’ Ameri­can Helicopter Society 58th Annual Forum, Montreal, Canada, June 1 1-13, 2002.

[228] Doreen A. Comerford, "Recommendations for a Cockpit Display that Integrates Weather Infor­mation with Traffic Information,’ NASA TM-2004-21 2830 (2004).

[229] Roger M. Bailey, Mark W. Frye, and Artie D. Jessup, "NASA-Langley Research Center’s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation,’ NASA TM-2004-21 3276 (2004).

[230] "Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Review,’ NASA CP-2003-210964 (2003).

[231] Jarvis J. Arthur, III, Randall E. Bailey, Lynda J. Kramer, R. M. Norman, Lawrence J. Prinzel, III,

Kevin J. Shelton, and Steven P. Williams, "Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations With Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft,’ International Journal of Aviation Psychology, vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 2009), pp. 158-181.

[232] "The Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project: A Documentation of its History and Accomplishments: 1999-2005,’ NASA TP-2007-214556 (2007).

[233] Lane E. Wallace, "Airborne Trailblazer: Two Decades with NASA Langley’s 737 Flying Labora­tory," NASA SP-4216 (1994).

[234] "The Glass Cockpit: Technology First Used in Military, Commercial Aircraft,’ FS-2000-06-43- LaRC (2000).

[235] Marianne Rudisill, "Crew/Automation Interaction in Space Transportation Systems: Lessons Learned from the Glass Cockpit,’ NASA Langley Research Center (2000).

[236] Susan T. Heers and Gregory M. Pisanich, "A Laboratory Glass-Cockpit Flight Simulator for Automation and Communications Research,’ Human Factors Society Conference, San Diego, Oct. 9-13, 1995.

[237] Earl L. Wiener, "Flight Training and Management for High-Technology Transport Aircraft,’ NASA CR-200816 (1996).

[238] Wiener, "Flight Training and Management for High-Technology Transport Aircraft,’ NASA CR – 199670 (1995).

[239] Thomas R. Chidester, "Aviation Performance Measuring System,’ Ames Research Center Research and Technology 2000 (Moffett Field: NASA, 2000).

[240] Wim den Braven and John Schade, "Concept and Operation of the Performance Data Analysis and Reporting System (PDARS),’ SAE Conference, Montreal, 2003.

[241] R. Nehl and J. Schade, "Update: Concept and Operation of the Performance Data Analysis and Reporting System (PDARS),’ 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT,

Mar. 3-Ю, 2007.

[242] Battelle Memorial Institute, "NAOMS Reference Report: Concepts, Methods and Development Roadmap’ (Moffett Field: NASA, 2007).

[243] Statler, "The Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project: A Documentation of its History and Accomplishments: 1999-2005," NASA TP-2007-214556 (2007).

[244] Michael Griffin, "Letter from NASA Administrator Mike Griffin" (Washington, DC:

NASA, 2008).

[245] Luis Trevino, Deidre E. Paris, and Michael D. Watson, "Intelligent Vehicle Health Management,” 41st AIAA-ASME-SAE-ASEEJoint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Tucson, July 10-13, 2005.

[246] David B. Kaber and Lawrence J. Prinzel, III, "Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design:

A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research,’ NASA TM-2006- 214504 (2006).

[247] Sanjay Garg, "NASA Glenn Research in Controls and Diagnostics for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems,’ Integrated Condition Management 2006, Anaheim, Nov. 14-16, 2006.

[248] Doug Rohn and Rick Young, "Aircraft Aging and Durability Project: Technical Plan Summary’ (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007).

[249] Samuel A. Morello and Wendell R. Ricks, "Aviation Safety Issues Database,’ NASA TM-2009- 215706 (2009).

[250] Gano Chatterji, Kapil Sheth, and Banavar Sridhar, "Airspace Complexity and its Application in Air Traffic Management,’ Second USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Semina, Dec. 1-4, 1998.

[251] Brian Capozzi, Patrick Carlos, Vikram Manikonda, Larry Meyn, and Robert Windhorst, "The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant,’ AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Keystone, CO, Aug. 21 -24, 2006.

[252] Stephen Augustine, Brian Capozzi, John DiFelici, Michael Graham, Raymond M. C. Miraflor, and Terry Thompson, "Environmental Impact Analysis with the Airspace Concept Evaluation System,’ 6th ATM Research and Development Semina, Baltimore, June 27-30, 2005.

[253] Greg Kubat and Don Vandrei, "Airspace Concept Evaluation System, Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance System Models,’ Proceedings of the Sixth Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference & Workshop, Baltimore, May 1-3, 2006.

[254] Larry Meyn and Shannon Zelinski, "Validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System for Different Weather Days,’ AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, Keystone, CO, Aug. 21-24, 2006.

[255] Art Feinberg, Gary Lohr, Vikram Manikonda, and Michel Santos, "A Simulation Testbed for Airborne Merging and Spacing,’ AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, Honolulu, Aug. 18-21, 2008.

[256] Heinz Erzberger and Robert Windhorst, "Fast-time Simulation of an Automated Conflict Detec­tion and Resolution Concept,’ 6th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Confer­ence, Wichita, Sept. 25-27, 2006.

[257] Banavar Sridhar, "Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool,’ Ames Research Center Research and Technology 2000 (Moffett Field: NASA, 2000), p. 5.

[258] Karl D. Bilimoria and Hilda Q. Lee, "Properties of Air Traffic Conflicts for Free and Structured Routing,’ AIAA GN&C Conference, Montreal, Aug. 2001.

[259] Sarah Stock Patterson, "Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation,’ NASA CR-97-206395 (1997).

[260] "Comprehensive Software Eases Air Traffic Management,’ Spinoff 2007 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007).

[261] Dave Jara and Yoon C. Jung, "Development of the Surface Management System Integrated with CTAS Arrival Tools,’ AIAA 5th Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Forum, Arlington, TX, Sept. 2005.

[262] Katherine Lee, "CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System,’ NATCA Safety Conference, Fort Worth, Apr. 2004.

[263] Gautam Gupta and Matthew Stephen Kistler, "Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport,’ NASA ARC-E-DAA-TN286 (2008).

[264] John O’Neill and Roxana Wales, "Information Management for Airline Operations,’ Ames Research Center Research and Technology Report (Moffett Field: NASA, 1998).

[265] Heinz Erzberger and William Nedell, "Design of Automation Tools for Management of Descent Traffic," NASA TM-101078 (1988).

[266] Dallas G. Denery and Heinz Erzberger, "The Future of Air Traffic Management," NASA-ASEE Stanford University Seminars, Stanford, CA, 1998.

[267] Harry N. Swenson and Danny Vincent, "Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Man­agement Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center,’ United States/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Semina, Paris, June 16-19, 199/.

[268] Greg Carr and Frank Neuman, "A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling,’ AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Boston, Aug. 10-12, 1998.

[269] Lee, "CTAS Fact Sheets,’ 2004.

[270] Steven Green and Robert Vivona, "En Route Descent Advisor Multi-Sector Planning Using Active and Provisional Controller Plans,’ AIAA Paper 2003-5572 (2003).

[271] Christopher Bergh, Thomas J. Davis, and Ken J. Krzeczowski, "The Final Approach Spacing Tool," IFAC Conference, Palo Alto, CA, Sept. 1994.

[272] Thomas J. Davis, Douglas R. Isaacson, Katharine K. Lee, and John E. Robinson, III, ‘Operational Test Results of the Final Approach Spacing Tool," Transportation Systems 1997, Chania, Greece, June 16-18, 1997.

[273] Wallace, "Airborne Trailblazer," 1994.

[274] Michael S. Wusk, "ARIES: NASA Langley’s Airborne Research Facility," AIAA 2002-5822 (2002).

[275] Jim McClenahen, "Virtual Planning at Work: A Tour of NASA Future Flight Central," NASA Tech Server Document ID: 7 (2000).

[276] R. A. Hess and Y. Zeyada, "A Methodology for Evaluating the Fidelity of Ground-Based Flight Simulators," AIAA Paper 99-4034 (1999).

[277] Durand R. Begault and Marc T, Pittman, "Three Dimensional Audio Versus Head Down TCAS Displays," NASA CR-177636 (1994).

[278] Barry Crane, Everett Palmer, and Nancy Smith, "Simulator Evaluation of a New Cockpit Descent Procedure," 9th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, OH, Apr. 27-May 1, 1997.

[279] Thomas J. Davis and Steven M. Green, "Piloted Simulation of a Ground-Based Time-Control Concept for Air Traffic Control," NASA TM-10185 (1989).

[280] Sharon Doubek, Richard F. Haines, Stanton Harke, and Boris Rabin, "Information Presentation and Control in a Modern Air Traffic Control Tower Simulator," 7th International Conference on Human Computer Interface, San Francisco, Aug. 24-29, 1997.

[281] Jeremy C. Smith and Kurt W. Neitzke, "Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program, NASA SP-2009-6115 (2009).

[282] Stephen T. Darr, Katherine A. Lemos, and Wendell R. Ricks, "A NextGen Aviation Safety Goal," 2008 Digital Avionics Systems Conference, St. Paul, MN, Oct. 26-30, 2008.

1 03. A. Buige, "FAA Global Positioning System Program," Global Positioning System for Gen. Avia­tion: Joint FAA-NASA Semina, Washington, DC, 1978.

[284] Muna Demitri, Ian Harris, Byron lijima, Ulf Lindqwister, Anthony Manucci, Xiaoqing Pi, and Brian Wilson, "Ionosphere Delay Calibration and Calibration Errors for Satellite Navigation of Aircraft," Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 2000.

1 05. T. Breen, R. Cassell, C. Evers, R. Hulstrom, and A. Smith, "System-Wide ADS-B Back Up and Validation," Sixth Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference, Baltimore, May 1-3, 2006.

[286] . Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton, with Jay Barbree and Howard Benedict, Moon Shot: The Inside Story of Americas Race to the Moon (Atlanta: Turner Publishers, Inc., 1 994), p. 107.

[287] Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Ltd., 1979), p. 78.

[288] Ibid.

[289] John A. Pitts, The Human Factor: Biomedicine in the Manned Space Program to 1980, NASA SP-4213 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1985), p. 18.

[290] "National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958," Public Law No. 85-568, 72 Stat., 426-438, July 29, 1958, Record Group 255, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, Introduction and Sec. 102(d)(3).

[291] Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury (Washington, DC: NASA, 1966), p. 341.

[292] Alphonse Chapanis, "Some reflections on progress,’ paper presented at the Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 29th Annual Meeting (Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society, 1985),

pp. 1-8.

[293] Christopher D. Wickens, Sallie E. Gordon, and Yili Liu, An Introduction to Human Factors Engi­neering (New York: Longman, 1998), p. 2.

[294] Peggy Tillman and Barry Tillman, Human Factors Essentials: An Ergonomics Guide for Designers, Engineers, Scientists, and Managers (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), p. 4.

[295] Ibid., p. 5.

[296] Ibid., pp. 9-10.

[297] Ibid., pp. 9-10.

1 3. John B. West, High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. xi-xv.

[299] Ibid., pp. 51-52.

[300] Ibid., p. 52.

1 6. Eloise Engle and Arnold S. Lott, Man in Flight: Biomedical Achievements in Aerospace (Annap­olis: Leeward, 1979), pp. 31-34.

[302] West, High Life, pp. 62-73; Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, pp. 34-37.

1 8. Richard P. Hallion, Rise of the Fighter Aircraft, 1914-1918 (Annapolis, MD: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1984), pp. iii-iv.

[304] Steven A. Ruffin, “Flying in the Great War: Rx for Misery; An Overview of the Medical and Physi­ological and Psychological Aspects of Combat Flying During the First World War,’ Over the Front, vol. 14, no. 2 (summer 1999), pp. 1 15-1 24, and vol. 17, no. 2 (summer 2002), pp. 117-1 36.

[305] Harry G. Armstrong, Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1939), pp. 38, 279; William H. Wilmer, Aviation Medicine in the A. E.F (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1920), pp. 61-62; Armstrong, Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine, pp. 1 84-1 87.

[306] Wilmer, Aviation Medicine in the A. E.F., p. 58.

[307] Ruffin, “Flying in the Great War’; Russell R. Burton, "G-Induced Loss of Consciousness: Defini­tion, History, Current Status,’ Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1988, p. 2.

[308] Wilmer, Aviation Medicine in the A. E.F., p. 217.

[309] Armstrong, Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine, p. 6.

[310] U. S. Army Air Service, Air Service Medical (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1919).

[311] Harry W. Orlady and Linda M. Orlady, Human Factors in Multi-Crew Flight Operations (Brook­field, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 1999), pp. 46-47.

[312] National Geographic Society, The National Geographic Society-U. S. Army Air Corps Strato­sphere Flight of 1935, (Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1936); Steven A. Ruffin, ‘Explorer Over Dakota: From Stratobowl to Stratosphere,’ Aviation History, May 1996, pp. 22-28, 72.

[313] The National Geographic Society-U. S. Army Air Corps Stratosphere Flight of 1935; Ruffin, ‘Explorer Over Dakota."

[314] Public Law 271,63rd Congress, 3rd session, Mar. 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 930).

[315] Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Orders of Magnitude: A History of NACA and NASA, 1915-1976, NASA SP-4403 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1976).

31 . David Meister, The History of Human Factors and Ergonomics (Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999), pp. 151-153.

[317] Alphonse Chapanis, Research Techniques in Human Engineering (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1958), p. vii; R. A. Behan and H. W. Wendhausen, Some NASA Contributions to Human Factors Engineering, NASA SP-51 17 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1973), pp. 1-2.

[318] Chapanis, Research Techniques in Human Engineering, p. vii.

[319] Earl L. Wiener and David C. Nagel, Human Factors in Aviation (San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., 1988), p. 7.

[320] Jefferson M. Koonce, "A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation,’ in

Daniel J. Garland, John A. Wise, and V. David Hopkin, etc., Handbook of Aviation Human Factors (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999), pp. 3-1 3.

[321] W. F. Moroney, "The Evolution of Human Engineering: A Selected Review,’ in J. Weimer, ed., Research Techniques in Human Engineering (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995), pp. 1-19; Chapanis, Research Techniques in Human Engineering, pp. 1-2.

[322] Alphonse Chapanis, The Chapanis Chronicles: 50 Years of Human Factors Research, Educa­tion, and Design (Santa Barbara, CA: Aegean Publishing, Co., 1999), pp. 15-16.

[323] Moroney, "The Evolution of Human Engineering: A Selected Review,’ pp. 1-19.

[324] Wiener and Nagel, Human Factors in Aviation, pp. 7-9.

[325] Chapanis, The Chapanis Chronicles, pp. 15-16.

[326] Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, p. 79.

[327] Wiener and Nagel, Human Factors in Aviation, p. 9.

[328] J. Miller, The X-Planes (Arlington, TX: Aerofax, Inc., 1988); Lane E. Wallace, Flights of Dis­covery: 60 Years at the Dryden Flight Research Center, NASA SP-2006-431 8 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2006), pp. 33-72.

[329] Ibid.

[330] Kenneth S. Thomas and Harold J. McMann, U. S. Spacesuits (Chichester UK, Praxis Publishing, Ltd., 2006), p. 8; Lillian D. Kozloski, U. S. Space Gear: Outfitting the Astronaut (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994), pp. 26-31 .

[331] Richard P. Hallion, Supersonic Flight: Breaking the Sound Barrier and Beyond (London: Brassey’s, 1997), pp. 130, 214.

[332] Milton O. Thompson, At the Edge of Space (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992), pp. 281-355.

[333] Dennis R. Jenkins, Hypersonics Before the Shuttle: A Concise History of the X-15 Research Airplane, NASA SP-2000-451 8, Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 1 8 (Washington: GPO, June 2000), pp. 39, 70; Kozloski, U. S. Space Gear, pp. 31-40.

[334] Wendell H. Stillwell, X-15 Research Results (Washington, DC: NASA, 1965), pp. 86-88; Jenkins, Hypersonics Before the Shuttle, p. 70; Thomas and McCann, U. S. Spacesuits, pp. 25-31; Kozloski, U. S. Space Gear, pp. 31-40.

[335] Stillwell, X-15 Research Results, p. 89.

[336] Craig Ryan, The Pre-Astronauts: Manned Ballooning on the Threshold of Space (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995); Gregory P. Kennedy, Touching Space: The Story of Project Manhigh (Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History, 2007); National Museum of the United States Air Force Fact Sheet, "Excelsior Gondola,’ http://www. nationalmuseum. af. mil/factsheets/factsheet. asp? id=562, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[337] Ibid.

[338] David Bushnell, History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics, 1946-58, AF Missile Dev. Center, Holloman AFB, NM (1958); Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, pp. 210-215;

Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technol­ogy in the Exploration of Space, 1915-1960 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1961), pp. 62, 68.

[339] Behan and Wendhausen, Some NASA Contributions to Human Factors Engineering, p. 5.

[340] Pitts, The Human Facto, pp. 8-10.

[341] Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, p. 1 30.

[342] Ibid., p. 131.

[343] Behan and Wendhausen, Some NASA Contributions to Human Factors Engineering, p. 5.

[344] Steven J. Dick, ed., America in Space: NASA’s First Fifty Years (New York: Abrams, 2007).

[345] Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts (New York: Viking, 1994).

[346] George B. Smith, Siegfried J. Gerathewohl, and Bo E. Gernandt, Bioastronautics, NASA Publication No. SP-1 8 (Washington, DC: 1962), pp. 1-18.

[347] Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, p. 1 80.

[348] Stillwell, X-15 Research Results, p. 89; Project Mercury Summary, U. S. Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, TX (Washington, DC: NASA, 1963), pp. 203-207; Stillwell, X-15 Research Results, p. 89.

[349] Richard S. Johnston, Bioastronautics, NASA SP-1 8 (1962), pp. 21-28; Pitts, The Human Factor, pp. 20-28; Engle and Lott, Man in Flight, p. 233.

[350] Erik Bergaust, Murder on Pad 34 (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1968).

[351] G. E. Mueller, "Design, Construction and Procedure Changes in Apollo Following Fire of Janu­ary 1967,’ Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 5, no. 8 (Aug. 1967), pp. 28-33.

[352] Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Aeronautical Research and Develop­ment Policy Report, 90th Congress, 2nd session, 1968, S. Rept. 957.

[353] The name Terminal Configured Vehicle was changed in 1 982 to Advanced Transport Operat­ing Systems (ATOPS) to reflect additional emphasis on air transportation systems, as opposed to individual aircraft technologies.

[354] NASA Langley Research Center, Terminal Configured Vehicle Program Plan (Hampton, VA: Dec. 1, 1973), p. 2.

[355] D. J. Fitts and A. Sandor, "Human Systems Integration,’ http://www. dsls. usra. edu/meetings/ hrp2008/pdf/SHFH/W65DFitts. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[356] "National Plan for Civil Aviation Human Factors: An Initiative for Research and Application,’ 1 st ed., Federal Aviation Administration (Feb. 3, 1995), http://www. hf. faa. gov/docs/natplan. doc, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[357] Personal communication with Jeffrey W. McCandless, Deputy Division Chief, Human Systems Integration Division, NASA Ames Research Center, May 8, 2009.

[358] NASA Human Systems Integration Division Web site, http://human-factors. arc. nasa. gov, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[359] "Human Systems Integration Division Overview,’ NASA Human Systems Integration Division Fact Sheet, http://hsi. arc. nasa. gov/factsheets/TH_Division_Overview. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[360] NASA Human Systems Integration Division Web site.

[361] "Human Systems Integration Division Overview,’ NASA Human Systems Integration Division Fact Sheet.

[362] NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), http://ntrs. nasa. gov/search. jsp.

[363] AJ. Launay, Historic Air Disasters (London: Ian Allan, 1967), p. 13.

[364] Karen E. Jackson, Richard L. Boitnott, Edwin L. Fasanella, Lisa Jones, and Karen H. Lyle "A Sum­mary of DOD-Sponsored Research Performed at NASA Langley’s Impact Dynamics Research Facil­ity,’ NASA Langley Research Center and U. S. Army Research Laboratory, Hampton, VA, presented at the American Helicopter Society 60th Annual Forum, Baltimore, MD, June 7-Ю, 2004.

[365] V. L. Vaughan, Jr., and E. Alfaro-Bou, "Impact Dynamics Research Facility for Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Testing," NASA TN-D-8179 (Apr. 1976).

81 . Jackson, et al., "A Summary of DOD-Sponsored Research."

[367] Ibid.; Edwin L. Fasanella and Emilio Alfaro-Bou, "Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Sec­tion Located Aft of the Wing," NASA TM-89025 (Sept. 1986).

[368] Joseph R. Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2003-4529 (2003).

[369] Ibid.

[370] Edwin L. Fasanella, Emilio Alfaro-Bou, and Robert J. Hayduk, "Impact Data from a Transport Aircraft During a Controlled Impact Demonstration,’ NASA TP-2589 (Sept. 2, 1986).

[371] Chambers, Concept to Reality.

[372] Fasanella, et al., "Impact Data from a Transport Aircraft During a Controlled Impact Demonstration.

[373] Ibid.

[374] Ibid.

[375] "Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration Program: Final Summary Report,’ NASA TM-89642 (Sept. 1987), p. 33.

[376] Ibid., p. 39.

[377] "ASRS Program Briefing,’ via personal communication with Linda Connell, ASRS Program Direc­tor, Sept. 25, 2009.

[378] Corrie, "The US Aviation Safety Reporting System,’ pp. 1-7; "ASRS Program Briefing,’ via personal communication with Connell.

[379] Ibid.

[380] Amy Pritchett, "Aviation Safety Program,’ Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Technologies presen­tation dated June 17, 2008, http://www. jpdo. gov/library/20080618AllHands/ 04_20080618_Amy_Pritchett. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; "ASRS Program Briefing.’

[381] Wiener and Nagel, Human Factors in Aviation, pp. 268-269.

[382] Michael B. Mann, NASA Office of Aero-Space Technology, Hearing on Pilot Fatigue, Aviation Subcommittee of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, U. S. House of Representatives, Aug. 3, 1999, http://www. hq. nasa. gov/office/legaff/mann8-3.html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[383] Ibid.; "Human Fatigue Countermeasures: Aviation,’ NASA Fact Sheet, http://hsi. arc. nasa. gov/ factsheets/Caldwell_fatigue_aero. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; Mark R. Rosekind, et al., "Crew Factors in Flight Operations IX: Effects of Planned Cockpit Rest on Crew Performance and Alertness

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[384] "Pilot Flight Time, Rest, and Fatigue,’ FAA Fact Sheet (June 10, 2009).

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[387] Robert L. Helmreich, John A. Wilhelm, Steven E. Gregorich, and Thomas R. Chidester, "Prelimi­nary Results from the Evaluation of Cockpit Resource Management Training: Performance Ratings of Flightcrews," Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 6 (June 1990), pp. 576-579.

[388] Earl Wiener, Barbara Kanki, and Robert Helmreich, Cockpit Resource Management (San Diego: Academic Press, 1993), pp. 495-496; "Crew Resource Management and its Applications in Medicine," pp. 501-510; Steven K. Howard, David M. Gabe, Kevin J. Fish, George Yang, and Frank H. Sarnquist, ‘Anesthesia Crisis Resource Management Training: Teaching Anesthesiologists to Handle Critical Inci­dents," Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine, vol. 63, no. 9 (Sept. 1992), pp. 763-770; "Crew Resource Management Training," FAA Advisory Circular AC No: 1 20-51 E (Jan. 22, 2004).

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1 18. Al Gore, White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security: Final Report to President Clinton (Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President, Feb. 12, 1997).

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[406] Gore, White House Commission Final Report to the President.

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1 24. "NASA Aviation Safety Program Initiative Will Reduce Aviation Fatalities,’ NASA Facts Online, FS-2000-02-47-LaRC, http://oeaJarc. nasa. gov/PAIS/AvSP-factsheet. htmil, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

1 25. Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 93.

1 26. Randall E. Bailey, Russell V. Parrish, Lynda J. Kramer, Steve Harrah, and JJ. Arthur, III, "Techni­cal Challenges in the Development of a NASA Synthetic Vision System Concept,’ NASA Langley Research Center, AIAA Paper 2002-5188, iith AIAA/AAAF International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Sept. 29-Oct. 4, 2002, Orleans, France (2002); Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 98.

1 27. David C. Foyle, "HSCL Research: Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness System (T-NASA) Overview,’ Human Factors Research & Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Cen­ter, http://human-factors. arc. nasa. gov/ihi/hcsl. inactive/T-NASA. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

1 28. Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 100.

[414] Ibid., p. 121.

1 30. Stephen Darr, "NASA Aviation Safety & Security Program (AvSSP) Concept of Operation (CONOPS) for Health Monitoring and Maintenance Systems Products,’ National Institute of Aero­space NIA Report No. 2006-04 (2006); "Aviation Safety Program,’ NASA Fact Sheet, http:// www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/AvSP-factsheet. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; ‘NASA’s Aviation Safety Accomplishments,’ NASA Fact Sheet, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/ langley/news/factsheets/AvSP-Accom. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[416] Irving C. Statler, ed., "The Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project: A Docu­mentation of its History and Accomplishments: 1999-2005," NASA TP-2007-214556 (June 2007).

[417] Ibid., pp. 15-16.

1 33. Ibid., pp. 15-16; Griff Jay, Gary Prothero, Timothy Romanowski, Robert Lynch,

Robert Lawrence, and Loren Rosenthal, "APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System," NASA CR-2004-21 2840 (Oct. 2004).

1 34. Irving C. Statler, ed., "The Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project," pp. 16­17; "National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS)," NASA Human Systems Integration Division Fact Sheet, http://hsi. arc. nasa. gov/factsheets/Connors_naoms. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009. 1 35. "Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS)," NASA Human Systems Integration Division Fact Sheet, http://hsi. arc. nasa. gov/factsheets/Statler_apms. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

1 36. "Performance Data Analysis and Reporting System,’ Human Systems Integration Division Fact Sheet, http://hsi. arc. nasa. gov/factsheets/Statler_pdars. pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

1 37. "NASA Shares Collier Trophy Award for Aviation Safety Technologies,’ NASA Press Release 09-112, May 21, 2009.

1 38. Amy Pritchett, "Aviation Safety Program.’

[422] 39. "NASA’s Aviation Safety Accomplishments,’ NASA Fact Sheet, http://www. nasa. gov/ centers/langley/news/factsheets/AvSP-Accom. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[423] Carolyn Banda, et al., "Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program: Phase IV A3I Man – Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS)," NASA CR-177593 (1991); Banda, et al., "Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program: Phase V Д3| Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS)," NASA CR-177596 (1992); Lowell Staveland, "Man-machine Integra­tion Design and Analysis System (MIDAS), Task Loading Model (TIM)," NASA CR-177640 (1994).

[424] "Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS)," NASA Web site, http:// humansystems. arc. nasa. gov/groups/midas/index. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[425] Sandra G. Hart, Brian F. Gore, and Peter A. Jarvis, "The Man-Machine Integration Design & Analysis System (MIDAS): Recent Improvements,’ NASA Ames Research Center, http:// humansystems. arc. nasa. gov/groups/midas/documents/MIDAS(HFS%2010-04j. ppt, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; Kevin Corker and Christian Neukom, "Man-Machine Integrated Design and Analy­sis System (MIDAS): Functional Overview,’ Ames Research Center (Dec. 1998).

1 43. Marvin C. Waller and Gary W. Lohr, "A Piloted Simulation Study of Data Link ATC Message Exchange,’ NASA TP-2859 (1989); Charles E. Knox and Charles H. Scanlon, "Flight Tests with a Data Link Used for Air Traffic Control Information Exchange,’ NASA TP-3135 (1991).

[427] Lane E. Wallace, Airborne Trailblaze, ch. 7-3, "Data Link,’ NASA SP-4216 (Washington, DC: 1994).

[428] Ibid.

[429] Ibid.

[430] "NASA’s High Speed Research Program: Developing Tomorrow’s Supersonic Passenger Jet,’ NASA Facts Online, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/HSR-Overview2.html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 100; Ibid., p. 102.

1 48. Bruce Kaplan and David Lee, "Key Metrics and Goals for NASA’s Advanced Air Transporta­tion Technologies Program,’ NASA CR-1998-207678 (1998).

1 49. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project, NASA Web site, htp://www. nasa. gov/centers/ames/research/lifeonearth/lifeonearth-aatt. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009; ‘Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Overview,’ http://www. asc. nasa. gov/aatt/overview. html, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[433] "NASA Vision Group," NASA Ames Research Center, http://vision. arc. nasa. gov/publications. php, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[434] Andries van Dam, "Three Dimensional User Interfaces for Immersive Virtual Reality: Final Report," NASA CR-204997 (1997); Joseph W. Clark, "Integrated Helmet Mounted Display Con­cepts for Air Combat," NASA CR-1 98207 (1995); Earl L. Wiener, "Human Factors of Advanced Technology (‘Glass Cockpit’) Transport Aircraft," NASA CR-177528 (1989).

[435] Ibid.

1 53. Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer.

[437] Richard L. Newman, Head-up Displays: Designing the Way Ahead (Brookfield, VT:

Ashgate, 1995).

[438] E. Fisher, R. F. Haines, and T. A. Price, "Cognitive Issues in Head-up Displays,’ NASA TP-171 1 (1980); J. K. Lauber, R. S. Bray, R. L. Harrison, J. C. Hemingway, and B. C. Scott, "An Operational Evaluation of Head-up Displays for Civil Transport Operations,’ NASA TP-1815 (1982).

[439] Lisa Porter and ARMD Program Directors, "NASA’s New Aeronautics Research Program,’ presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Jan. 1 1, 2007, http://www. aeronautics. nasa. gov/pdf/armd_overview_reno_4.pdf, accessed Oct. 7, 2009.

[440] . Interview of Joseph Walker by author, NASA Langley Research Center, July 3, 1 962.

[441] Max Scherberg and R. V. Rhode, "Mass Distribution and Performance of Free Flight Models,’ NACA TN-268 (1927).

[442] Ibid.

[443] C. H. Zimmerman, "Preliminary Tests in the N. A.C. A. Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel,’ NACA TR – 557 (1935).

[444] C. Wenzinger and T. Harris, "The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,’ NACA TR-387 (1931). The tunnel’s vertical orientation was to minimize cyclical gravi­tational loads on the spinning model and apparatus as would have occurred in a horizontal tunnel.

[445] H. E. Wimperis, "New Methods of Research in Aeronautics,’ Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (Dec. 1932), p. 985.

[446] Zimmerman, "Preliminary Tests in the N. A.C. A. Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel.’ Zimmerman was a brilliant engineer with a notable career involving the design of dynamic wind tunnels, advanced air­craft configurations, and flying platforms, and he served NASA as a member of aerospace panels.

[447] Anshal I. Neihouse, Walter J. Klinar, and Stanley H. Scher, "Status of Spin Research for Recent Airplane Designs" NASA TR-R-57 (1962).

[448] D. Bruce Owens, Jay M. Brandon, Mark A. Croom, Charles M. Fremaux, Eugene H. Heim, and Dan D. Vicroy, "Overview of Dynamic Test Techniques for Flight Dynamics Research at NASA LaRC, AIAA Paper 2006-3146 (2006).

1 0. Joseph R. Chambers and Mark A. Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels (Specialty Press, 2008). Zimmerman was a very proficient model pilot and flew most of the tests in the apparatus.

1 1. John P. Campbell, Jr., was head of the organization at the time of the move. Campbell was one of the youngest research heads ever employed at Langley. In addition to being an expert in flight dynam і cs, he later became recognized for his expertise in V/STOL aircraft technology.

1 2. Owens, et al., "Overview of Dynamic Test Techniques," AIAA Paper 2006-3146.

1 3. Alvin Seiff, Carlton S. James, Thomas N. Canning, and Alfred G. Boissevain, "The Ames Supersonic Free-Flight Wind Tunnel," NACA RM-A52A24 (1952).

[453] Charles J. Cornelison, "Status Report for the Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility, 48th Aero Ballistic Range Association Meeting, Austin, TX, Nov. 1997.

[454] Ralph W. Stone, Jr., William G. Garner, and Lawrence J. Gale, "Study of Motion of Model of Personal-Owner or Liaison Airplane Through the Stall and into the Incipient Spin by Means of a Free – Flight Testing Technique," NACA TN-2923 (1953).

1 6. NASA has, however, used catapulted models for spin entry studies on occasion. See James S. Bowman, Jr., "Spin-Entry Characteristics of a Delta-Wing Airplane as Determined by a Dynamic Model," NASA TN-D-2656 (1965).

[456] Charles E. Libby and Sanger M. Burk, Jr., "A Technique Utilizing Free-Flying Radio-Controlled Models to Study the Incipient-and Developed-Spin Characteristics of Airplanes," NASA Memo 2-6- 59L (1959).

1 8. In addition to specific requests from DOD, Langley conducted fundamental research on spin entry, such as the impact of automatic spin prevention.

1 9. David J. Fratello, Mark A. Croom, Luat T. Nguyen, and Christopher S. Domack, "Use of the Updated NASA Langley Radio-Controlled Drop-Model Technique for High-Alpha Studies of the X-29A Configuration," AIAA Paper 1987-2559 (1987).

[459] Mark A. Croom, Holly M. Kenney, and Daniel G. Murri, "Research on the F/A-18E/F Using a 22%-Dynamically-Scaled Drop Model," AIAA Paper 2000-391 3 (2000).

[460] R. Dale Reed, Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story, NASA SP-4220 (1997).

[461] Euclid C. Holleman, "Summary of Flight Tests to Determine the Spin and Controllability Characteris­tics of a Remotely Piloted, Large-Scale (3/8) Fighter Airplane Model,’ NASA TN-D-8052 (1976).

[462] Michael J. Hirschberg and David M. Hart, "A Summary of a Half-Century of Oblique Wing Research,’ AIAA Paper 2007-150 (2007).

[463] Joseph A. Shortal, A New Dimension. Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years, NASA RP-1028 (1978).

[464] Campbell, "Free and Semi-Free Model Flight-Testing Techniques Used in Low-Speed Studies of Dynamic Stability and Control,’ NATO Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Develop­ment AGARDograph 76 (1963).

[465] This topic is discussed for military applications in another case study in this volume by the same author.

[466] Joseph A. Shortal and Clayton J. Osterhout, "Preliminary Stability and Control Tests in the NACA Free-Flight Tunnel and Correlation with Flight Tests," NACA TN-810 (1941).

[467] Charles L. Seacord, Jr., and Herman O. Ankenbruck, "Determination of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Straight-Wing, Tailless Fighter-Airplane Model in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel," NACA Wartime Report ACR L5K05 (1946).

[468] M. O. McKinney, "Experimental Determination of the Effects of Dihedral, Vertical Tail Area, and Lift Coefficient on Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics," NACA TN-1 094 (1946).

[469] Campbell and Seacord, "The Effect of Mass Distribution on the Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane as Determined by Tests of a Model in the Free-Flight Tunnel," NACA TR-769 (1943).

[470] Robert O. Schade and James L. Hassell, Jr., "The Effects on Dynamic Lateral Stability and Con­trol of Large Artificial Variations in the Rotary Stability Derivatives," NACA TN-2781 (1953).

[471] Carl A. Sandahl, "Free-Flight Investigation at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Wing – Aileron Configuration Simulating the D558-2 Airplane,’ NACA RM-L8E28 (1948); and Sandahl, ‘Free-Flight Investigation at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds of the Rolling Effectiveness for a 42.7° Sweptback Wing Having Partial-Span Ailerons,’ NACA RM-L8E25 (1948).

[472] Examples include James H. Parks and Jesse L. Mitchell, "Longitudinal Trim and Drag Charac­teristics of Rocket-Propelled Models Representing Two Airplane Configurations,’ NACA RM-L9L22 (1949); and James L. Edmondson and E. Claude Sanders, Jr., "A Free-Flight Technique for Measur­ing Damping in Roll by Use of Rocket-Powered Models and Some Initial Results for Rectangular Wings,’ NACA RM-L9101 (1949).

[473] Parks, "Experimental Evidence of Sustained Coupled Longitudinal and Lateral Oscillations From Rocket-Propelled Model of a 35° Swept-Wing Airplane Configuration,’ NACA RM-L54D15 (1954).

[474] Maurice L. Rasmussen, "Determination of Nonlinear Pitching-Moment Characteristics of Axially Symmetric Models From Free-Flight Data," NASA TN-D-144 (1960).

[475] Alfred G. Boissevain and Peter F. Intrieri, "Determination of Stability Derivatives from Ballistic Range Tests of Rolling Aircraft Models," NASA TM-X-399 (1961).

[476] Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels.

[477] William R. Bates, Powell M. Lovell, Jr., and Charles C. Smith, Jr., "Dynamic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Vertically Rising Airplane Model in Hovering Flight," NACA RM-L50J16 (1951).

[478] Hovering and transition tests included: Lovell, Smith, and R. H. Kirby, "Stability and Control Flight Tests of a 0.1 3-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 Airplane in Take-Offs, Landings, and Hovering Flight," NACA RM-SL52I26 (1952); and Lovell, Smith, and Kirby, "Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.1 3-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane During Constant-Altitude Transitions," NACA RM-SL53E1 8 (1953).

[479] Smith, "Flight Tests of a 1/ 6-Scale Model of the Hawker P.1127 Jet VTOL Airplane," NASA TM-SX-531 (1961).

[480] Lovell and Lysle P. Parlett, "Hovering-Flight Tests of a Model of a Transport Vertical Take-Off Air­plane with Tilting Wing and Propellers," NACA TN-3630 (1956); Lovell and Parlett, "Flight Tests of a Model of a High-Wing Transport Vertical-Take-Off Airplane With Tilting Wing and Propellers and With Jet Controls at the Rear of the Fuselage for Pitch and Yaw Control," NACA TN-391 2 (1957).

[481] Louis P. Tosti, "Flight Investigation of Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/8-Scale Model of a Tilt-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-And-Landing Airplane," NASA TN-D-45 (1960); Tosti, "Longitudinal Stability and Control of a Tilt-Wing VTOL Aircraft Model with Rigid and Flapping Propeller Blades," NASA TN-D-1 365 (1962); William A. Newsom and Robert H. Kirby, "Flight Investigation of Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/9-Scale Model of a Four-Propeller Tilt-Wing V/STOL Transport," NASA TN-D-2443 (1964).

[482] Campbell and Joseph L. Johnson, Jr., "Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an External-Flow Jet- Augmented Slotted Flap Suitable for Applications to Airplanes with Pod-Mounted Jet Engines," NACA TN-3898 (1956).

[483] Parlett, "Free-Flight Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Four-Engine Sweptwing Upper-Surface Blown Transport Configuration," NASA TM-X-71932 (1974).

[484] Parlett, "Free-Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a STOL Model with an Externally Blown Jet Flap," NASA TN-D-7411 (1974); Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels.

[485] Campbell originally conceived the EBF concept and ‘

[486] Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels. Langley researchers Polhamus and William J. Alford were awarded a patent for the outboard pivot concept.

[487] Polhamus and Thomas A. Toll, "Research Related to Variable Sweep Aircraft Development, NASA TM-831 21 (1981).

[488] Campbell and Hubert M. Drake, "Investigation of Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane Model with Skewed Wing in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel,’ NACA TN-1 208 (1947).

[489] Polhamus and Toll, "Variable Sweep Aircraft Development,’ NASA TM-831 21.

[490] Michael J. Hirschberg and David M. Hart, "A Summary of a Half-Century of Oblique Wing Research,’ AIAA Paper 2007-150 (2007).

[491] Weneth D. Painter, "AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft Pilot Evaluation Program," AIAA Paper 1983-2509 (1983).

[492] James S. Bowman, Jr., "Dynamic Model Tests at Low Subsonic Speeds of Project Mercury Cap­sule Configurations With and Without Drogue Parachutes," NASA TM-X-459 (1961); Henry A. Lee, Peter S. Costigan, and Bowman, "Dynamic Model Investigation of a 1 /20-Scale Gemini Space­craft in the Langley Spin Tunnel," NASA TN-D-2191 (1964); Henry A. Lee and Sanger M. Burk, ‘Low-Speed Dynamic Model Investigation of Apollo Command Module Configuration in the Langley Spin Tunnel," NASA TN-D-3888 (1967).

[493] Costigan, "Dynamic-Model Study of Planetary-Entry Configurations in the Langley Spin Tunnel," NASA TN-D-3499 (1966).

[494] David E. Hahne and Charles M. Fremaux, "Low-Speed Dynamic Tests and Analysis of the Orion Crew Module Drogue Parachute System," AIAA Paper 2008-09-05 (2008).

[495] Peter C. Boisseau, "Investigation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1 /7-Scale Model of the North American X-15 Airplane," NACA RM-L57D09

(1957); Donald E. Hewes and James L. Hassell, Jr., "Subsonic Flight Tests of a 1 /7-Scale Radio – Controlled Model of the North American X-15 Airplane With Particular Reference to High Angle-of-Attack Conditions," NASA TM-X-283 (1960).

[496] Dennis R. Jenkins and Tony R. Landis, Hypersonic-The Story of the North American X-15 (Spe­cialty Press, 2008).

[497] Reed, Wingless Flight, NASA SP-4220.

[498] George M. Ware, "Investigation of the Flight Characteristics of a Model of the H L-1 0 Manned Lifting Entry Vehicle," NASA TM-X-1 307 (1967).

[499] Reed, Wingless Flight.

[500] Linwood W. McKinney and Polhamus, "A Summary of NASA Data Relative to External-Store Separation Characteristics,’ NASA TN-D-3582 (1966).

[501] Alford and Robert T. Taylor, "Aerodynamic Characteristics of the X-15/B-52 Combination,’ NASA Memo-8-59L (1958).

[502] Shortal, A New Dimension.

[503] Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels; Chambers, Innovation in Flight: Research of the Lang­ley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics, NASA SP-4539 (2005).

[504] Dan D. Vicroy, "Blended-Wing-Body Low-Speed Flight Dynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results,’ AIAA Invited Paper presented at the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Jan. 2009.

[505] Laurence A. Walker, "Flight Testing the X-36-The Test Pilot’s Perspective," NASA CR-198058 (1997).

[506] Zimmerman, "N. A.C. A. Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel," NACA TR-557.

[507] Oscar Seidman and Anshal I. Neihouse, "Free-Spinning Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Low-Wing Monoplane with Systematic Changes in Wings and Tails III. Mass Distributed Along the Wings, NACA TN-664 (1938).

[508] Seidman and Charles J. Donlan, "An Approximate Spin Design Criteria for Monoplanes,’ NACA TN-71 1 (1939).

[509] Walter J. Klinar, Henry A. Lee, and L. Faye Wilkes, "Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1 /25-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF8U-1 Airplane,’ NACA RM-SL56L31 b (1956).

[510] M. H. Clarkson, "Autorotation of Fuselages,’ Aeronautical Engineering Review, vol. 17 (Feb.

1 958); Polhamus, "Effect of Flow Incidence and Reynolds Number on Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of Several Noncircular Cylinders with Applications to Directional Stability and Spin­ning,’ NACA TN-4176 (1958).

[511] D. N. Petroff, S. H. Scher, and L. E. Cohen, "Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of an 0.075-Scale F-15 Airplane Model at High Angles of Attack and Sideslip,’ NASA TM-X-62360 (1974); Petroff, Scher, and C. E. Sutton, "Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.08-Scale YF-17 Airplane Model at High Angles of Attack and Sideslip,’ NASA TM-78438 (1978);

Raymond D. Whipple and J. L. Ricket, "Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 1/8-scale X-29A Airplane Model at High Angles of Attack and Sideslip,’ NASA TM-87722 (1986).

[512] Stanley H. Scher and William L. White, "Spin-Tunnel Investigation of the Northrop F-5E Air­plane,’ NASA TM-SX-3556 (1977); C. Michael Fremaux, "Wind-Tunnel Parametric Investigation of Forebody Devices for Correcting Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Characteristics at Spinning Attitudes,’ NASA CR-198321 (1996).

[513] A discussion of the powerful effects of asymmetric mass loadings for the F-15 fighter is pre­sented in an accompanying case study in this volume by the same author.

[514] Scher, "Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Behavior of Parachutes in Close Proximity to One Another,’ NACA RM-L53G07 (1953); Scher and John W. Draper, "The Effects of Stability of Spin – Recovery Tail Parachutes on the Behavior of Airplanes in Gliding Flight and in Spins,’ NACA TN – 2098 (1950); Sanger M. Burk, Jr., "Summary of Design Considerations for Airplane Spin-Recovery Parachute Systems,’ NASA TN-D-6866 (1972); H. Paul Stough, III, "A Summary of Spin-Recovery Parachute Experience on Light Airplanes,’ AIAA Paper 90-1 317 (1990).

[515] James S. Bowman, Jr., and Burk, "Stall/Spin Studies Relating to Light General-Aviation Aircraft,’ SAE Paper presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers Business Aircraft Meeting, Wichita, KS, Apr. 1973.

[516] Burk, Bowman, and White, "Spin-Tunnel Investigation of the Spinning Characteristics of Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Airplane Designs: Part I-Low-Wing Model A.: Effects of Tail Configu­rations," NASA TP-1009 (1977).

[517] Stough, "A Summary of Spin-Recovery Parachute Experience on Light Airplanes," AIAA Paper 90-1317 (1990).

[518] M. L. Holcomb, "The Beech Model 77 ‘Skipper’ Spin Program," AIAA Paper 79-1 835 (1979).

80. Libby, “A Technique Utilizing Free-Flying Radio-Controlled Models,’ NASA Memo 2-6-59L.

[520] . Burk and Libby, “Large-Angle Motion Tests, Including Spins, of a Free-Flying Radio-Controlled 0.1 3-Scale Model of a Twin-Jet Swept-Wing Fighter Airplane,’ NASA TM-SX-445 (1960).

[521] Bowman and Burk, "Stall/Spin Studies Relating to Light General-Aviation Aircraft,’ Society of Automotive Engineers Business Aircraft Meeting, Wichita, KS.

[522] Bowman, Stough, Burk, and Patton, "Correlation of Model and Airplane Spin Characteristics for a Low-Wing General Aviation Research Airplane,’ AIAA Paper 78-1477 (1978).

[523] Staff of the Langley Research Center, "Exploratory Study of the Effects of Wing-Leading-Edge Modifications’ NASA TP-1589 (1979).

[524] The impressive results of NASA’s full-scale and model flight-testing, together with evaluations of the droop concept by FAA pilots, led to the creation of a new spin certification category known as ‘spin resistant design.’ See Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-4529 (2003).

[525] M. L. Holcomb and R. R. Tumlinson, "Evaluation of a Radio-Control Model for Spin Simulation," SAE Paper 77-0482 (1977); Holcomb, "The Beech Model 77 "Skipper" Spin Program," AIAA

1 979-1 835; Tumlinson, Holcomb and V. D. Gregg, "Spin Research on a Twin-Engine Aircraft," AIAA Paper 1981-1667 (1981).

[526] Burk and Calvin F. Wilson, "Radio-Controlled Model Design and Testing Techniques for Stall/ Spin Evaluation of General-Aviation Aircraft," NASA TM-80510 (1975).

[527] Yip, et al., "Model Flight Test of a Spin-Resistant Trainer," AIAA 88-2146.

[528] Warren E. Leary, "NASA Jet Sets Record For Speed," New York Times, Nov. 17, 2004, p. A24.

[529] Donald D. Baals and William R. Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, NASA SP-440 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1981), p. 2.

[530] NASA Ames Applied Aerodynamics Branch, "The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels’ July 1994), pp. 10-1 1.

[531] For a detailed history of wind tunnel development before World War II, see J. Lawrence Lee, "Into the Wind: A History of the American Wind Tunnel, 1 896-1941," dissertation, Auburn University, 2001.

[532] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 3.

[533] Ibid.

[534] Peter Jakab, Visions of a Flying Machine (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990), p. 155.

[535] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 9-1 2.

[536] Ibid., pp. 13-15.

[537] Ibid., pp. 15-17.

1 1. Eastman N. Jacobs, Kenneth E. Ward, and Robert M. Pinkerton, "The Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Sections from Tests in the Variable-Density Wind Tunnel," NACA TR-460 (1933).

1 2. R. C. Platt, memorandum for Dr. Lewis, "Airfoil sections employed for wings of modern airplanes," Sept. 2, 1937, RA file 290, Langley Research Center Historical Archives; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 15-17 (quote).

1 3. Edward P. Warner, "Research to the Fore,’ Aviation, vol. 33, no. 6 (June 1934), p. 1 86; ‘Research Symphony: The Langley Philharmonic in Opus No. 10,’ Aviation, vol. 34, no. 6 (June 1935), pp. 15-18.

1 4. George W. Gray, Frontiers of Flight: The Story of NACA Research (New York: A. A. Knopf,

1 948), p. 156; James R. Hansen, Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958, NASA SP-4305 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1987), pp. 462-463; NASA, ’Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center," FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed May 28, 2009.

1 5. Glenn E. Bugos, Atmosphere of Freedom: Sixty Years at the NASA Ames Research Center, NASA SP-4314 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2000), pp. 6-1 3.

1 6. The NACA renamed the AERL the Propulsion Research Laboratory in 1947 and changed the name of the facility once again to the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory a year later in honor of George W. Lewis, the committee’s first Director of Aeronautical Research. Virginia P. Dawson, Engines and Innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American Propulsion Technology, NASA SP-4306 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1991), pp. 2-14, 36.

[544] Ernest G. Whitney, "Altitude Tunnel at AERL," Lecture 22, June 23, 1943, http://awt. grc. nasa. gov/resources/Research_Docurnents/Altitude_Wind_TunneLat_AERL. pdf, accessed Oct. 1 2, 2009.

1 8. William M. Leary, “We Freeze to Please": A History of NASA’s Icing Research Tunnel and the Quest for Flight Safety, NASA SP-2002-4226 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2002), pp. 19-37; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 45-46; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels," IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

[546] In 1987, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers designated the IRT an International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark.

20. John Becker, The High Speed Frontier: Case Histories of Four NACA Programs 1920-1950, NASA SP-445 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1980), p. 61.

[548] . Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 327-328, 454; Steven T. Corneliussen, "The Transonic Wind Tunnel and the NACA Technical Culture,’ in Pamela E. Mack, ed., From Engineering Science to Big Science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy Research Project Winners, NASA SP-4219 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1998), p. 1 33.

[549] Ibid., p. 91; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 329, 330-331.

[550] Joseph R. Chambers, Innovation in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics, NASA SP-2005-4539 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2005), pp. 1 8-19.

[551] "Report of President’s Air Policy Commission Calling for a Greatly Enlarged Defense Force,’ New York Times, Jan. 14, 1948, p. 21.

[552] NASA Ames Applied Aerodynamics Branch, "The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels’ (July 1 994), pp. 3-4; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 474-475.

[553] Arnold Air Force Base, "Arnold Engineering Development Center,’ 2007, http://www. amoU. af. mil/library/factsheets/factsheet. asp? id=12977, accessed July 30, 2009.

[554] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 65-66.

[555] "Manual for Users of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Facilities of the National Advisory Commit­tee for Aeronautics," NACA TM-80998 (1956), p. 1; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 66, 71 (quote).

[556] "Manual for Users of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Facilities," pp. i, 1,5-9.

[557] William T. Shaefer, Jr., "Characteristics of Major Active Wind Tunnels at the Langley Research Center," NASA TM-X-1 1 30 (July 1965), p. 32; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 474-475.

[558] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 68-69.

[559] NASA Ames Applied Aerodynamics Branch, "The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels’ (July 1 994), p. 9; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels,’ IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PASS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

[560] NASA Ames Applied Aerodynamics Branch, "The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels’ (July 1 994),

pp. 3-7

[561] Ibid., pp. 1, 3, 12-14.

[562] National Park Service, "National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Wind Tunnels: Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel,’ Jan. 2001, http://www. nps. gov/history/history/online_books/butowsky4/ space4.htm, accessed May 28, 2009; and Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel,’ n. d., http://www. nps. gov/history/nr/travel/aviation/uni. htm, accessed July 31, 2009.

[563] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 69-70; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels,’ IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html accessed May 26, 2009.

[564] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 462-463; NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center,’ FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/ factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed May 28, 2009; Langley Research Center, "Research and Test Facilities,’ NASA TM-1096859 (1993), p. 17; Rachel C. Samples, "A New Spin on the Constellation Program,’ Aug. 2007, http://www. nasa. gov/mission_pages/constellation/orion/ orion-spintunnel. html, accessed Sept. 14, 2009.

[565] Richard T. Whitcomb, "A Study of the Zero-Lift Drag-Rise Characteristics of Wing-Body Combi­nations Near the Speed of Sound,’ NACA RM-L52H08 (Sept. 3, 1952).

[566] Richard T. Whitcomb and Thomas L. Fischetti, "Development of a Supersonic Area Rule and an Application to the Design of a Wing-Body Combination Having High Lift-to-Drag Ratios,’ NACA RM – L53H31A (Aug. 18, 1953); Richard T. Whitcomb, "Some Considerations Regarding the Application of the Supersonic Area Rule to the Design of Airplane Fuselages,’ NACA RM-L56E23a (July 3, 1956).

[567] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, p. 474.

[568] Richard T. Whitcomb and Larry L. Clark, "An Airfoil Shape for Efficient Flight at Supercritical Mach Numbers," NASA TM-X-1 109 (Apr. 20, 1 965); Michael Gorn, Expanding the Envelope: Flight Research at NACA and NASA (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001), p. 331.

[569] Thomas C. McMurtry, Neil W. Matheny, and Donald H. Gatlin, "Piloting and Operational Aspects of the F-8 Supercritical Wing Airplane," in Supercritical Wing Technology—A Progress Report on Flight Evaluations, NASA SP-301 (1972), p. 102; Gorn, Expanding the Envelope, pp. 335, 337.

[570] Richard T. Whitcomb, "A Design Approach and Selected Wind-Tunnel Results at High Subsonic Speeds for Wing-Tip Mounted Winglets," NASA TN-D-8260 (July 1976), p. 1; Chambers, Con­cept to Reality, p. 35.

[571] Ibid., pp. 38, 41,43.

[572] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 459, 462.

[573] E. Carson Yates, Jr., Norman S. Land, and Jerome T. Foughner, Jr., "Measured and Calculated Subsonic and Transonic Flutter Characteristics of a 45 Degree Sweptback Wing Planform in Air and Freon-1 2 in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel,’ NASA TN-D-161 6 (Mar. 1963), p. 1 3.

[574] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, 459, 462; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 78-80; NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center,’ FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed

May 28, 2009.

[575] William E. Giles, "Air Crash Aftermath,’ Wall Street Journal, Oct. 13, 1959, p. 1; "Airliner Lost Wing,’ New York Times, Oct. 28, 1959, p. 75.

[576] Wayne Thomis, "What Air Crash Probers Seek,’ Chicago Daily Tribune, Mar. 1 8, 1 960, p. 3; "Wild Flutter Split Wings Of Electras,’ Washington Post, Times Herald, May 1 3, 1960, p. D6; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 80.

[577] Ibid., p. 80.

[578] Ibid., p. 155.

[579] Jerome T. Foughner, Jr., and Charles T. Bensinger, "F-16 Flutter Model Studies with External Wing Stores," NASA TM-74078 (Oct. 1977), pp. 1,7, 14.

[580] NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center," FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed

May 28, 2009.

[581] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 86, 1 01; T. A. Heppenheimer, Facing the Heat Barrier: A History of Hypersonics, NASA SP-2007-4232 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2007), p. 42.

[582] Ibid., pp. xi, 2.

[583] James C. Emery, "Appendix: Description and Calibration of the Langley 20-inch Mach 6 Tun­nel,’ in Theodore J. Goldberg and Jerry N. Hefner, "Starting Phenomena for Hypersonic Inlets with Thick Turbulent Boundary Layers at Mach 6,’ NASA TN-D-6280 (Aug. 1971), pp. 1 3-15; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, p. 478.

[584] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 84-85, 90.

[585] Ibid., p. 85.

[586] For more information on ballistic ranges, see Alvin Seiff and Thomas N. Canning, "Modern Ballistic Ranges and Their Uses,’ NASA TM-X-66530 (Aug. 1970).

[587] Heppenheimer, Facing the Heat Barrier, pp. 32, 40-42; NASA Ames Research Center, ‘Thermophsyics Facilities Branch Range Complex,’ n. d., http://thermc-physics. arc. nasa. gov/ fact_sheets/Range%20Fact%20Sheet. pdf, accessed Oct. 1 3, 2009.

[588] Jim J. Jones, "Resume of Experiments Conducted in the High-Pressure Shock Tube of the Gas Dynamics Tube at NASA,’ NASA TM-X-56214 (Mar. 1959), p. 1; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 473-474.

[589] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 92.

[590] Ibid., p. 95.

[591] Ibid., pp. 94-97.

[592] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 475-478.

[593] Gemini I (Apr. 1964) and II (Jan. 1965) were unpiloted missions. Gemini III (Mar. 1965) and

IV (June 1965) included astronaut crews. NASA Kennedy Space Center, "Gemini Missions,’ Nov. 9, 2000, http://www-pao. ksc. nasa. gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned. htm, accessed Aug. 14, 2009.

[594] Richard M. Raper, "Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements Obtained During Launch and Reentry of the First Four Gemini-Titan Missions and Some Comparisons with Wind-Tunnel Data,’ NASA TM-X-1407 (Aug. 1967), pp. 1, 14.

[595] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 107; Heppenheimer, Facing the Heat Barrier, p. 55.

[596] Ibid., p. 82.

[597] Hansen, Engineer in Charge, pp. 475-478.

[598] H. Julian Allen and Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., "A Study of the Motion and Aerodynamic Heating of Ballistic Missiles Entering the Earth’s Atmosphere at High Supersonic Speeds,’ NACA TR-1381 (1958).

[599] Kenneth W. Iliff and Mary F. Shafer, "Space Shuttle Hypersonic Aerodynamic and Aerothermo­dynamic Flight Research and the Comparison to Ground Test Results,’ NASA TM-4499 (1993), p. 3.

[600] Heppenheimer, Facing the Heat Barrier, pp. 208, 271,273.

[601] William C. Woods, Scott D. Holland, and Michael DiFulvio, "Hyper-X Stage Separation Wind – Tunnel Test Program,’ Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 38 (Nov.-Dec. 2001), p. 811.

[602] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 1 36; Hansen, Engineer in Charge, p. 479.

[603] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 71.

[604] Ibid., p. 136.

[605] Reference in James R. Hansen, The Bird is on the Wing: Aerodynamics and the Progress of the American Airplane (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2004), p. 221.

[606] Victor L. Peterson and William F. Ballhaus, Jr., "History of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simula­tion Program,’ in Paul Kutler and Helen Yee, Supercomputing in Aerospace: Proceedings of a Sym­posium Held at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, Mar. 10-12, 1987, NASA CP-2454 (1987), pp. 1, 3.

[607] Dean R. Chapman, "Computational Aerodynamics Development and Outlook,’ Dryden Lecture in Research for 1979, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Jan. 15-17, 1979, AIAA-1979-129 (1979), p. 1; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 137.

81 . John Noble Wilford, "Advanced Supercomputer Begins Operation,’ New York Times, Mar. 10, 1987, p. C3.

[609] Peterson and Ballhaus, "History of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program,’ pp. 1,9.

[610] John Noble Wilford, "Advanced Supercomputer Begins Operation,’ New York Times, Mar. 10, 1987, p. C3.

[611] Joseph G. Marvin, "Advancing Computational Aerodynamics through Wind-Tunnel Experimen­tation," NASA TM-109742 (Sept. 1980), p. 4.

[612] William J. Broad, "In the Space Age, the Old Wind Tunnel Is Being Left Behind," New York Times, Jan. 5, 1988, p. C4.

[613] Peterson and Ballhaus, "History of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program," p. 3.

[614] R. P. Boyden, "A Review of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems,’ AIAA Paper 88-2008 (May 1988); NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels,’ IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http:// oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

[615] Marie H. Tuttle, Deborah L. Moore, and Robert A. Kilgore, "Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography,’ NASA TM-4318 (1991), p. iv; Langley Research Center, "Research and Test Facilities,’ p. 9.

[616] R. Smelt, "Power Economy in High Speed Wind Tunnels by Choice of Working Fluid and Temperature,’ Report No. Aero. c081, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, England,

Aug. 1945.

[617] Robert A. Kilgore, "Design Features and Operational Characteristics of the Langley Pilot Tran­sonic Cryogenic Tunnel," NASA TM-X-7201 2 (Sept. 1974), pp. 1, 3, 4.

[618] Ibid., p. 6; Edward J. Ray, Charles L. Ladson, Jerry B. Adcock, Pierce L. Lawing, and Robert M. Hall, "Review of Design and Operational Characteristics of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel," NASA TM-801 23 (Sept. 1979), pp. 1,4; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 1 33; NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center," FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed May 28, 2009; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels," IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http:// oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

[619] Robert A. Kilgore, "Design Features and Operational Characteristics of the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel," NASA TN-D-8304 (Dec. 1976), pp. 1, 3, 19; Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, pp. 106-107.

[620] Ray, et. al, "Review of Design and Operational Characteristics of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel,’ p. 1.

[621] NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels,’ IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009; NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center,’ FS-2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langley/ news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed May 28, 2009.

[622] Baals and Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, p. 1 33.

[623] Marie H. Tuttle, Robert A. Kilgore, and Deborah L. Moore, "Cryogenic Wind Tunnels: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography," NASA TM-4273 (1991), p. iv; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels," IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. brc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009; NASA, "Wind Tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center," FS – 2001-04-64-LaRC, 2001, http://www. nasa. gov/centers/langby/news/factsheets/windtunnels. html, accessed May 28, 2009.

[624] H. Kipling Edenborough, "Research at NASA’s NFAC Wind Tunnels," NASA TM-102827 (June 1990), pp. 1-6; NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels," IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PAIS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

[625] Shaefer, "Characteristics of Major Active Wind Tunnels at the Langley Research Center,’ p. 2.

[626] NASA Langley, "NASA’s Wind Tunnels," IS-1992-05-002-LaRC, May 1992, http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/PASS/WindTunnel. html, accessed May 26, 2009.

1 00. Langley Research Center, "Research and Test Facilities," p. 1 2.

1 01. NASA changed the name of the Lewis Research Center to the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in 1 999 to recognize the achievements of the astronaut and Ohio Senator.

1 02. NASA, "NASA’s Aeronautics Test Program: The Right Facility at the Right Time," B-1 240 (Oct. 2006); NASA, "Aeronautics Test Program," NF-2009-03-486-HQ (n. d. [2009]).

1 03. Hansen, The Bird is on the Wing, p. 212.

1 04. William J. Broad, "In the Space Age, the Old Wind Tunnel Is Being Left Behind," New York Times, Jan. 5, 1988, p. C1.

[632] Ibid., p. C4.

1 06. Glenn Research Center, "Mitigation: Altitude Wind Tunnel and Space Power Chambers,’ Apr. 24, 2008, http://awt. grc. nasa. gov/mitigation_demolition. aspx, accessed Oct. 12, 2009.

1 07. David M. Cushing, "Final Management Letter on Audit of Wind Tunnel Utilization,’ Sept. 26, 2003, oig. nasa. gov/audits/reports/FY03/pdfs/ig-03-027.pdf, accessed June 17, 2009;

Cory Nealon, "Winds of Change at NASA,’ Newport News Daily Press, Aug. 25, 2009.

[635] Arnold Air Force Base, "The National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex,’ 2009, http:// www. arnold. af. mil/library/factsheets/factsheet. asp? id= 13 107, accessed July 30, 2009.

[636] Warren E. Leary, "NASA Plan to Cut Aviation Research 20% Dismays Experts,’ New York Times, Mar. 17, 2005, p. A24.

1 10. Philip S. Anton, "Testimony: Roles and Issues of NASA’s Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities for American Aeronautics,’ RAND Publication CT-239 (Mar. 2005), p. 8, 17.

[638] "Do NASA’s Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities Serve National Needs?’ RB-9066- NASA/OSD (2004).

[639] Anton, "Testimony,’ p. 15.

1 1 3. Cory Nealon, "Winds of Change at NASA,’ Newport News Daily Press, Aug. 25, 2009.

1 14. Barry Newman, "Shutting This Wind Tunnel Should Be a Breeze, But Its Fans Won’t Be Silent, The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 26, 2009, p. A1.

1 . "Cargo X-Plane Shows Benefits of Advanced Composites,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, June 8, 2009, p. 1 8.

[643] Stephen Trimble, "Skunk Works nears flight for new breed of all-composite aircraft,’ Flight Interna­tional, June 5, 2009.

[644] "USAF Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft Makes First Flight,’ U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center press release, June 3, 2009.

[645] Trimble, "Skunk Works nears flight for new breed of all-composite aircraft.’

[646] "Lockheed Martin Conducts Successful Flight of AFRL’s Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft, Lockheed Martin Corporation press release, June 3, 2009.

[647] Guy Norris, "Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft Gets Green Light For Phase III," Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, Oct. 2, 2009, p. 2.

[648] William F. Durand, "Some Outstanding Problems in Aeronautics," in NACA, Fourth Annual Report (Washington, DC: GPO, 1920).

[649] Eric Schatzberg, Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal: Culture and Technical Choice in American Airplane Materials 1914-1945 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), p. 176.

[650] Ibid., p. 32.

1 0. Meyer Fishbein, "Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials,’ NACA Technical Note No. 694 (1939), p. 2.

1 1. Frank W. Caldwell and N. S. Clay, "Micarta Propellers III: General Description of the Design, NACA Technical Note No. 200 (1924), p. 3.

[653] Ibid., pp. 7-9.

1 3. Schatzberg, Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal, p. 1 80.

1 4. G. M. Kline, "Plastics as Structural Materials for Aircraft," NACA Technical Note No. 628 (1937), p. 10.

[656] Fishbein, "Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials," p. 2.

1 6. Schatzberg, Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal, p. 1 33.

1 7. Arthur R. von Hippel and A. G.H. Dietz, "Curing of Resin-Wood Combinations By High – Frequency Heating,’ NACA Technical Note No. 874 (1938), pp. 1-3.

[659] Ibid.

1 9. Howard Mansfield, Skylark: The Life, Lies and Inventions of Harry Atwood (Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England, 1999).

[661] Fishbein, "Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials.’

[662] Kline, "Plastics as Structural Materials for Aircraft."

[663] Howard Mansfield, Skylark: The Life, Lies and Inventions of Harry Atwood.

[664] Schatzberg, Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal, pp. 1 82-191 .

[665] "Towards an Ideal," Flight, Feb. 16, 1939.

[666] Schatzberg, Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal, p. 181.

[667] Kline, "Plastics as Structural Materials for Aircraft."

[668] Ibid.

[669] Fishbein, "Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials," pp. 1, 1 6-1 7.

[670] Ian Thirsk, de Havilland Mosquito: An Illustrated History, v. 2 (Manchester, U. K.: Crecy Publish­ing, Ltd., 2006), p. 39.

[671] Kline, "Plastics as Structural Materials for Aircraft."

[672] William S. Friedman, "Flying Plywood With a Sting," Popular Science, No. 6, Dec. 1943, pp. 100-103.

[673] Robert L. O’Connell, Soul of the Sword: An Illustrated History of Weaponry and Warfare from Prehistory to the Present (New York: The Free Press, 2002), pp. 289-290.

[674] Friedman, "Flying Plywood With a Sting," pp. 100-103.

[675] Thirsk, de Havilland Mosquito, p. 39.

[676] Phillippe Cognard, ed., Adhesives and Sealants: Basic Concepts and High-Tech Bonding (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005).

[677] Von Hippel and Dietz, "Curing of Resin-Wood Combinations By High-Frequency Heating,’ pp. MM

[678] Ibid.

[679] "Brandt Goldsworthy: Composites Visionary,’ High Performance Composites, May 1, 2003, http://www. compositesworld. com/articles/brandt-goldsworthy-composites-visionary. aspx, accessed Oct. 3, 2009.

[680] Ibid.

[681] Ibid.

[682] Allen M. Shibley, Adolph E. Slobodzinski, John Nardone, and Martin Cutler, "Special Report: Structural Plastics in Aircraft,’ Plastics Technical Evaluation Center, U. S. Army Picatinny Arsenal (Mar. 1965), p. 7.

[683] Ibid., p. 9.

[684] Ibid.

[685] Ibid.

[686] John M. Swihart, "Commercial Jet Transportation Structures and Materials Evolution,’ Apr.

1 985, presented at AIAA Evolution of Aircraft/Aerospace Structures and Materials Symposium, Dayton, OH, Apr. 24-25, 1985, p. 5-10.

[687] Ibid., p. 20.

[688] F. S. Snyder and R. E. Drake, "Experience with Reinforced Plastic Primary Aircraft Structures,’ presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Automotive Engineering Congress in Detroit, MI, Jan. 14-18, 1963, p. 1.

[689] Ibid.

[690] Ibid., p. 4.

[691] Ibid., p. 4.

[692] Swihart, "Commercial Jet Transportation Structures and Materials Evolution,’ p. 5-3.

[693] Ibid., pp. 5-6.

[694] Richard A. Pride, "Composite Fibres and Composites," NASA CP-2074 (1979).

[695] Ibid.

[696] Robert L. James and Dal V. Maddalon, "The Drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency," Aerospace America, Feb. 1984, p. 54.

[697] Ibid.

[698] Swihart, "Commercial Jet Transportation Structures and Materials Evolution."

[699] Richard G. O’Lone, "Industry Tackles Composites Challenge,’ Aviation Week & Space Technol­ogy, Sept. 15, 1980, p. 22.

[700] Marvin B. Dow, "The ACEE Program and Basic Composites Research at Langley Research Centre (1975 to 1986): Summary and Bibliography,’ NASA RP-1 177 (1987), p. 1.

[701] Ibid., p. 14

[702] Ravi B. Deo, James H. Starnes, Jr., and Richard C. Holzwarth, "Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications,’ presented at the NATO Research and Technology Agency Applied Vehicle Technical Panel Specialists’ Meeting on Low-Cost Composite Structures, Loen, Nor­way, May 7-8, 2001, p. 1-1.

[703] Ibid., p. SM 1-2.

[704] O’Lone, "Industry Tackles Composites Challenge,’ p. 22.

[705] Richard N. Hadcock, "X-29 Composite Wing,’ presented at the AIAA Evolution of Aircraft/ Aerospace Structures and Materials Symposium, Dayton, OH, Apr. 24-25, 1985, p. 7-1 .

[706] Joseph J. Klumpp, "Parametric Cost Estimation Applied to Composite Helicopter Airframes’ (Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School master’s thesis, 1 994).

[707] Ibid.

[708] Ibid., p. 68.

[709] D. A. Reed and R. Gable, "Ground Shake Test of the Boeing Model 360 Helicopter Airframe,’ NASA CR-181766 (1989), p. 6.

[710] Deo, Starnes, and Holzwarth, "Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications.’

[711] "Lightweight Composites Are Displacing Metals,’ Business Week, July 30, 1 979, p. 36D.

[712] E. H. Hooper, "Starship 1,’ presented at the AIAA Evolution of Aircraft/Aerospace Structures and Materials Symposium, Dayton, OH, Apr. 24-25, 1985, p. 6-1.

[713] Ibid.

[714] "Energy Efficiency Funding Detailed,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, Nov. 1 2, 1979,

p. 122.

[715] Dow, "The ACEE Program and Basic Composites Research at Langley Research Centre (1 975 to 1986): Summary and Bibliography,’ p. 3.

[716] Ibid.

[717] Ibid., pp. 4-5.

[718] "Composite Programs Pushed by NASA,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, Nov. 1 2, 1979, p. 203.

[719] James and Maddalon, "The Drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency," p. 54.

[720] Herman L. Bohon and John G. Davis, Jr., "Composites for Large Transports—Facing the Chal­lenge,’ Aerospace America, June 1984, p. 58.

[721] Ibid.

81 . James and Maddalon, "The Drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency," p. 54.

[723] Bohon and Davis, "Composites for Large Transports — Facing the Challenge," p. 58.

[724] bid.

[725] James and Maddalon, "The Drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency," p. 54.

[726] Ibid.

[727] Dow, "The ACEE Program and Basic Composites Research at Langley Research Centre (1975 to 1986): Summary and Bibliography," p. 6.

[728] Bohon and Davis, "Composites for Large Transports — Facing the Challenge," p. 58.

[729] Ibid.

[730] Dow, "The ACEE Program and Basic Composites Research at Langley Research Centre (1975 to 1986): Summary and Bibliography," p. 6.

[731] Deo, Starnes, and Holzwarth, "Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Appli­cations," p. 6-7.

[732] Ibid.

[733] Richard Piellisch, "Composites Roll Sevens,’ Aerospace America, Oct. 1992, p. 26.

[734] Mark T. Wright, et al., "Composite Materials in Aircraft Mishaps Involving Fire: A Literature Review,’ Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division TP-8552, June 2003, p. 13.

[735] Bohon and Davis, "Composites for Large Transports—Facing the Challenge,’ p. 58.

[736] Dow, "The ACEE Program and Basic Composites Research at Langley Research Centre (1975 to 1986): Summary and Bibliography,’ p. 6.

[737] Jay C. Lowndes, "Keeping a Sharp Technology Edge,’ Aerospace America, Feb. 1988, p. 24.

[738] Ibid.

[739] Ibid.

[740] Wright, et al., "Composite Materials in Aircraft Mishaps Involving Fire: A Literature Review, pp. 8-9.

1 00. "Carbon Fire Hazard Concerns NASA,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology,

Mar. 5, 1979, p. 47.

1 01. Lt. John M. Olson, USAF, "Mishap Risk Control for Advanced Aerospace/Composite Materi­als’ (Wright-Patterson AFB: USAF Advanced Composites Program Office, 1995), p. 4.

[743] "Carbon Fibre Risk Analysis,’ NASA CP-2074 (1979), p. iii.

1 03. Wright, et al., "Composite Materials in Aircraft Mishaps Involving Fire: A Literature Review,’ pp. 8-9.

[745] O’Lone, "Industry Tackles Composites Challenge,’ p. 22.

1 05. "Lightweight Composites Are Displacing Metals.’

[747] Ibid.

[748] O’Lone, "Industry Tackles Composites Challenge,’ p. 22.

1 08. "NASA Langley Reorienting Advanced Composites Technology Program,’ Aerospace Daily, Aug. 29, 1994, p. 328.

[750] Ibid.

[751] H. Benson Dexter, "Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures,’ presented at the 4th International Symposium for Textile Composites in Kyoto, Japan, Oct. 12-14, 1998, p. 1.

[752] Ibid.

1 1 2. Alan S. Brown, "Material of the ’90s?’ Aerospace America, Jan. 1990, p. 28.

1 1 3. Joseph R. Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2005-4539 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2005), p. 80.

1 14. John G. Davis, "Overview of the ACT program,’ NASA Langley Research Center, NTIS Report N95-28463 (1995), p. 577.

1 15. Chambers, Concept to Reality.

1 16. Dexter, "Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures.’

1 17. Alan Dobyns, "Aerospace 1991: The Year in Review-Structures,’ Aerospace America,

Dec. 1991, p. 38.

1 1 8. Piellisch, "Materials Notebook: Weaving an Aircraft,’ Aerospace America, Feb. 1992, p. 54.

1 19. "NASA Langley Reorienting Advanced Composites Technology Program."

1 20. Ibid.

[762] Norris, "Boeing Studies Composite Primary-Wing Technology," Flight international,

Aug. 27, 1997.

1 22. Swihart, "Commercial Jet Transportation Structures and Materials Evolution."

1 23. Piellisch, "Materials Notebook: Weaving an Aircraft,’ p. 54.

1 24. Davis, "Overview of the ACT program,’ p. 583.

1 25. Piellisch, "Materials Notebook: Weaving an Aircraft,’ p. 54.

1 26. Dexter, "Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures,’ p. 2. 1 27. M. Karal, "AST Composite Wing Program-Executive Summary,’ NASA CR-2001-210650 (2001).

[769] Ibid.

1 29. Ibid.

[771] 30. Chambers, Concept to Reality.

[772] Graham Warwick, "Shaping the Future,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, Feb. 2, 2009, p. 50.

[773] Ibid.

[774] Ibid.

1 . NACA enabling legislation, March 3, 1915; see George W. Gray, Frontiers of Flight: The Story of NACA Research (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948), pp. 9-13.

[776] Roger E. Bilstein, The American Aerospace Industry (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1996), pp. 14-15, 29-30.

[777] Edward P. Warner and F. H. Norton, "Preliminary Report on Free Flight Tests," NACA TR-70 (1920); F. H. Norton and E. T. Allen, "Accelerations in Flight," NACA TR-99 (1921); F. H. Norton,

‘A Preliminary Study of Airplane Performance," NACA TN-1 20 (1922); F. H. Norton, "Practical Stability and Controllability of Airplanes," NACA TR-120 (1923); F. H. Norton and W. G. Brown, ‘Controllability and Maneuverability of Airplanes," NACA TR-153 (1923); F. H. Norton, "A Study of Longitudinal Dynamic Stability in Flight," NASA TR-170 (1924); F. H. Norton, "The Measurement of the Damping in Roll of a JN-4H in Flight," NACA TR-167 (1924).

[778] Max M. Munk, "General Biplane Theory," NACA TR-151 (1922).

[779] Roger E. Bilstein, Flight Patterns: Trends of Aeronautical Development in the United States, 1918-1929 (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1983), p. 63.

[780] Donald M. Pattillo, A History in the Making: 80 Turbulent Years in the American General Avia­tion Industry (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), pp. 5-44; and Tom D. Crouch, "General Aviation: The Search for a Market, 1910-1976,’ in Eugene M. Emme, Two Hundred Years of Flight in America: A Bicentennial Survey (San Diego: American Astronautical Society and Univelt, 1 977), Table 2, p. 1 29. For Wichita, see Jay M. Price and the AIAA Wichita Section, Wichita’s Legacy of Flight (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2003).

[781] Fred E. Weick and James R. Hansen, From the Ground Up: The Autobiography of an Aeronauti­cal Engineer (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988).

[782] Jones’s seminal paper was his "Properties of Low-Aspect-Ratio Pointed Wings at Speeds Below and Above the Speed of Sound," NACA TN-1032 (1946).

[783] Fred E. Weick and Robert T. Jones, "Response and Analysis of NACA. Lateral Control Research, TR 605 (1937).

1 0. Weick and Hansen, From the Ground Up, pp. 1 37-1 40. Jones kept his Ercoupe at Half Moon Bay Airport, CA; recollection of R. P. Hallion, who knew Jones.

1 1. Eastman N. Jacobs; Kenneth E. Ward; and Robert M. Pinkerton, "The Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Sections from Tests in the Variable-Density Wind Tunnel," NACA TR-460 (1933); see also Ira H. Abbott and Albert E. von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing Sections, Including a Summary of Airfoil Data (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1949), p. 112.

1 2. Ira H. Abbott, Albert E. von Doenhoff, and Louis S. Stivers, Jr., "Summary of Airfoil Data, NACA TR-824 (1945), p. 1.

1 3. W. D. Hayes, "Linearized Supersonic Flow,’ North American Aviation, Inc., Report AL-222 (1 8 Jun. 1947).

1 4. Richard T. Whitcomb, "A Study of the Zero-Lift Drag-Rise Characteristics of Wing Body Combi­

nations Near the Speed of Sound,’ NACA Report 1 237 (1956).

1 5. Whitcomb’s work is covered in detail in other essays in these volumes. For the technological climate at the time of his work, see Albert L. Braslow and Theodore G. Ayers, "Application of Advanced Aerodynamics to Future Transport Aircraft,’ in Donely et al., NASA Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, v. 1; re the Citation X, see Mark O. Schlegel, "Citation X: Development and Certification of a Mach 0.9+ Business Jet,’ in Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 1997 Report to the Aerospace Profession (Lancaster, CA: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 1997), pp. 349-368. 1 6. Robert J. McGhee, William D. Beasley, and Richard T. Whitcomb, "NASA Low- and Medium – Speed Airfoil Development,’ in NASA Langley Research Center Staff, Advanced Technology Airfoil Research, v. 2, NASA CP-2046 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1979), pp. 1-23.

1 7. Joseph R. Chambers, Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U. S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2003-4529 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2003), pp. 22-25.

1 8. Bruce J. Holmes, "Flight Evaluation of an Advanced Technology Light Twin-Engine Airplane (ATLIT)," NASA CR-2832 (1977).

1 9. G. M. Gregorek and MJ. Hoffman, "An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a New General Aviation Airfoil in Flight," NASA CR-169477 (1982). For the GA/ADAC, see G. M. Gregorek, K. D. Korkan, and R. J. Freuler, "The General Aviation Airfoil Design and Analysis Service—A Progress Report," in NASA LRC Staff, Advanced Technology Airfoil Research, v. 2, NASA CP-2046, pp. 99-104.

[794] Chambers, Concept to Reality, pp. 27-30; Roy V. Harris, Jr., and Jerry N. Hefner, "NASA Laminar-Flow Program — Past, Present, Future"; Bruce E. Peterman, "Laminar Flow: The Cessna Perspective"; J. K. Viken et al., "Design of the Low-Speed NLF (1 )-041 4F and the High-Speed HSNLF( 1 )-021 3 Airfoils with High-Lift Systems"; Daniel G. Murri et al., "Wind Tunnel Results of the Low-Speed NLF(1 )-041 4F Airfoil"; and William G. Sewall et al., "Wind Tunnel Results of the High-Speed NLF( 1 )-021 3 Airfoil," all in NASA Langley Research Center Staff, Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, Pts. 1 -3, NASA CP-2487 (Hampton, VA: Langley Research Center, 1987).

[795] Richard Eppler and Dan M. Somers, "A Computer Program for the Design and Analysis of Low – Speed Airfoils,’ NASA TM-80210 (1980); BJ. Holmes, C. C. Cronin, E. C. Hastings, Jr., C. J. Obara, and C. P. Vandam, "Flight Research on Natural Laminar Flow,’ NTRS ID 88N14950 (1986).

[796] Michael S. Selig, Mark D. Maughmer, and Dan M. Somers, "An Airfoil for General Aviation Applications,’ in AIAA, Proceedings of the 1990 AIAA/FAA Joint Symposium on General Aviation Systems (Hampton, VA: NASA LRC, 1990), pp. 280-291, NTRS ID N91-1 2572 (1990); and Wayne A. Doty, "Flight Test Investigation of Certification Issues Pertaining to General-Aviation-Type Aircraft With Natural Laminar Flow,’ NASA CR-181967 (1990).

[797] Richard T. Whitcomb, "A Design Approach and Selected High-Speed Wind Tunnel Results at High Subsonic Speeds for Wing-Tip Mounted Winglets,’ NASA TN D-8260 (1976); and Stuart G. Flechner, Peter F. Jacobs, and Richard T. Whitcomb, "A High Subsonic Speed Wind – Tunnel Investigation of Winglets on a Representative Second-Generation Jet Transport Wing,’ NASA TN D-8264 (1976). See also NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, "Winglets,’ TF-2004-15 (2004).

[798] See Neil A. Armstrong and Peter T. Reynolds, "The Learjet Longhorn Series: The First Jets with Winglets,’ in Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 1978 Report to the Aerospace Profession (Lan­caster: SETP, 1978), pp. 57-66.

[799] Richard T. Whitcomb, "A High Subsonic Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Winglets on a Representative Second-Generation Jet Transport Wing,’ NASA TN D-8264 (1976); and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, "Winglets,” NASA Technology Facts, TF 2004-15 (2004), pp. 1-4. Another interesting project in this time period was the NASA AD-1 Oblique Wing, whose flight test was conducted at Dryden. The oblique wing concept originated with Ames’s Robert T. Jones. The NASA Project Engineer was Weneth "Wen’ Painter and the Project Pilot was Tom McMurtry. The team successfully demonstrated an aircraft wing could be pivoted obliquely from 0 to 60 degrees during flight. The aircraft was flown 79 times during the research program, which evaluated the basic pivot-wing concept and gathered information on handling qualities and aerodynamics at various speeds and degrees of pivot. The supersonic concept would have been design with a more complex control system, such as fly-by-wire. The AD-1 aircraft was flown by 1 9 pilots: 2 USAF pilots; 2 Navy pilots; and 15 NASA Dryden, Langley, and Ames research pilots. The final flights of the AD-1 occurred at the 1 982 Experimental Aircraft Association’s (EAA) annual exhibition at Oshkosh, WI, where it flew eight times to demonstrate it unique configuration, a swan song watched over by Jones and his old colleague Weick.

[800] For engine-and-cowling, see James R. Hansen, "Engineering Science and the Development of the NACA Low-Drag Engine Cowling,’ in Pamela E. Mack, ed., From Engineering Science to Big Science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy Research Project Winners, NASA SP-4 219 (Wash­ington, DC: NASA, 1998), pp. 1-27; for propellers, see John V. Becker, The High-Speed Frontier: Case Histories of Four NACA Programs, 1920-1950, NASA SP-445 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1980), pp. 1 19-1 38.

[801] Virginia P. Dawson, Engines and Innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American Propulsion Tech­nology, NASA SP-4306 (Washington: NASA, 1991), p. 140.

[802] Gilbert K. Sievers, "Overview of NASA QCGAT Program,’ in NASA Lewis Research Center Staff, General Aviation Propulsion, NASA CP-21 26 (Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center, 1980), p. 1; and Patti 11 o, A History in the Making, pp. 1 22-1 26.

[803] Aerophysics Research Corporation, "GASP—General Aviation Synthesis Program,’ NASA CR-152303 (1978).

[804] And are treated in other case studies. For Lewis and NASA aero-propulsion work in this period, see Dawson, Engines and Innovation, pp. 203-205; and Jeffrey L. Ethell, Fuel Economy in Aviation, NASA SP-462 (NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1983), passim.

[805] Gilbert K. Sievers, "Summary of NASA QCGAT Program,’ in NASA Lewis RC, General Aviation Propulsion, NASA CP-21 26, pp. 1 89-190; see also his "Overview of NASA QCGAT Program’ in the same volume, pp. 2-4.

[806] See William C. Strack, "New Opportunities for Future, Small, General-Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE),’ in NASA Lewis RC, General Aviation Propulsion, NASA CP-2126, pp. 195-197.

[807] For example, James H. Doolittle, "Accelerations in Flight,’ NACA TR-203 (1925);

Richard V. Rhode, "The Pressure Distribution Over the Horizontal and Vertical Tail Surfaces of the F6C-4 Pursuit Airplane in Violent Maneuvers,’ NACA TR-307 (1929); and Richard V. Rhode, "The Pressure Distribution Over the Wings and Tail Surfaces of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight,’ NACA TR-364 (1931).

[808] Paul A. Hunter, "Flight Measurements of the Flying Qualities of Five Light Airplanes,’ NACA TN-1573 (1948), pp. 1-2, 8-9, 19-20.

[809] C. H. Dearborn and Abe Silverstein, "Drag Analysis of Single-Engine Military Airplanes Tested in the NACA Full-Scale Wind Tunnel," NACA WR-489 (1940).

[810] R. R. Gilruth, "Requirements for Satisfactory Flying Qualities of Airplanes,’ NACA TR-755 (1943) [previously issued as Wartime Report L-276 in 1941 —ed.], p. 49.

[811] For Soule, see his "Flight Measurements of the Dynamic Longitudinal Stability of Several Airplanes and a Correlation of the Measurements with Pilots’ Observations of Handling Characteris­tics,’ NACA TR-578 (1936); and "Preliminary Investigation of the Flying Qualities of Airplanes,’ TR-700 (1940). For Gough, see his note, with A. P. Beard, "Limitations of the Pilot in Applying Forces to Airplane Controls,’ NACA TN-550 (1936).

[812] R. R. Gilruth and M. D. White, "Analysis and Prediction of Longitudinal Stability of Airplanes,’ NACA TR-71 1 (1941).

[813] R. R. Gilruth and W. N. Turner, "Lateral Control Required For Satisfactory Flying Qualities Based on Flight Tests of Numerous Airplanes,’ NACA TR-715 (1941).

[814] R. R. Gilruth, "Requirements for Satisfactory Flying Qualities of Airplanes,’ NACA TR-755 (1943).

[815] Alan H. Wheeler, ". . . That Nothing Failed Them: “ Testing Aeroplanes in Wartime (London: G. T. Foulis and Co., Ltd., 1963), pp. 2-3. Wheeler, a distinguished British test pilot, notably relates some of the problems caused the lack of established standards of measurement in this fine memoir.

[816] George E. Cooper and Robert P. Harper, Jr., "The Use Of Pilot Rating In The Evaluation Of Aircraft Handling Qualities," NASA TN D 5153 (1969).

[817] For background of this rating, see George Cooper, Robert Harper, and Roy Martin, "Pilot Rating Scales,’ in Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 2004 Report to the Aerospace Profession (Lancaster, CA: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, 2004), pp. 319-337.

[818] Crouch, "General Aviation: The Search for a Market,’ p. 1 26.

[819] John A. Harper, "DC-3 Handling Qualities Flight Tests: NACA—1950," in Society of Experi­mental Test Pilots, 1991 Report to the Aerospace Profession (Lancaster, CA: SETP, 1991), pp. 264-265; also Arthur Assadourian and John A. Harper, "Determination of the Flying Qualities of the Douglas DC-3 Airplane," NACA TN-3088 (1953).

[820] Anshal L. Neilhous, Walter L. Klinar, and Stanley H. Scher, "Status of Spin Research for Recent Airplane Designs," NASA TR-R-57 (1960).

[821] William H. Dana, "Pilot’s Flight Notes, Test of Debonair #430T," 30 Dec. 1964, in file L1 -8- 2A-1 3 "Beech Model 33 Debonair" file, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Archives, Edwards, CA. The "C" rating, it might be noted, reflected pilot rating standards at that time, prior to the issu­ance and widespread adaptation of the Cooper-Harper rating.

[822] Marvin R. Barber, Charles K. Jones, and Thomas R. Sisk, "An Evaluation Of The Handling Qualities of Seven General-Aviation Aircraft," NASA TN D 3726 (1966).

[823] Barber et al., "An Evaluation of the Handling Qualities of Seven General-Aviation Aircraft,’ p. 1 .

[824] Barber et al., ‘An Evaluation of the Handling Qualities of Seven General-Aviation Aircraft,’ p. 16.

[825] Barber et al., "An Evaluation of the Handling Qualities of Seven General-Aviation Aircraft,’ p. 18.

[826] Paul C. Loschke, Marvin R. Barber, Calvin R. Jarvis, and Einar K. Enevoldson, "Handling Quali­ties of Light Aircraft with Advanced Control Systems and Displays,’ in Philip Donely et al., NASA Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, v. 1, NASA SP-270 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1971), p. 1 89. NASA has continued its research on applying sophisticated avionics to civil and military aircraft for flight safety purposes, as examined by Robert Rivers in a case on synthetic vision systems in this volume.

[827] Discussed in a companion case study in this series by Peter Merlin.

[828] Marvin P. Fink and Delma C. Freeman, Jr., "Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Static Longitudinal and Lateral Characteristics of a Light Twin-Engine Aircraft,’ NASA TN D-4983 (1969); Chester H. Wolowicz and Roxanah B. Yancey, "Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Light Twin-Engine, Propeller-Driven Airplanes,’ NASA TN D-6800 (1972); and Chester H. Wolowicz and Roxanah B. Yancey, "Lateral-Directional Aerodynamic Characteristics of Light, Twin-Engine Propeller-Driven Airplanes,’ NASA TN D-6946 (1972).

[829] Afterwards, Wolowicz and Yancey expanded their research to include experimental determina­tion of airplane mass and inertial characteristics. See Chester H. Wolowicz and Roxanah B. Yancey, ‘Experimental Determination of Airplane Mass and Inertial Characteristics,’ NASA TR R-433 (1 974).

[830] Frederick O. Smetana, Delbert C. Summey, and W. Donald Johnson, "Riding and Handling Qualities of Light Aircraft—A Review and Analysis,’ NASA CR-1975 (1972).

[831] William F. Milliken, Jr., "Progress is Dynamic Stability and Control Research,’ Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, v. 14, no. 9 (Sep. 1947), pp. 493-51 9; Harry Greenberg, "A Survey of Methods for Determining Stability Parameters of an Airplane from Dynamic Flight Measure­ments,’ NACA TM-2340 (1951); Marvin Shinbrot, "On the Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Dynamical Systems From Transient-Response Data,’ NACA TN-3288 (1954); Randall D. Grove, Roland L. Bowles, and Stanley C. Mayhew, "A Procedure for Estimating Stability and Control Parameters from Flight Test Data by Using Maximum Likelihood Methods Employing a Real-Time Digital System,’ NASA TN D-6735 (1972); and William T. Suit and Robert L. Cannaday, "Com­parison of Stability and Control Parameters for a Light, Single-Engine, High-Winged Aircraft Using Different Flight Test and Parameter Estimation Techniques,’ NASA TM-80163 (1979).

[832] William T. Suit, "Aerodynamic Parameters of the Navion Airplane Extracted from Flight Data,’ NASA TN D-6643 (1972).

[833] Richard E. Maine and Kenneth W. Iliff, "A FORTRAN Program for Determining Aircraft Stability and Control Derivatives from Flight Data,’ NASA TN D-7831 (1975); and Kenneth W. Iliff and Richard E. Maine, "Practical Aspects of a Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method to Extract Stability and Control Derivatives from Flight Data,’ NASA TN D-8209 (1976).

[834] Russel R. Tanner and Terry D. Montgomery, "Stability and Control Derivative Estimates Obtained from Flight Data for the Beech 99 Aircraft," NASA TM-72863 (1979).

[835] Barber and Fischel, "General Aviation: The Seventies and Beyond," pp. 31 7-332.

[836] Barber and Fischel, "General Aviation: The Seventies and Beyond,’ p. 325.

[837] NASA Flight Research Center, Flight Programs Review Committee, "NASA Flight Research Center: Current and Proposed Research Programs’ (Jan. 1 973), "Development of Flight Systems for General Aviation’ slide and attached briefing notes, NASA DFRC Archives.

[838] The executive was Piper’s chief of aerodynamics, flight test, and structures, Calvin F. Wilson; readers should note he was speaking of GA aircraft generically, not just Piper’s. See Statement of Calvin F. Wilson, in NASA Langley Research Center Staff, Vehicle Technology for Civil Aviation:

The Seventies and Beyond, Panel Discussion, Supplement to NASA SP-292 (Washington: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1972), p. 9.

[839] "General Aviation Technology Program’ NASA TM X-73051 (1976). Indeed, fatalities in civil aviation subsequently did fall a remarkable 91 percent between 1976 and 1986, though for vari­ous reasons and not exclusively through NASA activities. See National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data, U. S. Air Carrier Operations, 1976, NTSB-ARC-78-1 (1978), p. 3; and National Transportation Safety Board, Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data, U. S. Air Carrier Operations, 1986, NTSB-ARC-89-01 (1989), p. 3.

[840] For a historical perspective on spins, drawn from pilot accounts, see Dunstan Hadley, One Second to Live: Pilots’ Tales of the Stall and Spin (Shrewsbury, U. K.: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1997).

[841] Anshal I. Neihouse, Walter J. Klinar, and Stanley H. Scher, "Status of Spin Research for Recent Airplane Designs," NASA TR R-57 (1960).

[842] For example, see NACA High-Speed Flight Station, "Flight Experience with Two High-Speed Airplanes Having Violent Lateral-Longitudinal Coupling in Aileron Rolls," NACA RM-H55A1 3 (1955).

[843] NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program, "General Aviation Technology Program," Release No. 76-51, NASA TM X-73051 (1976), p. 2; Barber and Fischel, "General Aviation: The Seventies and Beyond," p. 323.

[844] Chambers, Concept to Reality, p. 1 22; James S. Bowman, Jr., "Summary of Spin Technology as Related to Light General-Aviation Airplanes," NASA TN D-6575 (1971).

[845] William Bihrle, Jr., Randy S. Hultberg, and William Mulcay, "Rotary Balance Data for a Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Design for an Angle-of-Attack range of 30 deg. to 90 deg.," NASA CR-2972 (1978); William Bihrle, Jr., and Randy S. Hultberg, "Rotary Balance Data for a Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Design for an Angle-of-Attack range of 8 deg. to 90 deg.," NASA CR-3097 (1979); William J. Mulcay and Robert A. Rose, "Rotary Balance Data for a Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Design for an Angle of Attack Range of 8 deg. to 90 deg.," NASA CP-3200 (1980); and Mark G. Ballin, "An Experimental Study of the Effect of Tail Configuration on the Spinning Characteristics of General Aviation Aircraft," NASA CR-168578 (1982).

[846] W. S. Blanchard, Jr., "A Flight Investigation of the Ultra-Deep-Stall Descent and Spin Recovery Characteristics of a 1/6 scale Radio-controlled Model of the Piper PA-38 Tomahawk," NASA CR – 156871 (1981); J. R. Chambers and H. P. Stough III, "Summary of NASA Stall/Spin Research for General Aviation Configurations," AIAA Paper 86-2597 (1986).

[847] H. Paul Stough III, "A Summary of Spin-Recovery Parachute Experience on Light Airplanes, AIAA Paper 90-1317 (1990).

[848] For example, M. R. Barber and Joseph J. Tymczyszyn, "Wake Vortex Attenuation Flight Tests: A Status Report,’ in Joseph W. Stickle, ed., 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, Pt. 2 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1981), pp. 387-408.

[849] Alfred Gessow et al., Wake Vortex Minimization, NASA SP-409 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1977), p. iv. See, for example, Delwin R. Croom, Raymond D. Vogler, and John A. Thelander, "Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Flight Spoilers as Trailing-Vortex-Alleviation Devices on an Extended-Range Wide-Body Tri-Jet Airplane Model,’ NASA TN D-8373 (1976).

[850] See for example, Harriet J. Smith, "A Flight Test Investigation of the Rolling Moments Induced on a T-37B Airplane in the Wake of a B-747 Airplane,’ NASA TM X-56031 (1975); and S. C. Crow and E. R. Bate, Jr., "Lifespan of Trailing Vortices in a Turbulent Atmosphere," AIAA Journal of Aircraft, v. 1 3, no. 7 (Jul. 1976), pp. 476-482.

[851] The history of the facility is well covered in Karen E. Jackson, Richard L. Boitnott,

Edwin L. Fasanella, Lisa Jones, and Karen H. Lyle, "A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center,’ Paper presented at the 4th Triennial International Aircraft and Cabin Safety Research Conference, 1 5-1 8 Nov. 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, NTRS, CASI ID 20040191337.

[852] Victor. L. Vaughan, Jr., and Emilio Alfaro-Bou, "Impact Dynamics Research Facility for Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Testing," NASA TND-8179 (1976).

[853] David A. Anderton, NASA Aeronautics, EP-85 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1982), p. 23.

[854] For example, see Victor L. Vaughan, Jr., and Robert J. Hayduk, "Crash Tests of Four Identical High-Wing Single Engine Airplanes," NASA TP-1699 (1980); M. Susan Williams and Edwin L. Fasanella, "Results from Tests of Three Prototype General Aviation Seats," NASA TM – 84533 (1982); M. Susan Williams and Edwin L. Fasanella, "Crash Tests of Four Low-Wing Twin – Engine Airplanes with Truss-Reinforced Fuselage Structure," NASA TP-2070 (1 982); and Claude B. Castle and Emilio Alfaro-Bou, "Crash Tests of Three Identical Low-Wing Single-Engine Airplanes," NASA TP-2190 (1 983); and Huey D. Carden, "Full-Scale Crash-Test Evaluation of Two Load-Limiting Subfloors for General Aviation Airframes," NASA TP-2380 (1984).

81 . Jackson et al., "A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing."

[856] Allan B. Pifko, Robert Winter, and Patricia L. Ogilvie, "DYCAST—A Finite Element Program for the Crash Analysis of Structures," NACA CR-4040 (1987).

[857] Ahmed K. Noor and Huey D. Carden, "Computational Methods for Crashworthiness,’ NACA CP-3223 (1993).

[858] John D. Shaughnessy, "Single-Pilot IFR Program Overview and Status,’ in NASA Langley Research Center Staff, Controls, Displays, and Information Transfer for General Aviation IFR Opera­tions, NASA CP 2279 (Hampton, VA: NASA Langley Research Center, 1983), p. 3.

[859] Hugh P. Bergeron, "Analysis of General Aviation Single-Pilot IFR Incident Data Obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System,’ NASA TM-80206 (1980), p. 8.

[860] NASA, General Aviation Technology Program, p. 13.

[861] Shaughnessy, "Single-Pilot IFR Program Overview and Status,’ p. 4.

[862] From 3,233 in 1 982 to 1,989 in 1998; see Nanette Scarpellini Metz, Partnership and the Revitalization of Aviation: A Study of the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments Program, 1994-2001, UNOAI Report 02-5 (Omaha: University of Nebraska at Omaha Aviation Institute,

2002), p. 6.

[863] Pattillo, A History in the Making, p. 1 27; see also John H. Winant, Keep Business Flying: A History of The National Business Aircraft Association, Inc., 1946-1986 (Washington: The National Business Aircraft Association, 1989), pp. 151-152, 157, and 186-187; and Metz, Partnership and the Revitalization of Aviation, p. 7.

[864] The General Aviation Revitalization Act of 1994, Public Law No. 103-298, 103 Stat. 1552.

[865] Pattillo, A History in the Making, Table 7-2, p. 1 29, and pp. 169-170.

[866] Metz, Partnership and the Revitalization of Aviation, p. 18.

[867] For example, see Shashi Seth, "Cockpit Weather Graphics Using Mobile Satellite Communica­tions,’ in NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Proceedings of the Third International Mobile Satellite Confer­ence (Pasadena: NASA JPL, 1993), pp. 231-233; H. Paul Stough III, Daniel B. Shafer,

Philip R. Schaffner, and Konstantinos S. Martzaklis, "Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation,’ Paper Presented at the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 27 Aug.-1 Sep. 2000. Harrowgate, U. K.; and H. Paul Stough III, James F. Watson, Jr., Taumi S. Daniels, Konstantinos S. Martzaklis, Michael A. Jarrell, and Rodney K. Bougue, "New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention,’ AIAA Paper 2005­7451 (2005).

[868] "Highway-in-the-Sky’ synthetic vision systems are the subject of a separate case study.

[869] Pattillo, A History in the Making, Tables 7-2 and 8-1, pp. 1 29 and 1 72; the exact figures for 1 994 were 928 aircraft produced and 4,085 kits sold (this does not include plans sales, which in 1994 numbered 2,831).

[870] Burt Rutan, "Development of a Small High-Aspect-Ratio Canard Aircraft,’ in Society of Experi­mental Test Pilots, 1976 Report to the Aerospace Profession (Lancaster, CA: SETP, 1 976),

pp. 93-101; Philip W. Brown and James M. Patton, Jr., "Pilots’ Flight Evaluation of VariEze N4EZ, NASA TM-103457 (1978).

[871] Subsequently, for reasons unrelated to the basic canard concept, the Starship did not prove a great success.

[872] Joseph R. Chambers, Long P. Yip, and Thomas M. Moul, "Wind Tunnel Investigation of an Advanced General Aviation Canard Configuration,’ NASA TM-85760 (1 984).

[873] B. P. Selberg and D. L. Cronin, "Aerodynamic Structural Study of Canard Wing, Dual Wing, and Conventional Wing Systems for General Aviation Applications,’ NASA CR-172529 (1985).

[874] For example, Robert F. Stengel, "It’s Time to Reinvent the General Aviation Airplane,’ in Frederick R. Morrell, ed., Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research-1986, NASA CP-2502 (Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1988), pp. 81-105; J. Roskam and E. Wenninger, "A Revolutionary Approach to Composite Construction and Flight Management Systems for Small, General Aviation Airplanes,’ NTRS ID 94N25714 (1992).

[875] NASA-FAA-AFRL, "National General Aviation Design Competition Guidelines, 1999-2000 Academic Year.’

1 02. See, for example, NASA LRC, "NASA and FAA Announce Design Competition Winners,’

Release No. 00-060, 29 Jul. 2000; University of Kansas, Department of Aerospace Engineer­ing, "Preliminary Design Studies of an Advanced General Aviation Aircraft,’ in Universities Space Research Association, Proceedings of the Seventh annual Summer Conference, NASA-USRA Advanced Design Program, NTRS ID 93N29717 (Houston, TX: NASA-USRA, 1991), pp. 45-56. 1 03. Scott E. Tarry, Brent D. Bowen, and Jocelyn S. Nickerson, "The Small Aircraft Transporta­tion System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center,’ in Brent D. Bowen et al., The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report, UNOAI Report 02-7 (Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska at Omaha Aviation Institute, 2002), pp. 45-57; and Patrick D. O’Neil and Scott E. Tarry, Annotated Bibliography of Enabling Tech­nologies for the Small Aircraft Transportation System, UNOAI Report 02-3 (Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska at Omaha Aviation Institute, 2002).

1 04. Williams International, "The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program,’ NASA CR-2008­215266 (2008).

[879] Jaiwon Shin, "NASA Aeronautics Research Then and Now,’ a PowerPoint presentation at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, 4 January 2010, Slide 2; Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 306-31 2.

[880] R. Dale Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles,’ UAV Flight Test Lessons Learned Workshop, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, Dec. 18, 1996.

[881] Peter W. Merlin and Tony Moore, X-Plane Crashes: Exploring Experimental, Rocket Plane, and Spycraft Incidents, Accidents and Crash Sites (North Branch: Specialty Press, 2008), pp. 1 30-149.

[882] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles."

[883] Richard P. Hallion and Michael H. Gorn, On the Frontier: Experimental Flight at NASA Dryden (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2002), p. 207.

[884] R. Dale Reed, with Darlene Lister, Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story, NASA SP-4220 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1997), pp. 8-23.

[885] Ibid.

[886] Reed and Lister, Wingless Flight, pp. 158-161.

[887] Ibid.

[888] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, p. 207.

[889] Ibid.

[890] Ibid.

[891] Reed and Lister, Wingless Flight, pp. 161-165.

1 3. Ibid.

[893] Ibid.

[894] Ibid.

[895] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, pp. 208-209.

[896] Operations Fact Sheet OFS-808-77-1, Model PA-30, prepared by W. Albrecht, Sept. 20,

1977, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA. 1 8. Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, pp. 208-209.

[898] OAST Flight Research Operations Review Committee minutes, Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1973, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[899] R. Dale Reed, "High-Flying Mini-Sniffer RPV: Mars Bound?’ Astronautics and Aeronautics (June 1978), pp. 26-39.

[900] Ibid.

[901] Ibid.

[902] Ibid.

[903] J. W. Akkerman, "Hydrazine Monopropellant Reciprocating Engine Development,’ Journal of Engineering for Industry, vol. 101, no. 4 (Nov. 1979), pp. 456-462.

[904] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles.’

[905] Reed, "High-Flying Mini-Sniffer RPV: Mars Bound?’

[906] Ibid.

[907] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, p. 210.

[908] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles."

[909] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, pp. 210-21 1 .

[910] F-15 Drone Flight Report, Flight No. D-1 -3, Oct. 1 2, 1 973, DFRC Historical Reference Collec­tion, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[911] Ibid.

[912] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, p. 211.

[913] F-15 Drone Flight Report, Flight No. D-4-6, Dec. 21, 1973, DFRC Historical Reference Collec­tion, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[914] Project Document OPD 80-67, Spin Research Vehicle Nose Shape Project, Feb. 5, 1980, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[915] Ibid.

[916] F-15 RPRV/SRV Flight Log, compiled by Peter W. Merlin, July 2001, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[917] R. Dale Reed, "RPRVs—The First and Future Flights,’ Astronautics and Aeronautics (Apr. 1974), pp. 26-42.

[918] Recollection of Hallion, who, as AFFTC historian, was present at the postflight briefing to the commander, AFFTC; see James O. Young, History of the Air Force Flight Test Center, Jan. 1, 1982- Dec. 31, 1982, vol. 1 (Edwards AFB, CA: AFFTC History Office, 1984), pp. 348-352.

[919] Ibid.

[920] Milton O. Thompson’s correspondence and project files, 1975, DFRC Historical Reference Col­lection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[921] Hirschberg, Hart, and Beutner, "A Summary of a Half-Century of Oblique Wing Research."

[922] Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) Flight Log, compiled by Peter W. Merlin, Jan. 2002, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[923] Richard F. Porter, David W. Hall, Joe H. Brown, Jr., and Gerald M. Gregorek, "Analytical Study of a Free-Wing/Free-Trimmer Concept,’ Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, Dec. 7, 1977, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[924] Shu Gee, "Preliminary Research Proposal — Free-Wing Concept (First Draft),’ Dec. 2, 1976, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[925] "Proposed Research Program (Technical Proposal) on Analytical Study of a Free-Wing, Free – Stabilizer Concept,’ Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, Oct. 20, 1976, DFRC Histori­cal Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[926] Shu W. Gee and Samuel R. Brown, "Flight Tests of a Radio-Controlled Airplane Model with a Free-Wing, Free-Canard Configuration,’ NASA TM-72853, Mar. 1978, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[927] Ibid.

[928] Ibid.

51 . H. N Murrow and C. V. Eckstrom, "Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST)-A Status Report,’ AIAA Aircraft Systems and Technology Conference, Los Angeles, CA,

Aug. 21-23, 1978.

[930] Ibid.

[931] David L. Grose, "The Development of the DAST I Remotely Piloted Research Vehicle for Flight Testing an Active Flutter Suppression Control System,’ NASA CR-1 44881, University of Kansas, Feb. 1979.

[932] DAST flight logs and mission reports, 1975-1983, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[933] John W. Edwards, "Flight Test Results of an Active Flutter Suppression System Installed on a Remotely Piloted Vehicle,’ NASA TM-831 32, May 1981, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA.

[934] Ibid.

[935] Ibid.

[936] Merlin, DAST flight logs, Sept. 1999, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[937] Edwards, "Flight Test Results of an Active Flutter Suppression System Installed on a Remotely Piloted Vehicle."

[938] Merlin, DAST flight logs.

61 . Paul C. Loschke, Garrison P. Layton, George H. Kidwell, William P. Albrecht, William H. Dana, and Eugene L. Kelsey, "Report of DAST-1 R Test Failure Investigation Board,’ Dec. 30, 1983, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[940] This event is recorded with other DAST mission markings painted on the side of the NB-52B even though the modified Stratofortress was not the launch aircraft for the ill-fated mission.

[941] Loschke, et al., "Report of DAST-1 R Test Failure Investigation Board.’

[942] Milton O. Thompson and John C. Mathews, "Investigation of DAST Project,’ Jan. 22, 1979, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[943] Loschke, et al., "Report of DAST-1 R Test Failure Investigation Board.’

[944] DAST briefing material, Thompson collection, April 1987, DFRC Historical Reference Collec­tion, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[945] L. E. Brown, Jr., M. H. Roe, and R. A. Quam, "HiMAT Systems Development Results and Projec­tions,’ Society of Automotive Engineers Aerospace Congress and Exposition, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 13-16, 1980.

[946] Ibid.

[947] Ibid.

[948] L. E. Brown, M. Roe, and C. D. Wiler, "The HiMAT RPRV System," AIAA Paper 78-1457, AIAA Aircraft Systems and Technology Conference, Los Angeles, CA, Aug. 21-23, 1978.

[949] Henry H. Arnaiz and Paul C. Loschke, "Current Overview of the Joint NASA/USAF HiMAT Program," NASA CP-2162 (1980), pp. 91-121.

[950] E. L. Duke, F. P. Jones, and R. B. Roncoli, "Development of a Flight Test Maneuver Autopilot for a Highly Maneuverable Aircraft," AIAA Paper 83-0061, AIAA 21st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, Jan. 10-13, 1983.

[951] HiMAT Flight Reports, 1979-1983, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[952] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles."

[953] HiMAT fact sheet (FS-2002-06-025), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, June 2002.

[954] Controlled Impact Demonstration project files, 1978-1984, and personal diary of Timothy W. Horton, 1980-1986, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[955] Julian Moxon, "Crash for Safety," Flight International, May 1 2, 1984, pp. 1 270-1 274.

[956] Richard DeMeis, "What Really Happened in Safe Fuel Test," Aerospace America, July 1 985, pp. 47-49. Additional information from Moxon, "Crash for Safety."

[957] Les Reinertson, "NASA/FAA Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration Fact Sheet," Release No. 84-26, 1984, NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, CA.

80. Ibid.

[959] . Paul F. Harney, James B. Craft, Jr., and Richard G. Johnson, "Remote Control of an Impact Dem­onstration Vehicle,’ NASA TM-85925, Apr. 1985, NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, CA.

[960] Merlin, Boeing 720B Controlled Impact Demonstration flight logs, July 1 998, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[961] Edwin L. Fasanella, Emilio Alfaro-Bou, and Robert J. Hayduk, "Impact Data From a Transport Aircraft During a Controlled Impact Demonstration,’ NASA TP-2589 (Sept. 1986), NASA Head­quarters, Washington, DC.

[962] Ibid.

[963] Timothy W. Horton and Robert W. Kempel, "Flight Test Experience and Controlled Impact of a Remotely Piloted Jet Transport Aircraft," NASA TM-4084 (Nov. 1 988), NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, CA.

[964] Ibid.

[965] Letter from Congressman William Carney to Martin Knutson, Director, Flight Operations, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Dec. 3, 1984, Timothy W. Horton collection via Terri Horton, Lancaster, CA.

[966] Merlin, Tornado/HIRM Flight Log, Feb. 2000, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[967] Notes on Safety Aspects of Testing Free-Flight Models of Tornado, n. d., Roy Bryant files, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[968] Merlin, Tornado/HIRM Flight Log.

[969] Ibid.

[970] Ibid.

[971] Ibid.

[972] William B. Scott, "Vehicle Used in Nuclear Weapon Program Offered as Advanced Hyper­sonic Testbed,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology (Aug. 6, 1996).

[973] Preliminary Draft-Engineering Study for a Joint NASA/Sandia Hypersonic Flight Test Program, Dec. 1985, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[974] Personal diary of Timothy W. Horton, 1980-1986, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[975] Avocet Offsite Operations Plan, (Draft) April 1986, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[976] Ibid.

[977] NASA/Sandia Powered SWERVE Landing Configuration Project briefing, 1988, DFRC Histori­cal Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[978] AVOCET Program Organization chart, 1988, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[979] Gerald D. Budd, Ronald L. Gilman, and David Eichstedt, "Operational and Research Aspects of a Radio-Controlled Model Flight Test Program,’ presented at the AIAA 3 1st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, Jan. 1 1-14, 1993. Also published in Journal of Aircraft, vol. 32, no. 3 (May-June 1995). Also published as NASA TM-104266 (1993).

[980] Ibid.

[981] Avocet II Flight Log, compiled by Merlin, Oct. 2008, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[982] Philip J. Hamory and James E. Murray, "Flight Experience With Lightweight, Low-Power Miniaturized Instrumentation Systems," NASA TM-4463, Mar. 1993, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[983] Jim Nelsen, "Sandia Uses CFD Software with Adaptive Meshing Capability to Optimize Inlet Design," Journal Articles No. JA060, Fluent, Inc., www. Huent. com/solutions/articles/ja060.pdf, 1999, accessed July 1, 2009.

[984] Merlin, Sandia Hybrid Inlet Research Program Flight Log, Oct. 2008, DFRC Historical Refer­ence Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[985] Merlin, Sandia Hybrid Inlet Research Program Flight Log.

[986] SHIRP project files, 1991-1993, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[987] Ibid.

1 1 0. Memorandum dated Sept. 14, 1 992, regarding "Status of SHIRP Radio Control Flight Tests at Dryden Flight Research Facility,’ SHIRP project files, 1991-1993, DFRC Historical Reference Col­lection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[989] Merlin, Spacewedge fact sheet (draft), FS-045, Apr. 1 998, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 1 2. Merlin, Spacewedge fact sheet, FS-2002-09-045, Sept. 2002, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 1 3. Philip D. Hattis, Robert J. Polutchko, Brent D. Appleby, Timothy M. Barrows, Thomas J. Fill, Peter M. Kachmar, and Terrence D. McAteer, "Final Report: Development and Demonstration Test of a Ram-Air Parafoil Precision Guided Airdrop System,’ vols. 1 to 4 (Report CSDL-R-2752, Oct. 1996) and Addendum (Report CSDL-R-2771, Dec. 1996).

1 14. James E. Murray, Alex G. Sim, David C. Neufeld, Patrick K. Rennich, Stephen R. Norris, and Wesley S. Hughes, "Further Development and Flight Test of an Autonomous Precision Landing System Using a Parafoil,’ NASA TM-4599, July 1994.

1 15. Alex G. Sim, James E. Murray, David C. Neufeld, and R. Dale Reed, "The Development and Flight Test of a Deployable Precision Landing System for Spacecraft Recovery,’ NASA TM-4525, Sept. 1993.

[994] 1 6. Sim, Murray, Neufeld, and Reed, "Development and Flight Test of a Deployable Precision Landing System,’ AIAA Journal of Aircraft, vol. 31, no. 5 (Sept. 1 994), pp. 1101-1108.

1 1 7. Merlin, Spacewedge fact sheet, (draft).

[996] Ibid.

[997] R. Dale Reed, "The Flight Test of a 1/6 Scale Model of the ACRV-X Space Craft Using a Parafoil Recovery Parachute System,’ NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Nov. 1995.

1 20. Dryden Utility UAV Development outline, Reed files, n. d. (circa 1996), NASA DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[999] Ibid.

[1000] Letter to Ken Szalai from Reed and Utility UAV Project organizational chart, Reed files, Mar. 10,

1997, NASA DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 23. Mothership Notebook, Reed files, 1996-1997, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 24. Tony Frackowiak, Tower Trainer-60 Gyro and Autopilot Test Notes, Mar. 1997, Reed files, 1996-1997, NASA DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[1003] Utility UAV Report, Apr. 1997, Reed files, 1996-1997, NASA DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 26. Mothership Notebook.

1 27. Utility UAV Notebook, Reed files, 1997-1998, NASA DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

1 28. Merlin and Tony Moore, X-Plane Crashes—Exploring Secret, Experimental, and Rocket Plane Crash Sites (Specialty Press, 2008) and personal log of Merlin, vol. 1, June 1997-Sept. 2006, entry for Oct. 1, 1998.

1 29. Mothership Notebook.

1 30. NASA’s LoFLYTE Program Flown, NASA FS-1997-07-29-LaRC, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, July 1997.

[1009] Jim Skeen, "Edwards to perform tests on aircraft with control system which ‘learns as it flies," Los Angeles Daily News, Antelope Valley edition, Los Angeles, CA (Aug. 3, 1 996). Additional information from Ian Sheppard, "Towards hypersonic flight,’ Flight International (Nov. 1997).

1 32. NASA News Release No. 96-1 26—LoFLYTE, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, Aug. 2, 1996.

1 33. "LoFLYTE makes its maiden flight,’ Antelope Valley Press, Lancaster, CA (Jan. 2, 1 997). Additional information from Andreas Parsch, "Directory of U. S. Military Rockets and missiles, Appen­dix 4: Undesignated Vehicles,’ 2004, http://www. designation-systems. net/dusrm/app4/loflyte. html, accessed June 9, 2009; source material includes Kenneth Munson, ed., Jane’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Targets, Issue 15, Jane’s Information Group, Alexandria, VA, 2000.

1 34. Parsch, "Directory of U. S. Military Rockets and missiles, Appendix 4: Undesignated Vehicles.’

1 35. "X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft,’ NASA Fact Sheet, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 1999.

1 36. Laurence A. Walker, "Flight Testing the X-36—The Test Pilot’s Perspective," NASA CR-198058, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 1997.

1 37. "X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft."

1 38. Walker, "Flight Testing the X-36—The Test Pilot’s Perspective."

[1017] Ibid.

[1018] Ibid.

[1019] "X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft."

[1020] Walker, "Flight Testing the X-36—The Test Pilot’s Perspective."

[1021] Merlin, "Testing Tailless Technology Demonstrators," draft copy of proposed AIAA paper, 2009.

[1022] "ERAST: Environmental Research and Sensor Technology Fact Sheet,’ NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2002.

[1023] Hallion and Gorn, On the Frontier, pp. 310-31 1.

[1024] Aurora’s Theseus remotely piloted aircraft crashes, Release 96-63, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, Nov. 12, 1996.

[1025] "Pathfinder Solar-Powered Aircraft," FS-034, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2001.

[1026] Ibid.

[1027] Ibid.

[1028] Ibid.

[1029] "Helios Prototype: The forerunner of 21st century solar-powered atmospheric satellites, FS-068, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2002.

[1030] "Helios mishap report released,’ NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, Sept. 3, 2004.

[1031] RAPTOR Demonstrator project files, 1993-1999, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[1032] "ALTUS II-How High is High?" NASA FS-1998-1 2-058 DFRC, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 1998.

[1033] W. R. Bolton, "Measurements of Radiation in the Atmosphere," NASA Tech Briefs, DRC-98-32.

[1034] Vincent Ambrosia, "Remotely Piloted Vehicles as Fire Imaging Platforms: The Future is Here!" NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 2002.

[1035] "Altair/Predator B—An Earth Science Aircraft for the 21 st Century," NASA FS-073, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2001.

[1036] Beth Hagenauer, "NOAA and NASA Begin California UAV Flight Experiment,’ Press Release 05-20, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2005.

[1037] "Altair Western States Fire Mission,’ http://ntrs. nasa. gov/archive/nasa/casi. ntrs. nasa. gov/200.700.3W44_200.703.2019.pdf, accessed June 10, 2009.

[1038] "Ikhana Unmanned Science and Research Aircraft System,’ NASA FS-097, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2007.

[1039] Jay Levine, "Measuring up to the Gold Standard,’ X-tra, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, 2008.

[1040] "Ground Control Stations Fact Sheet,’ General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Company, San Diego, CA, 2007.

[1041] Author’s interview with Mark Pestana, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Aug. 1 3, 2008.

[1042] Philip Hall, Brent Cobleigh, Greg Buoni, and Kathleen Howell, "Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping UAS Missions over the Western United States,’ presented at the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Unmanned Systems North America Confer­ence, San Diego, CA, June 2008.

[1043] "Completed Missions,’ Wildfire Research and Applications Partnership (WRAP), htp://geo. arc. nasa. gov/sge/WRAP/current/com_missions. htm, 2008, accessed Aug. 27, 2009.

[1044] "Western States Fire Mission Team Award for Group Achievement,’ NASA Ames Research Center Honor Awards ceremony, NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, Sept. 20, 2007, and Status Report, "NASA’s Ikhana UAS Resumes Western States Fire Mission Flights,’ NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, Sept. 19, 2008.

[1045] Ibid.

[1046] Ibid.

[1047] Terrence W. Rezek, "Unmanned Vehicle Systems Experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility," NASA TM-8491 3, NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, CA, June 1983.

[1048] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles."

[1049] Ibid.

[1050] Scaled Composites presentation, UAV Flight Test Lessons Learned Workshop, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Dec. 18, 1996, DFRC Historical Reference Collection, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA.

[1051] Rezek, "Unmanned Vehicle Systems Experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility.

[1052] Reed, "Flight Research Techniques Utilizing Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles."

[1053] Rezek, "Unmanned Vehicle Systems Experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility.

[1054] Roger E. Bilstein, Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915-1990, NASA SP-4406 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1989), ch. 3.

[1055] James Schulz, Winds of Change (Washington, DC: NASA, 1 992), pp. 56-57.

[1056] Richard P. Hallion, On the Frontier: Flight Research at Dryden, 1946-1981 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1984), pp. 47-85.

[1057] Donald Baals and William Corliss, Wind Tunnels of NASA, NASA SP-440 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1981), ch. 5-10: "Area Rule and the F-102."

[1058] Richard T. Whitcomb, "A Study of the Zero-Lift Drag Rise Characteristics of Wing-Body Combina­tions Near the Speed of Sound," NACA RM-L52H08 (1952).

[1059] The first was lost earlier in an explosion during a captive carry flight, resulting in the deaths of two crewmen. However, the EB-50 launch aircraft returned safely to base, thanks to the remarkable airmanship of its two pilots.

[1060] Interview with Lockheed test pilot Bob Gilliland by author, Western Museum of Flight,

May 16, 2009.

[1061] James R. Hansen, Engineer in Charge, NASA SP-4305 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1987), pp. 276-280; for further discussion on swept wing evolution, see the companion case study by Richard P. Hallion in this volume.

[1062] Interviews with B-58 record flight crewmember Capt. Robert Walton on "Operation Heat Rise’ by USAF Museum, location and date unknown, http://www. wvi. com/~sr71webmaster/b58.htm, accessed June 30, 2009.

1 0. Robert H. Cook, "Pyle Says Jet Noise Still Major Problem’ Aviation Week and Space Technol­ogy, vol. 69, no. 4 (July 28, 1 958), p. 30; "Comet Takes Idlewild Noise Test as Step to Transatlan­tic Service,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 7 (Aug. 1 8, 1 958), pp. 41-42; Glenn Garrison, "Modified 707 Starts Pan Am Cargo Runs,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 9 (Sept. 1, 1958), pp. 28-31.

1 1. Cook, "CAA Studies Terminal Air Control Plan,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 12 (Sept. 22, 1958), pp. 40-43; Phillip J. Klass, "Anti-Collision Device Tests Promis­ing,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 9 (Sept. 1, 1958), pp 32-33; Klass, ‘Collision Avoidance Progress,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 73, no. 26 (Dec. 26, 1 960), pp. 26-27; Klass, "New Techniques Aimed at Jet Control,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 68, no. 9 (Mar. 3, 1958), pp. 219-223.

[1065] J. S. Butz, Jr., "Industry Studies Transport Area Rule,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 2 (July 14, 1958), pp. 48-52; Richard Sweeney, "Area Rule Fits Convair 600 to Meet Jet Age Problems,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 69, no. 10 (Sept. 8, 1 958), pp. 50-57.

1 3. Edwin P. Hartman, Adventures in Research: A History of Ames Research Center 1940-1965, NASA SP-4302 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1970), pp. 249-250.

[1067] J. W. Ross and D. B. Rogerson, "Technological Advancements of XB-70," AIAA Paper 83-1048 (1983), p. 21.

[1068] Peter W. Merlin, Mach 3+ NASA/USAF YF-12 Flight Research 1969-1979 (Washington,

DC: NASA, 2002), pp. 1-6.

1 6. John Tunstall, "British Weigh Entering Supersonic Race,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 70, no. 1 8 (May 4, 1 959), pp. 55-56. For the Anglo-French program, see Kenneth Owen, Concorde: Story of a Supersonic Pioneer (London: Science Museum, 2001). The American program is treated in Mel Horwitch, Clipped Wings: The American SST Conflict (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1 982), and Erik M. Conway, High-Speed Dreams: NASA and the Technopolitics of Supersonic Transportation, 1945-1999 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).

1 7. "B-58A Proposed for Transport Research,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 73, no. 20 (Nov. 14, 1960), pp. 54-61.

1 8. Robert Hotz, "Supersonic Transport Race,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 73, no.

[1073] (Nov. 14, 1960), p. 21.

1 9. "WADD Conference on Supersonic Transport,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 73, no. 1 1 (Sept. 12, 1960), p. 53.

20. As detailed in Owen, Concorde.

[1074] For example, D. D. Baals, O. G. Morris, and T. A. Toll, "Airplane Configurations for Cruise at a Mach Number of 3," NASA LRC, Conference on High Speed Aerodynamics, NTIS 71 N5324 (1958); and M. M. Carmel, A. B. Carraway, and D. T. Gregory, "An Exploratory Investigation of a Transport Configuration Designed for Supersonic Cruise Flight Near a Mach Number of 3," NASA TM-X-216 (1960).

[1075] D. D. Baals, "Summary of Initial NASA SCAT Airframe and Propulsion Concepts,’ in NASA LRC, Proceedings of NASA Conference on Supersonic-Transport Feasibility Studies and Supporting Research, NTIS N67-31606 (1963), pp. 2-21.

[1076] John G. Lowry, "Summary and Assessment of Feasibility Studies,’ in NASA, Proceedings of NASA Conference on Supersonic-Transport Feasibility Studies and Supporting Research (1963), p. 52.

[1077] North American Rockwell, Space Division, "B-70 Aircraft Study Final Report,’ SD 72-SH-0003, vol. 2 (1972), pp. II-237-238.

[1078] Ibid., vol. 2, pp. II-278-284.

[1079] Ibid., vol. 4, pp. V-16-64.

[1080] Ibid., vol. 2, p. 11-280.

[1081] Chester H. Wolowicz, "Analysis of an Emergency Deceleration and Descent of the XB-70-1 Airplane Due to Engine Damage Resulting from Structural Failure,’ NASA TM-X-1 195 (1966).

[1082] Author’s recollection.

[1083] Dennis R. Jenkins and Tony R. Landis, Valkyrie: North Americans Mach 3 Superbomber (North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 2004), pp. 153-164.

[1084] Donald S. Findley, Vera Huckel, and Herbert R. Henderson, "Vibration Responses of Test Struc­ture no. 1 During the Edwards AFB Phase of the National Sonic Boom Program,’ NASA TM-72706 (1975); Domenic J. Maglieri, David A. Hilton, and Norman J. McLeod, "Summary of Variations of Sonic Boom Signatures Resulting from Atmospheric Effects,’ NASA TM-X-59633 (1967).

[1085] "B-70 Aircraft Study Final Report," vol. 2, p. II-292.

[1086] Ibid., vol. 2, p. II-25.

[1087] John H. Wykes, et al., "XB-70 Structural Mode Control System Design and Performance Analy­ses," NASA CR-1557 (1970).

[1088] Fitzhugh L. Fulton, Jr., "Lessons from the XB-70 as Applied to the Supersonic Transport,’ NASA TM-X-56014 (1968).

[1089] Donald L. Hughes, Bruce G. Powers, and William H. Dana, "Flight Evaluation of Some Effects of the Present Air Traffic Control System on Operation of a Simulated Supersonic Transport,’ NASA TN-D-2219 (1964).

[1090] H. H. Arnaiz, J. B. Peterson, Jr., and J. C. Daugherty, "Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-70-1)," pt. 3: "A comparison between characteristics predicted from wind-tunnel measurements and those measured in flight," NASA TP-1516 (1980).

[1091] Maglieri, et al., "A Summary of XB-70 Sonic Boom Signature Data,’ NASA CR-189630 (1992).

[1092] Glenn Garrison, "Supersonic Transport May Aim at Mach 3,’ Aviation Week and Space Tech­nology, vol. 70, no. 5 (Feb. 2, 1959), pp. 38-40; J. S. Butz, Jr., "FAA, NASA Study Supersonic Transport,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 72, no. 1 8 (May 2, 1960).

[1093] Bill Yenne, "America’s Supersonic Transports,’ Flightpath, vol. 3 (2004), pp 146-157.

[1094] William A. Shurcliff, SST and Sonic Boom Handbook (New York: Ballantine Books, 1970).

[1095] Yenne, "America’s SST,’ p. 155.

[1096] Joe Sutter, with Jay Spenser, 747: Creating the Worlds First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2006), pp. 202-224.

[1097] Joseph R. Chambers, Innovations in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Flight Research Center on Revolutionary Concepts for Advanced Aeronautics (Washington DC: NASA, 2005), pp 39-48.

[1098] Sherwood Hoffman, "Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program, 1972-mid 1977,’ NASA RP-1003 (1977); Hoffman, "Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program Publications FY 1977-1979: Preliminary Bibliography,’ NASA TM-801 84 (1979).

[1099] Barrett L. Schout, et al., "Review of NASA Supercruise Configuration Studies,’ presented at Supercruise Military Aircraft Design Conference, U. S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO, Feb. 17-20, 1976; B. R. Wright, F. Bruckman, et al., "Arrow Wings for Supersonic Cruise Aircraft, Journal of Aircraft, vol. 15, no. 12 (Dec. 1978), pp. 829-836.

[1100] Chambers, Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U. S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s, No. 1 9 in the Monographs in Aerospace History series (Washington, DC: NASA, 2000), pp. 156-158.

[1101] Merlin, Mach 3+, pp. 7-1 1.

[1102] Jerald M. Jenkins and Robert D. Quinn, "A Historical Perspective of the YF-1 2A Thermal Loads and Structures Program," NASA TM-104317 (1996).

[1103] Donald T. Berry and Glenn B. Gilyard, "A Review of Supersonic Cruise Flight Path Control,’ in Proceedings of NASA Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, Oct. 18-20, 1976, NASA SP-416 (1977), pp. 147-164.

[1104] James A. Albers, "Status of YF-1 2 Propulsion Research,’ NASA TM-X-56039 (1976).

[1105] Donald T. Berry and William G. Schweikhard, "Potential Benefits of Propulsion and Flight Con­trol Integration for Supersonic Cruise Vehicles," in NASA TM-X-3409 (1974), pp. 433-452.

[1106] D. L. Anderson, G. F. Connolly, F. M. Mauro, and PJ. Reukauf, "YF-1 2 Cooperative Airframe/ Propulsion Control System Program," vol. 1, NASA CR-163099 (1980), pp. 4-39-4-49.

[1107] Merlin, Mach 3+, pp. 34-36.

[1108] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 40-61.

[1109] T. Edwards, et al., "Sonic Boom Prediction and Minimization Using Computational Fluid Dynamics," in NASA, First Annual High Speed Research Workshop, May 14-16, 1991, Wil­liamsburg, VA (1991).

[1110] Tu-144LL testing is the subject of a subsequent case study in this volume.

[1111] Timothy H. Cox and Alisa Marshall, "Longitudinal Handling Qualities of the Tu-144LL Airplane and Comparisons With Other Large, Supersonic Aircraft," NASA TM-2000-209020 (2000).

[1112] Bianca T. Anderson and Marta Bohn-Meyer, "Overview of Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research on F-16XL Ships 1 and 2," NASA TM-104257 (1992).

[1113] A. G. Powell "Supersonic LFC: Challenges and Opportunities," in NASA, First Annual High Speed Research Workshop, May 14-16, 1991, Williamsburg, VA (1991), p. 1824.

[1114] Timothy H. Cox, and Dante Jackson, "Supersonic Flying Qualities Experience Using the SR-71, NASA TM-4800 (1997), pp. 4-5.

[1115] Stephen Corda, Bradford A. Neal, Timothy R. Moes, Timothy H. Cox, Richard C. Monaghan, Leonard S. Voelker, Griffin P. Corpening, and Richard R. Larson "Flight Testing the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)," NASA TM-1998-206567 (1998).

[1116] M. Leroy Spearman, "The Evolution of the High-Speed Civil Transport," NASA TM-109089 (1994) is an excellent configuration survey. See also A. Warner Robins, et al., "Concept Develop­ment of a Mach 3.0 High-Speed Civil Transport," NASA TM-4058 (1988); P. G. Parikh and

A. L. Nagel, "Application of Laminar Flow Control to Supersonic Transport Configurations," NASA CR-1 81917 (1990); Christopher D. Domack, et al., "Concept Development of a Mach 4 High­Speed Civil Transport," NASA TM-4223 (1990); T. Edwards, et al., "Sonic Boom Prediction and Minimization Using Computational Fluid Dynamics," in NASA, First Annual High Speed Research Workshop, May 14-16, 1991, Williamsburg, VA (1991); A. G. Powell, "Supersonic LFC: Challeng­es and Opportunities," in NASA, First Annual High Speed Research Workshop, May 14-16, 1991, Williamsburg, VA (1991); Bianca T. Anderson and Marta Bohn-Meyer, "Overview of Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research on F-16XL Ships 1 and 2," NASA TM-104257 (1992).

[1117] National Science and Technology Council, Executive Office of the President, "Report to the Congress: Impact of the Termination of NASA’s High Speed Research Program and The Redirection of NASA’s Advanced Subsonic Technology Program," p. 6.

[1118] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 62-68.

[1119] The experiment is detailed in another case study within this volume.

[1120] Dan Banks, "Overview of Experimental Capabilities,’ in NASA Fundamental Aeronautics 2007 Annual Meeting, Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 2007, New Orleans, LA.

[1121] . The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by Louis J. Glaab of Langley and Jeffrey L. Fox of Johnson in providing notes, documents, and interviews. Other valuable assistance was provided by Langley’s Lynda J. Kramer, Jarvis J. Arthur, III, and Monica F. Hughes, and by Michael F. Abernathy of Rapid Imaging Software, Inc. This chapter honors the numerous dedicated NASA researchers and technicians whose commitment to the ideals of NASA aeronautics has resulted in profound advancements in the aviation industry.

[1122] See statistics for the Ford Tri-Motor in Kenneth Munson, Airliners Between the Wars, 1919-1939 (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1972), pp. 54 and 140; and statistics for the Boeing 747 in Kenneth Munson, Airliners Since 1946 (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1972), pp. 95 and 167.

[1123] George E. Cooper, "The Pilot-Aircraft Interface,’ in NASA LRC, Vehicle Technology for Civil Avia­tion: The Seventies and Beyond, NASA SP-292 (1971), pp. 271-272.

[1124] Ibid., p. 277.

[1125] E. M. Cortright, "Vehicle Technology for Civil Aviation: The Seventies and Beyond — Keynote Address,’ in NASA LRC, Vehicle Technology for Civil Aviation, p. 1, and Figure 4, p. 8. The value of $40 million in 1964 is approximately $279 million in 2009, and $160 million in 1969 is approxi mately $942 million in 2009.

[1126] G. Barry Graves, Jr., "Advanced Avionic Systems,’ in NASA LRC, Vehicle Technology for Civil Aviation, p. 287; see also J. P. Reeder, "The Airport-Airplane Interface: The Seventies and Beyond,’ in the same work, pp. 259-269. The idea of dynamic and intelligent flight guidance displays began with early highway-in-the-sky research by the United States Navy’s George W. Hoover in the 1950s; see Joseph R. Chambers, Innovation in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics, NASA SP-2005-4539 (2005),

p. 99. Chambers presents a thorough summary of the history of SVS research at NASA Langley through the end of 2005.

[1127] Sheldon Baron and Carl Feehrer, "An Analysis of the Application of AI to the Development of Intel­ligent Aids for Flight Crew Tasks," NASA CR-3944 (1985). See also Richard M. Hueschen and John W. McManus, "Application of AI Methods to Aircraft Guidance and Control," in Proceedings of the 7th American Control Conference, June 15-17, 1988, vol. 1 (New York: IEEE, 1988), pp. 195-201.

[1128] Ibid. For early research, see J. J. Adams, et al., "Description and Preliminary Studies of a Computer Drawn Instrument Landing Approach Display," NASA TM-78771 (1978); D. Warner, "Flight Path Displays," USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Report AFFDL-TR-79-3075 (1979); AJ. Grunwald, et al., "Evaluation of a Computer-Generated Perspective Tunnel Display for Flight Path Following," NASA TP-1736 (1980); Richard M. Hueschen, et al., "Guidance and Control System Research for Improved Terminal Area Operations," in Joseph W. Stickle, ed., 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, NASA CP-2170, pt. 1 (1981), pp. 51-61; Adams, "Simulator Study of a Pictorial Display for Gen­eral Aviation Instrument Flight," NASA TP-1963 (1982); Adams, "Flight-Test Verification of a Pictorial Display for General Aviation Instrument Approach," NASA TM-83305 (1982); Adams, "Simulator Study of Pilot-Aircraft-Display System Response Obtained with a Three-Dimensional-Box Pictorial Display, NASA TP-21 22 (1983); J. Atkins, "Prototypical Knowledge for Expert Systems," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 2 (Feb. 1983), pp. 163-210; F. Hayes-Roth, et al., Building Expert Systems (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983); and P. Winston and K. Prendergast, eds., The AI Business: Commercial Uses of Artificial Intelligence (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1984).

[1129] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 99.

1 0. Eric C. Stewart, "A Simulation Study of Control and Display Requirements for Zero-Experience General Aviation Pilots,’ NASA LRC, Workshop on Guidance, Navigation, Controls, and Dynam­ics for Atmospheric Flight, Report N94-25102 (1993); Eric C. Stewart, "A Piloted Simulation Study of Advanced Controls and Displays for General Aviation Airplanes,’ NASA TM-1 1 1 545 (1994).

1 1. Robert A. Rivers, "GA E-Z Fly,’ NASA Langley Flight Test Report (July 10, Oct. 20, and Dec. 1, 1 992). NASA Langley flight-test reports were informal documents written by Langley research pilots describing their work on flight, simulation, or ground tests. Though these reports were written immediately after the flight test and were not peer-reviewed or corrected, they were for the most part extremely detailed and followed a rigorous format. The reports were provided researchers valuable input for final comprehensive reports, such as those referenced in this document. Unfortu­nately, these documents were not archived by NASA Langley, and most have been lost over the years. The author has relied extensively in this chapter on his reports retained in his personal files. Only one other report from another pilot was located.

1 2. Rivers, "GA E-Z Fly,’ NASA Langley Flight Test Report (Oct. 20, 1992), p. 3.

1 3. M. K. Kaiser, "The Surface Operations Research and Evaluation Vehicle (SOREV)-A testbed for HSCT taxi issues,’ AIAA Paper 1998-5558, 1998.

[1134] For example, J. J. "Trey’ Arthur, III, Lawrence Prinzel, III, Kevin Shelton, Lynda J. Kramer,

Steven P. Williams, Randall E. Bailey, and Robert M. Norman, "Design and Testing of an Unlimited Field of Regard Synthetic Vision Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft Surface Operations,’ NASA LRC and Boeing Phantom Works, NTRS Rept. LAR-17290-1 (2007).

1 5. For a sampling of this research, see Randall E. Bailey, et al., "Crew and Display Concepts Evaluation for Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems,’ SPIE Defense and Security Symposium 2006, Apr. 2006; Z. Rahman, et al., "Automated, On-Board Terrain Analysis for Precision Landings,’ Proceedings of SPIE Visual Information Processing XIV, vol. 6246 (Apr. 2006); J. J. Arthur, III, et al., "Design and Testing of an Unlimited-Field-of-Regard Synthetic Vision Head-worn Display for Commercial Aircraft Surface Operations,’ Proceedings of SPIE Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, vol. 6559 (2007); Bailey, et al., "Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations,’ (NATO RTO-HFM-1 41), in NATO Human Factors and Medicine Symposium on Human Factors and Medical Aspects of Day/Night All Weather Operations: Current Issues and Future Challenges, pp. 11-1-11-18 (2007); P. V. Hyer, et al., "Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety,’ NASA CR-2007-214545 (2007).

1 6. Russell V. Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision Display Systems and the Best Practices of the NASA’s SVS Project,’ NASA TP-2008-215130 (May 2008), p. 2. The referenced definition of SVS can be found in the following source: Parrish, et al., "Synthetic Vision,’ The Avionics Handbook (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000), pp. 16-1 -16-8. Parrish, et al.’s TP-2008-215130 is a definitive source of the work of the NASA Langley SVS project from 1999 to 2005. Additionally, "Best Practices’ contains a bibliography of over 230 articles, technical reports, journal articles, and books on NASA’s SVS work.

[1137] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision," NASA TP-2008-2151 30, p. 9.

1 8. Parrish, et al., "Description of ‘Crow’s Foot," p. 6.

[1139] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision," NASA TP-2008-2151 30, p. 9.

[1140] For example, avionics concerns such as Thales, which certified an EFVS system with EASA, the FAA, Transport Canada, and Rockwell Collins, with its EFVS-4860 system; airframe manufacturers include Gulfstream for its G-IV, G-V, G-300, G-400/450, and G-500/550; Bombardier for its Global Express XRS and Global 5000; Dassault for its Falcon 900EX/DX and 2000EX/DX; and Embraer for its ECJ-1 90; regarding future EVO, see Capt. Bob Moreau, "Fed Ex HUD/EFVS Over­view and LED Replacement for Airport and Approach Lighting Structures," paper presented at the Illuminating Engineering Society of America Aviation Lighting Conference, 2009, at http://www. iesalc. org/docs/FedEx_HUD-EFVS_Overview. pdf, accessed Dec. 7, 2009.

[1141] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision," NASA TP-2008-2151 30, p. 2.

[1142] See, for example, W. F. White and L. V. Clark, "Flight Performance of the TCV B-737 Airplane at Kenney Airport Using TRSB/MLS guidance,’ NASA TM-80148 (1979); White and Clark,

‘Flight Performance of the TCV B-737 Airplane at Jorge Newbery Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Using TRSB/MLS Guidance,’ NASA TM-80233 (1980); White and Clark, "Flight Performance of the TCV B-737 Airplane at Montreal Dorval International Airport, Montreal, Canada, Using TRSB/ MLS Guidance,’ NASA TM-81 885 (1980); Richard M. Hueschen, J. F. Creedon, W. T. Bundick, and J. C. Young, "Guidance and Control System Research for Improved Terminal Area Operations,’ in Joseph W. Stickle, ed., 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, NASA CP-2170, pt. 1 (1981), pp. 51-61; J. A. Houck, "A Simulation Study of Crew performance in Operating an Advanced Transport Aircraft in an Automated Terminal Area Environment,’ NASA TM-84610 (1983); and John J. White, "Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program,’ SAE Paper 90­1 969, presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, Oct. 1-4, 1990. See also Lane E. Wallace, Airborne Trailblazer:

Two Decades with NASA Langleys 737 Flying Laboratory (NASA SP 4216), pp. 27-33, for further details on the ATOPS research aircraft.

[1143] George W. Bradley, III, "Origins of the Global Positioning System,’ in Jacob Neufeld,

George M. Watson, Jr., and David Chenoweth, Technology and the Air Force: A Retrospective Assessment (Washington, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1997), pp. 245-253;

Ivan A. Getting, All in a Lifetime: Science in the Defense of Democracy (New York: Vantage Press, 1989), pp. 574-597; John L. McLucas, with Kenneth J. Alnwick and Lawrence R. Benson, Reflec­tions of a Technocrat: Managing Defense, Air, and Space Programs During the Cold War (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2006), pp. 295-297; and Randy James, "A Brief History of GPS,’ Time. com, May 26, 2009, http://www. time. com/time/nation/article/0r8599,1900862,00. html, accessed Dec. 7, 2009.

[1144] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 95.

[1145] Steven D. Young and Denise R. Jones, "Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Move­ment Technologies," NASA TM-1998-206283 (1998).

[1146] Denise R. Jones and Steven D. Young, "Airport Surface Movement Technologies—Atlanta Dem­onstration Overview," NASA LRC (1997), NTRS Document ID 200.401.10268, p. 1.

[1147] Steven D. Young and Denise R. Jones, "Flight Testing of an Airport Surface Guidance, Naviga­tion, and Control System," paper presented at the Institute of Navigation National Technical Meet­ing, Jan. 21-23, 1998, p. 1.

[1148] Young and Jones, "Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Movement Technologies," and Jones and Young, "Airport Surface Movement Technologies—Atlanta Demonstration Overview.

[1149] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 103-104.

[1150] XVS is used as an abbreviation for External Vision Systems. However, under NASA’s High­Speed Research (HSR) program, XVS was also shorthand for "eXternal [sic] Visibility System," yet another example of how acronyms and designations evolved over the length of SVS-XVS-EVS studies. See NASA LRC, "NASA’s High-Speed Research Program: The eXternal Visibility System Concept," NASA Facts on Line, FS-1998-09-34-LaRC (Sept. 1998), http://oea. larc. nasa. gov/ PAIS/HSR-Cockpit. html, accessed Dec. 7, 2009.

[1151] See the Flanagan and Benson cases on supersonic cruise and sonic boom research in these volumes; as well, Chambers provides an informative historical treatment of the HSR program in Inno­vations in Flight, covering the broad areas of research into acoustics, environmental impacts, flight controls, and aerodynamics (to name a few) that are beyond the scope of this chapter.

[1152] Erik Conway, High-Speed Dreams: NASA and the Technopolitics of Supersonic Transportation (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), pp. 21 3-299.

[1153] NASA, "NASA’s High Speed Research Program: The eXternal Visibility System,’ in NASA Facts FS-1998-09-34, LaRC, Hampton VA (1998).

[1154] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision Display Systems,’ p. 17; see also M. Yang, T. Gandhi, R. Kasturi, L. Coraor, O. Camps, and J. McCandless, "Real-time Obstacle Detection System for High Speed Civil Transport Supersonic Aircraft,’ paper presented at the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Oct. 2000; and Mary K. Kaiser, "The Surface Operations Research and Evaluation Vehicle (SOREV): A testbed for HSCT taxi issues,’ AIAA Paper 1998-5558 (1998).

[1155] Calspan has for decades been an exemplar of excellence in flight simulation. Originally known as the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, in the 1 990s, the company was variously known as Arvin Calspan and Veridian. In this chapter, Calspan is used throughout, as that name has the largest recognition among the aerospace professional research community.

[1156] Russell V. Parrish, ed., "Avionic Pictorial Tunnel-/Pathway-/Highway-In-The-Sky Workshops," NASA CP-2003-21 2164, presents the proceedings of these interactive workshops.

[1157] "Minutes of the Third XVS Symbology Workshop," Third XVS Symbology Workshop, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Sept. 5, 1996.

[1158] Like NASA’s pioneer 737, the TIFS airplane had its own remarkable history, flying extensively in support of numerous aircraft development programs until its retirement in 2008. For its background and early capabilities, see David A. Brown, "In-Flight Simulator Capabilities Tested,’ Aviation Week and Space Technology, Aug. 9, 1971.

[1159] Robert A. Rivers, "HSR XVS TSRV Sim 1 FTR,’ NASA Langley Flight Test Report (Aug. 31,

1995), p. 1.

[1160] Ibid., p. 3.

[1161] Interview of Louis J. Glaab by Rivers, NASA Langley Research Center, June 1, 2009.

[1162] Ibid., pp. 4-6.

[1163] Ibid., p. 4.

[1164] This information comes from the author’s notes and recollection from that time period.

[1165] The author was a participant in a series of HL-20 simulations; for details of these, see Robert A. Rivers, E. Bruce Jackson, and W. A. Ragsdale, "Piloted Simulator Studies of the HL-20 Lifting Body,’ paper presented at the 35th Symposium of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Beverly Hills, CA, Sept. 1991.

[1166] Scott A. Berry, Thomas J. Horvath, K. James Weilmuenster, Stephan J. Alter, and

N. Ronald Merski, "X-38 Experimental Aeroheating at Mach 10,’ AIAA Paper 2001-2828 (2000), p. 1; see also Jay Miller, The X-Planes: X-1 to X-45 (Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing, 2001), pp. 378-383.

[1167] Quoted in NASA JSC, "A New Definition of Ground Control,’ Spinoff 2002 (Houston: NASA JSC, 2002), pp. 1 32-1 33; see also Frank J. Delgado, "Simulation for the X-38/CRV Parafoil and Re-Entry Phases,’ AIAA Paper 2000-4085 (2000); Frank Delgado and Mike Abernathy, "A Hybrid Synthetic Vision System for the Tele-operation of Unmanned Vehicles,’ NASA JSC (2004), NTIS Document 200.502.17300; and interview of Michael Abernathy by Robert A. Rivers, Albuquer­que, NM, June 1 1, 2009.

[1168] NASA JSC, "A New Definition of Ground Control,’ p. 132.

[1169] Interview of Jeffrey L. Fox by Robert A. Rivers, NASA Johnson Space Center, Aug. 15, 2008, and June 2, 2009. The author has also relied upon notes, e-mails, memos, and recollections of Jeffrey Fox.

[1170] Etienne Prandini, "ISS Partnership in Crisis,’ Interavia Business & Technology (May 2002); Mark Carreau, "Project’s Cancellation Irks NASA,’ Houston Chronicle, June 9 2002.

[1171] Eric C. Boe, Jeffrey L. Fox, Francisco J. Delgado, Michael F. Abernathy, Michael Clark, and Kevin Ehlinger, "Advanced Cockpit Evaluation System Van,’ 2005 Biennial Research and Technol­ogy Report, University Research and Affairs Office, NASA Johnson Space Center (2005).

[1172] Interview of Fox by Rivers, NASA Johnson Space Center, Aug. 1 5, 2008, and June 2, 2009.

[1173] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 98, 104. The SVS project is well documented, with a number of excellent technical reports. Chambers provides a good overview of the flight tests and personnel, and Parrish, et al., Aspects of Synthetic Vision provides detail of the technologies being evaluated.

Both sources should be consulted for additional details. For GA SVS research, see Louis J. Glaab,

Russell V. Parrish, Monica F. Hughes, and Mohammad A. Takallu, "Effectively Transforming IMC Flight into VMC Flight: An SVS Case Study/’ Proceedings of the 25th Digital Avionics System Conference (2006).

[1174] Spain, Secretary of Civil Aviation, Report on Tenerife Crash, KLM B-747 Ph-BUF and Pan Am B-747 N736, Collision at Tenerife Airport, Spain, on 27March 1977 (Oct. 1978), prep. by Harro Ranter, Aircraft Accident Digest, ICAO Circular 153-AN/56), pp. 22-68, htp://www. panamair. org/accidents/victor. htm, accessed Oct. 24, 2009. Complicating the Tenerife accident were unusual traffic pressures on the respective crews after diversion of their flights from Las Palmas to Los Rodeos Airport, Tenerife, caused by a terrorist bombing of the terminal building at Las Palmas. Tenerife was heavily crowded as a result, and the stress was extreme upon both air and ground crews, including ATC personnel.

[1175] Denise R. Jones, Cuong C. Quach, and Steven D. Young, "Runway Incursion Prevention Sys­tem-Demonstration and Testing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport,’ paper presented at the 20th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, Oct. 14-18, 2001, p. 1.

[1176] Ibid; see also Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 1 08-1 10.

[1177] Author’s recollections from his experiences flying the Aries aircraft.

[1178] Jones, Quach, and Young, "Runway Incursion Prevention System,’ p. 2, et. seq., details the system.

[1179] Ibid., p. 9.

[1180] Lynda J. Kramer, Lawrence J. Prinzell, III, Randall E. Bailey, Jarvis J. Arthur, III, and Russell V. Parrish, "Flight Test Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Concepts at a Terrain Challenged Airport," NASA TP-2004-212997 (2004), p. 1.

[1181] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 1 1 0-1 1 2.

[1182] Kramer, et al., "Flight Test Evaluation. . . at a Terrain Challenged Airport," p. 57.

[1183] Much controversy accompanied the grounding and the pilots’ concerns. See David Schleck, "Fear of Reprisals: NASA Langley Pilots Struggle with Safety Versus Silence,’ Daily Press (Apr. 17, 2005).

[1184] Louis J. Glaab and Monica F. Hughes, "Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Flight Test,’ Proceedings of the 22nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference (2003).

[1185] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision Display,’ p. 3.

[1186] Glaab and Hughes, "Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Flight Test.

[1187] Rivers, Glaab interview.

[1188] Parrish, et al., "Aspects of Synthetic Vision,’ NASA TP-2008-2151 30, p. 7; M. Uijt de Haag,

Steven D. Young, and J. Campbell, "An X-Band Radar Terrain Feature Detection Method for Low-Altitude SVS Operations and Calibration Using LiDAR,’ SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Apr. 12-16, 2004.

[1189] Jarvis J. Arthur, III, L. Kramer, and Randall E. Bailey, "Flight Test Comparison between Enhanced Vision (FLIR) and Synthetic Vision Systems,’ in Jacques G. Verly, ed., Proceedings of SPIE, Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 2005, vol. 5802-03 (2005); E. Cooper and Steven D. Young, "Database Integrity Monitoring for Synthetic Vision Systems Using Machine Vision and SHADE,’ paper presented at the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Enhanced and Synthetic Vision Conference, Mar 28-Apr 1, 2005; and Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 1 1 2-1 1 7.

[1190] Louis J. Glaab, Russell V. Parrish, Monica F. Hughes, and Mohammad A. Takallu, "Effectively Transforming IMC Flight into VMC Flight: An SVS Case Study,’ Proceedings of the 25th Digital Avionics System Conference (2006), pp. 3-14.

[1191] Randall E. Bailey, Lynda J. Kramer, and Lawrence J. Prinzel, III, "Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations,’ NATO HFM-14 1 Symposium on Human Factors of Day/Night All-Weather Operations, Heraklion, Greece, Apr. 23-25, 2007. The paper from this conference contains an excellent bibliography of many of the papers produced after the end of the SVS project.

[1192] The material in the beginning of this section comes from the personal notes, e-mails, and recol­lection of Jeffrey L. Fox and the author.

[1193] Rivers and Fox, "Synthetic Vision System Flight Testing for NASA’s Exploration Space Vehicles, paper presented at the 52nd Symposium of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Anaheim, CA, Sept. 2008.

[1194] Ibid., pp. 44-51.

[1195] Ibid., pp. 51-57.

[1196] As this work goes to press, Agency space exploration plans, of course, are very much a "work in progress’ with debates over destinations, types of missions, and mission protocols.

[1197] . Ernest K. Gann, Fate is the Hunter (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961), pp. 79-87.

[1198] Ibid., pp. 88-93.

[1199] Ibid., pp. 94-107.

[1200] Ibid., p. 79.

[1201] Harald Penrose, Wings Across the World (London: Cassell, 1980), p. 114; R. E.G. Davies, British Airways: An Airline and its Aircraft, v. 1: The Imperial Years (McLean, VA: Paladwr Press, 2005), pp. 94, 96.

[1202] U. S. Civil Aeronautics Board, Bureau of Safety Investigation, Comparative Safety Statistics in United States Airline Operations, Pt. 1 : Years 1938-1945 (Washington, DC: CAB BSI Analysis Division, 15 August 1953), p. 29.

[1203] Bob Buck [Robert N. Buck], North Star Over My Shoulder: A Flying Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), p. 113. Once America’s youngest licensed pilot, Buck authored two influential books on aviation safety, Weather Flying (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1978); and The Pilots Burden: Flight Safety and the Roots of Pilot Error (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1 994).

[1204] William M. Leary, "A Perennial Challenge to Aviation Safety: Battling the Menace of Ice,’ in Roger D. Launius and Janet R. Daly Bednarek, eds., Reconsidering a Century of Flight (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 1 32-151.

[1205] See, for example, Wesley L. Smith, "Weather Problems Peculiar to the New York-Chicago Airway,’ Monthly Weather Review vol. 57, no. 1 2 (Dec. 1929), pp. 503-506.

1 0. Thomas Carroll and William H. McAvoy, "The Formation of Ice Upon Airplanes in Flight,’ NACA TN-313 (1929); Montgomery Knight and William C. Clay, "Refrigerated Wind Tunnel Tests on Surface Coatings for Preventing Ice Formation,’ NACA TN-339 (1930); W. Bleeker, "The Formation of Ice on Aircraft,’ NACA TM-1027 (1942) [trans. of "Einige Bermerkungen uber Eisansatz an Flugzeugen,’ Meteorologische Zeitschrift (Sep. 1932), pp. 349-354.

[1207] For samples of Rodert’s work, see Lewis A. Rodert, "An Investigation of the Prevention of Ice on the Airplane Windshield,’ TN-754 (1940); Lewis A. Rodert and Alun R. Jones, "A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-Heat De-Icing,’ NACA TN-783 (1940); Lewis A. Rodert, "The Effects of Aerodynamic Heating on Ice Formations on Airplane Propellers,’ TN-799 (1941); Lewis A. Rodert and Richard Jackson, ‘Preliminary Investigation and Design of an Air-Heated Wing for Lockheed 1 2A Airplane,’ NACA ARR A-34 (1942).

1 2. George W. Gray, Frontiers of Flight: The Story of NACA Research (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948), pp. 308-316; and Henry A. Essex, "A Laboratory Investigation of the Icing Characteristics of the Bendix-Stromberg Carburetor Model PD-1 2F5 with the Pratt and Whitney R-1 830-C4 Intermediate Rear Engine Section," NACA-WR-E-18 (1944); William D. Coles, "Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-Engine Cargo Aircraft," NACA TN-1427 (1947).

1 3. Edwin P. Hartman Adventures in Research: A History of Ames Research Center 1940-1965, NASA SP-4302 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1970), pp. 69-73; and Glenn E. Bugos, "Lew Rodert, Epistemological Liaison, and Thermal De-Icing at Ames," in Pamela E. Mack, ed., From Engineering Science to Big Science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy Research Project Winners, NASA SP-4219 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1998), pp. 29-58.

1 4. For example, G. Merritt Preston and Calvin C. Blackman, "Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight," NACA TN-1598 (1948); Alun R. Jones and William Lewis, ‘Recommended Values of Meteorological Factors to be Considered in the Design of Aircraft Ice – Prevention Equipment," NACA TN-1 855 (1949); Carr B. Neel, Jr., and Loren G. Bright, "The Effect of Ice Formations on Propeller Performance, NACA TN-221 2 (1950).

1 5. James P. Lewis, Thomas F. Gelder, Stanley L. Koutz, "Icing Protection for a Turbojet Transport Airplane: Heating Requirements, Methods of Protection, and Performance Penalties," NACA TN-2866 (1953).

1 6. Porter J. Perkins, "Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter – Interceptor Aircraft," NACA TN-4314 (1958); and James P. Lewis and Robert J. Blade,

‘Experimental Investigation of Radome Icing and Icing Protection," NACA RM-E52J31 (1953).

1 7. As referenced in U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, "In-Flight Icing Encounter and Loss of Control Simmons Airlines, d. b.a. American Eagle Flight 41 84 Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) Model 72-212, N401AM, Roselawn, Indiana October 31, 1994," NTSB/AAR-96/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 1996), pp. 97-99.

1 8. William M. Leary, ‘We Freeze to Please": A History of NASA’s Icing Research Tunnel and the Quest for Flight Safety, NASA SP-2002-4226 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2002), p. 60. Glahn did much notable work in icing research; see Uwe H. von Glahn and Vernon H. Gray, "Effect of Ice and Frost Formations on Drag of NACA 65-21 2 Airfoil for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection," NACA TN-2962 (1953); Uwe H. von Glahn and Vernon H. Gray, "Effect of Ice Formations on Section Drag of Swept NACA 63A-009 Airfoil with Partial Span Leading Edge Slat for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection," NACA RM-E53J30 (1954); Uwe H. von Glahn,

Edmund E. Callaghan, and Vernon H. Gray, "NACA Investigation of Icing-Protection Systems for Turbojet-Engine Installations," NACA RM-E51 B1 2 (1951); Uwe H. von Glahn, Thomas F. Gelder, and William H. Smyers, Jr., "A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution," NACA TN-3338 (1955); Vernon H. Gray and Uwe H. von Glahn, "Aerodynamic Effects Caused by Icing of an Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil," NACA TN-4155 (1958); Vernon H. Gray,

Dean T. Bowden, and Uwe H. von Glahn, "Preliminary Results of Cyclical De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil," NACA RM-E51J29 (1952).

[1215] Leary, “We Freeze to Please", p. 72.

[1216] National Transportation Safety Board, Collision with 14th Street Bridge Near Washington National Airport, Air Florida Flight 90, Boeing 737-222, N62AF, Washington, D. C., January 13, 1982, NTSB/AAR-82-8 (1982).

[1217] Leary, "We Freeze to Please", p. 82.

[1218] R. J. Ranaudo, K. L. Mikkelsen, R. C. McKnight, P. J. Perkins, Jr., "Performance Degradation of a Typical Twin Engine Commuter Type Aircraft in Measured Natural Icing Conditions,’ NASA TM-83564 (1984).

[1219] R. John Hansman, Kenneth S. Breuer, Didier Hazan, Andrew Reehorst, Mario Vargas, "Close – Up Analysis of Aircraft Ice Accretion,’ NASA TM-105952 (1993).

[1220] Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand, "Aircraft Icing Handbook’ (2000), p. 2.

[1221] R. C. McKnight, R. L. Palko, and R. L. Humes, "In-flight Photogrammetric Measurement of Wing Ice Accretions,’ NASA TM-87191 (1986).

[1222] John R. Hansman, Jr., "The Influence of Ice Accretion Physics on the Forecasting of Aircraft Icing Conditions,’ NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, NASA NTRS 90N20928 (1990).

[1223] M. Dietenberger, P. Kumar, and J. Luers, "Frost Formation on an Airfoil: A Mathematical Model 1,’ NASA-CR-31 29 (1979).

[1224] John J. Reinmann, Robert J. Shaw, and W. A. Olsen, Jr., "NASA Lewis Research Center’s Program on Icing Research,’ NASA TM-83031 (1983).

[1225] A. E. Albright, D. L. Kohlman, W. G. Schweikhard, and P. Evanich, "Evaluation of a Pneumatic Boot Deicing System on a General Aviation Wing,’ NASA TM-82363 (1981).

[1226] "The Early Years— 1930s,’ Killfrost, Inc. of Coral Springs, FL (2009).

[1227] J. Love, T. Elliott, G. C. Das, D. K. Hammond, R. J. Schwarzkopf, L. B. Jones, and T. L. Baker, ‘Screening and Identification of Cryopreservative Agents for Human Cellular Biotechnology Experiments in Microgravity,’ 2004 ASGSB Meeting, Brooklyn, NY, Nov. 2004.

[1228] Society of Automotive Engineers, "Deicing/Anti-icing Fluid, Aircraft, SAE Type 1,’ AMS 1 224 (Rev. J) (2009).

[1229] Society of Automotive Engineers, "Fluid, Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing, Non-Newtonian (Pseudo­plastic), SAE Types II, III, and IV," AMS 1 228 (Rev. G) (2009).

[1230] "Preventing Ice Before it Forms," Spinoff 2006 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2006), pp. 46-47.

[1231] Theodore Theodorsen and William C. Clay, "Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Engine Exhaust Heat and a Technical Study of Heat Transmission from a Clark Y Airfoil," NACA TR-403 (1933).

[1232] William D. Coles, "Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-Engine Cargo Aircraft," NACA TN-1427 (1947). Henry A. Essex, "A Laboratory Investigation of the Icing Characteristics of the Bendix-Stromberg Carburetor Model PD-1 2F5 with the Pratt and Whitney R-1 830-C4 Intermediate Rear Engine Section," NACA WR-E – 18 (1944).

[1233] R. W. Obermayer and T. W. Roe, "A Study of Carburetor/Induction System Icing in General Aviation Accidents,’ NASA CR-143835 (1975).

[1234] G. W. Zumwalt, R. L. Schrag, W. D. Bernhart, and R. A. Friedberg, "Analyses and Tests for Design of an Electro-Impulse De-Icing System,’ NASA CR-174919 (1985).

[1235] G. W. Zumwalt and R. A. Friedberg, "Designing an Electro-Impulse De-Icing System,’ AIAA Paper 86-0545 (1986).

[1236] G. W. Zumwalt, "Electro-Impulse De-Icing: A Status Report,’ AIAA Paper 88-0019 (1988).

[1237] "Breaking the Ice,’ Spinoff 1989 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1989) pp. 64-65.

[1238] Interview of Jaiwon Shin, Associate Administrator for NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, by Jim Banke, Orlando, FL, 5 Jan. 2010 Shin’s own contributions to the study of aircraft icing have been substantial. For a sampling of his work, see Jaiwon Shin, "Characteristics of Surface Roughness Associated with Leading Edge Ice Accretion," NASA TM-106459 (1994); Jaiwon Shin, ‘The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview," NASA TM-2000-209810 (2000); Jaiwon Shin and Thomas H. Bond, "Results of an Icing Test on a NACA 001 2 Airfoil in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel," NASA TM-105374 (1992); Jaiwon Shin, Hsun H. Chen, and Tuncer Cebeci, "A Turbulence Model for Iced Airfoils and Its Validation," NASA TM-105373 (1992); Jaiwon Shin, Brian Berkowitz, Hsun H. Chen, and Tuncer Cebeci, "Prediction of Ice Shapes and their Effect on Airfoil Performance," NASA TM-103701 (1991); Jaiwon Shin, Peter Wilcox, Vincent Chin, and David Sheldon, "Icing Test Results on an Advanced Two-Dimensional High-Lift Multi-Element Airfoil," NASA TM-106620 (1994); Thomas H. Bond and Jaiwon Shin, "Results of Low Power Deicer Tests on the Swept Inlet Component in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel," NASA TM-105968 (1993); and Thomas H. Bond, Jaiwon Shin, and Geert A. Mesander, "Advanced Ice Protection Systems Test in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel," NASA TM-103757 (1991).

[1239] Dale Hiltner, Michael McKee, Karine La Noe, and Gerald Gregorek, "DHC-6 Twin Otter Tail Plane Airfoil Section Testing in the Ohio State University 7×10 Wind Tunnel," NASA-CR-2000-2099921 /VOL1 (2000).

[1240] Gerald Gregorek, John J. Dresse, and Karine La Noe, "Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tail Plane Airfoil Section Testing in the Ohio State University 7×10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel,’ NASA-CR-2000-29921/VOL2 (2000).

[1241] Judith Foss Van Zante, and Thomas P. Ratvasky, "Investigation of Dynamic Flight Maneuvers with an Iced Tail Plane,’ NASA TM-1999-208849 (1999).

[1242] The video is available online via YouTube at http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=_ifKduc1hE8 &feature=PlayList&p= 18B9F75B0B7A3DB9&playnext= 1 &playnext_from=PL&index=3.

[1243] William B. Wright, Mark G. Potapczuk, and Laurie H. Levinson, "Comparison of LEWICE and GlennICE in the SLD Regime," NASA TM-2008-215174 (2008).

[1244] Jaiwon Shin, Brian Berkowitz, Hsun Chen, and Tuncer Cebeci, "Prediction of Ice Shapes and their Effect on Airfoil Performance," NASA TM-103701 (1991).

[1245] William B. Wright and Adam Rutkowski, "Validation Results for LEWICE 2.0," NASA CR-1999-208690 (1999).

[1246] For these programs and their validation, see William B. Wright, "Users Manual for the Improved NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE 1.6," NASA CR-1995-198355 (1995); William B. Wright, "User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE Version 2.0," NASA CR-1999-209409 (1999); William B. Wright, "User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE Version 2.2.2," NASA CR-2002-21 1793 (2002);

William B. Wright, "Further Refinement of the LEWICE SLD Model," NASA CR-2006-2141 32 (2006); William B. Wright, "User’s Manual for LEWICE Version 3.2," NASA CR-2008-214255 (2008); William B. Wright and James Chung, "Correlation Between Geometric Similarity of Ice Shapes and the Resulting Aerodynamic Performance Degradation-A Preliminary Investigation Using WIND," NASA CR-1999-209417 (1999); William B. Wright, R. W. Gent, and Didier Guffond, ‘DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research Pt. II — Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion," NASA CR-1997-202349 (1997); William B. Wright, Mark G. Potapczuk, and Laurie H. Levinson, ‘Comparison of LEWICE and GlennICE in the SLD Regime," NASA TM-2008-215174 (2008).

[1247] Banke, Shin interview.

[1248] Andrew Reehorst, David J. Brinker, and Thomas P. Ratvasky, "NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons from AIRS II," NASA TM-2005-21 3592 (2005).

[1249] National Transportation Safety Board, In-Flight Icing Encounter and Loss of Control Simmons Airlines, d. b.a. American Eagle Flight 4 184 Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) Model 72-212, N40IAM Roselawn, Indiana October 3 1, 1994, v. 1: Safety Board Report, NTSB/AAR-96/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 1996), p. 210.

[1250] Dean R. Miller, Mark G. Potapczuk, and Thomas H. Bond, "Update on SLD Engineering Tools Development," NASA TM-2004-213072 (2004).

[1251] Dean R. Miller, Christopher J. Lynch, and Peter A. Tate, "Overview of High Speed Close-Up Imaging in an Icing Environment," NASA TM-2004-21 2925 (2004).

[1252] Dean R. Miller, Thomas Ratvasky, Ben Bernstein, Frank McDonough, and J. Walter Strapp, ‘NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996­1997 Flight Operations," NASA TM-1998-206620 (1998).

[1253] Laura Brown, "FAA Icing Fact Sheet: Flying in Icing Conditions," NTSB Docket No. SA-533, Exhibit No. 2-GGG (2009).

[1254] "FAA Presentation-Icing Requirements and Guidance," NTSB Docket No. SA-533, Exhibit No. 2-JJJ (2009).

[1255] Phone interview of Tom Ratvasky by Jim Banke, Cape Canaveral, FL, 7 April 2009.

[1256] Andy Pasztor, "Airline Regulators Grapple with Engine-Shutdown Peril,’ The Wall Street Journal, Page A1,7 April 2008.

[1257] National Transportation Safety Board, Letter to the Federal Aviation Administration, Safety Recommendation A-06-56 through -59 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 2006).

[1258] Banke, Ratvasky interview.

[1259] Manuel A. Rios, Yung I. Cho, "Analysis of Ice Crystal Ingestion as a Source of Ice Accretion, AIAA-2008-4165 (2208).

[1260] R. C. McGuire, "Report on Grooved Runway Experience at Washington National Airport,’ NASA Washington Pavement Grooving and Traction Studies (1969).

[1261] Thomas J. Yager, William A. Vogler, and Paul Baldasare, "Evaluation of Two Transport Aircraft and Several Ground Test Vehicle Friction Measurements Obtained for Various Runway Surface Types and Conditions. A Summary of Test Results From Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program,’ NASA TP-2917 (1990).

[1262] Mario Vargas, "Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics,’ in NASA Glenn Research Center staff, Proceedings of the Airframe Icing Workshop, NASA CP-2009-215797 (Cleveland, OH: NASA Glenn Research Center, 2009).

[1263] Colin S. Bidwell and Mark G. Potapczuk, "Users Manual for the NASA Lewis Three­Dimensional Ice Accretion Code: LEWICE 3D," NASA TM-105974 (1993).

[1264] Marivell Baez, Mary Vickerman, and Yung Choo, "SmaggIce User Guide," NASA TM-2000- 209793 (2000).

[1265] Richard H. McFarland and Craig B. Parker, "Weather Data Dissemination to Aircraft,’ NASA, Langley Research Center, Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1 988-1989, pp. 1 19-127.

[1266] Sharon Monica Jones, Mary S. Reveley, Joni K. Evans, and Francesca A. Barrientos, "Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study,’ NASA TM-2008-215107 (2008).

[1267] For simulation, see Laurie H. Levinson, Mark G. Potapczuk, and Pamela A. Mellor, "Software Development Processes Applied to Computational Icing Simulation,’ NASA TM-1999-208898 (1999); Thomas B. Irvine, John R. Oldenburg, and David W. Sheldon, "New Icing Cloud Simulation System at the NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Research Tunnel,’ NASA TM-1999- 208891 (1 999); Mark G. Potapczuk and John J. Reinmann, "Icing Simulation: A Survey of Computer Models and Experimental Facilities,’ NASA TM-104366 (1991); Mark G. Potapczuk, M. B. Bragg, O. J. Kwon, and L. N. Sankar, "Simulation of Iced Wing Aerodynamics,’ NASA TM-104362 (1991); Thomas P. Ratvasky, Billy P. Barnhart, and Sam Lee, "Current Methods

for Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability and Control,’

NASA TM-2008-215453 (2008); Thomas P. Ratvasky, Kurt Blankenship, William Rieke, and David J. Brinker, "Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulation Validation,’ NASA TM-2003- 2121 14 (2003); Thomas P. Ratvasky, Richard J. Ranaudo, Kurt S. Blankenship, and Sam Lee, "Demonstration of an Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device,’ NASA TM-2006-21 4233 (2006); Thomas P. Ratvasky, Billy P. Barnhart, Sam Lee, and Jon Cooper, "Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation,’ NASA TM-2007-214936 (2007).

[1268] Andrew Reehorst, David Brinker, Marcia Politovich, David Serke, Charles Ryerson,

Andrew Pazmany, and Frederick Solheim, "Progress Towards the Remote Sensing of Aircraft Icing Hazards," NASA TM-2009-215828 (2009).

[1269] The GRC Web site can be found at http://icebox. grc. nasa. gov/education/index. html.

[1270] Judith Foss Van Zante, "Aircraft Icing Educational and Training Videos Produced for Pilots," Glenn Research Center Research and Technology Report (1999).

[1271] For a detailed history of the IRT, see the previously cited William Leary, “We Freeze to Please: A History of NASA’s Icing Research Tunnel and the Quest for Flight Safely", NASA-SP-2002-4226 (2002).

[1272] Thomas P. Ratvasky, Kurt Blankenship, William Rieke, and David J. Brinker, "Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulation Validation,’ NASA TM-2003-21 2114 (2003).

[1273] . Joseph R. Chambers and Sue B. Grafton, "Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airplanes at High Angles of Attack," NASA TM-74097 (1977).

[1274] For detailed discussions of contributions of NASA Langley and its partners to high-angle-of-attack technology for current military aircraft, see Chambers, Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to Military Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2000-4519 (2000).

[1275] D. Bruce Owens, Jay M. Brandon, Mark A. Croom, Charles M. Fremaux, Eugene H. Heim, and Dan D. Vicroy, "Overview of Dynamic Test Techniques for Flight Dynamics Research at NASA LaRC, AIAA Paper 2006-3146 (2006).

[1276] Fred E. Weick and Robert T. Jones, "The Effect of Lateral Controls in Producing Motion of an Airplane as Computed From Wind-Tunnel Data," NACA TR-570 (1937).

[1277] See, for example, Montgomery Knight, "Wind Tunnel Tests on Autorotation and the Flat Spin, NACA TR-273 (1928), which states, "The results of the investigation indicate that in free flight

a monoplane is incapable of flat spinning, whereas an unstaggered biplane has inherent flat­spinning tendencies.’

[1278] Over 1 00 designs were tested in the Langley Spin Tunnel during World War II.

[1279] Chambers, Radical Wings and Wind Tunnels (Specialty Press, 2008); Anshal I. Neihouse, Walter J. Klinar, and Stanley H. Scher, "Status of Spin Research for Recent Airplane Designs,’ NASA TR-R-57 (1960).

[1280] Charles Donlan, "An Interim Report on the Stability and Control of Tailless Airplanes,’ NACA TR-796 (1944).

[1281] Martin T. Moul and John W. Paulson, "Dynamic Lateral Behavior of High-Performance Aircraft, NACA RM-L58E16 (1958).

[1282] Neihouse, Klinar, and Scher, "Status of Spin Research.’

1 1. Interview of James S. Bowman, Jr., head of the Langley Spin Tunnel, by author, NASA Langley Research Center, June 5, 1963.

[1284] For a detailed discussion of NASA contributions to the F-4 high-angle-of-attack issues, see Chambers, Partners in Freedom; Chambers and Ernie L. Anglin, "Analysis of Lateral Directional Stability Characteristics of a Twin Jet Fighter Airplane at High Angles of Attack," NASA TN-D-5361 (1969); Chambers, Anglin, and Bowman, "Analysis of the Flat-Spin Characteristics of a Twin-Jet Swept-Wing Fighter Airplane," NASA TN-D-5409 (1969); William A. Newsom, Jr., and Grafton, "Free-Flight Inves­tigation of Effects of Slats on Lateral-Directional Stability of a 0.1 3-Scale Model of the F-4E Airplane," NASA TM-SX-2337 (1971); and Edward J. Ray and Eddie G. Hollingsworth, "Subsonic Characteris­tics of a Twin-Jet Swept-Wing Fighter Model with Maneuvering Devices," NASA TN-D-6921 (1973).

1 3. Funds cited in then-year dollars.

1 4. Aeronautical System Division/Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory Symposium on Stall/Post – Stall/Spin, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Dec. 15-17, 1971.

1 5. The significance of the Dayton symposium cannot be overstated. It was one of the most critical high- angle-of-attack meetings ever held, in view of the national R&D mobilization that occurred in its wake.

1 6. Key individuals at NASA Headquarters included William S. Aiken, Jr., Gerald G. Kayten,

AJ. Evans, and Jack Levine.

1 7. William P. Gilbert and Charles E. Libby, "Investigation of an Automatic Spin Prevention System for Fighter Airplanes," NASA TN-D-6670 (1972).

1 8. For individual details and references for Langley’s activities, see Chambers, Partners in Freedom. 1 9. Gilbert, Luat T. Nguyen, and Roger W. Van Gunst, "Simulator Study of Automatic Departure-

and Spin-Prevention Concepts to a Variable-Sweep Fighter Airplane,’ NASA TM-X-2928 (1973). Although the initial concept had been identified in 1972, over 20 years would pass before the concept was implemented in the F-14 fleet. During that time, over 35 F-14s were lost because of departure from controlled flight and the flat spin.

[1292] Nguyen, Gilbert, Joseph Gera, Kenneth W. Iliff, and Einar K. Enevoldson, "Application of High – Alpha Control System Concepts to a Variable-Sweep Fighter Airplane,’ AIAA Paper 80-1582 (1980).

[1293] For an account of the background and development of the F-14 DFCS, see "F-1 4 Tomcat Upgrades’ GlobalSecurity. Org, http://www. globalsecurily. org/military/systems/aircraft/f-14- upgrades. htm, accessed June, 5, 2009.

[1294] The F-1 4 ARI scenario is in direct contrast to the beneficial "cradle-to-grave" technology partici­pation that the NACA and NASA enjoyed during the development of the Century series fighters.

[1295] Gilbert, "Free-Flight Investigation of Lateral-Directional Characteristics of a 0.1 0-Scale Model of the F-15 Airplane at High Angles of Attack,’ NASA TM-SX-2807 (1973).

[1296] Euclid C. Holleman, "Summary of Flight Tests to Determine the Spin and Controllability Characteristics of a Remotely Piloted, Large-Scale (3/8) Fighter Airplane Model,’ NASA TN-D – 8052 (1976).

[1297] Steve Davies and Doug Dildy, F-15 Eagle Engaged: The Worlds Most Successful Jet Fighter (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007), pp. 82-83.

[1298] NASA’s participation had begun with the YF-16 program, during which testing in the Full-Scale Tunnel, Spin Tunnel, and 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel contributed to the airframe shaping and control system design. For an example, see Newsom, Anglin, and Grafton, "Free-Flight Investigation of a 0.15-Scale Model of the YF-16 Airplane at High Angle of Attack,’ NASA TM-SX-3279 (1975).

[1299] Gilbert, Nguyen, and Van Gunst, "Simulator Study of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Control System Designed to Improve the High-Angle-of-Attack Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane.’

[1300] Nguyen, Marilyn E. Ogburn, Gilbert, Kemper S. Kibler, Philip W. Brown, and Perry L. Deal, ‘Simulator Study of Stall/Post Stall Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane With Relaxed Longitudinal Stability,’ NASA TP-1538 (1979).

[1301] For examples, see reports by Thomas R. Sisk and Neil W. Matheny, "Precision Controllability of the F-15 Airplane," NASA TM-72861 (1979), and "Precision Controllability of the YF-17 Airplane," NASA TP-1677 (1980).

[1302] Daniel G. Murri, Nguyen, and Grafton, "Wind-Tunnel Free-Flight Investigation of a Model of a Forward-Swept Wing Fighter Configuration,’ NASA TP-2230 (1984); David J. Fratello, Croom, Nguyen, and Christopher S. Domack, "Use of the Updated NASA Langley Radio-Controlled Drop – Model Technique for High-Alpha Studies of the X-29A Configuration,’ AIAA Paper 1987-2559 (1987).

[1303] Neihouse, et al., "Status of Spin Research’ NASA TR-R-57; Fremaux, "Wind-Tunnel Parametric Investigation of Forebody Devices for Correcting Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Characteris­tics at Spinning Attitudes,’ NASA CR-198321 (1996).

[1304] Raymond D. Whipple, Croom, and Scott P. Fears, "Preliminary Results of Experimental and Analytical Investigations of the Tumbling Phenomenon for an Advanced Configuration,’ AIAA Paper 84-2108 (1984).

[1305] Fratello, et al., "Updated Radio-Controlled Drop-Model Technique for the X-29A,’ AIAA Paper 1987-2559.

[1306] Iliff and Kon-Sheng Charles Wang, "X-29A Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives Extracted from High-Angle-Of-Attack Flight Data,’ NASA TP-3664 (1996).

[1307] John H. Del Frate and John Saltzman, "In-Flight Flow Visualization Results From the X-29A Aircraft at High Angles of Attack," NASA TM-4430 (1992).

[1308] The advocates and planners for the NASA program were Chambers (Langley),

Kenneth J. Szalai (Dryden), and Leroy L. Pressley (Ames).

[1309] Szalai, "Cooperation, Not Competition,’ NASA Dryden X-Press newspaper, Issue 96-06, June 1996, p. 4.

[1310] Chambers, Partners in Freedom, p. 108.

[1311] Albion H. Bowers, et al., "An Overview of the NASA F-1 8 High Alpha Research Vehicle, NASA CP-1998-207676 (1998).

[1312] Norman Lynn, “High Alpha: Key to Combat Survival?’ Flight International, Nov. 7, 1987; William B. Scott, “NASA Adds to Understanding of High Angle of Attack Regime,’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, May 22, 1989, pp. 36-42; Gilbert, Nguyen, and Gera, “Control Research in the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program,’ in NATO, AGARD (Aerodynamics of Combat Aircraft Controls and of Ground Effects) (1990).

[1313] Farhad Ghaffari, et al., “Navier-Stokes Solutions About the F/A-1 8 Forebody-LEX Configuration,’ NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, vol. 1, sessions 1-6, pp. 361-383 (1989).

[1314] Bowers, et al., "Overview of the NASA F-1 8 High Alpha Research Vehicle," NASA CP-1998­207676 (1998).

[1315] Robert M. Hall, et al., "Overview of HATP Experimental Aerodynamics Data for the Baseline F/A-1 8 Configuration," NASA TM-1 1 2360 (1996); David F. Fisher, et al., "In-Flight Flow Visualiza­tion Characteristics of the NASA F-1 8 High Alpha Research Vehicle at High Angles of Attack," NASA TM-4193 (1991).

[1316] Marilyn E. Ogburn, et al., "Status of the Validation of High-Angle-of-Attack Nose-Down Pitch Control Margin Design Guidelines," AIAA Paper No. 93-3623 (1993).

[1317] Murri, Gautam H. Shah, Daniel J. DiCarlo, and Todd W. Trilling, "Actuated Forebody Strake Controls for the F-1 8 High-Alpha Research Vehicle,’ Journal of Aircraft, vol. 32, no. 3 (1995), pp. 555-562.

[1318] The HATP program produced hundreds of publications covering aerodynamics, control concepts, handling qualities, aerostructural interactions, flight instrumentation, thrust vectoring, wind tunnel test techniques, inlet operation, and summaries of flight investigations. Conference proceed­ings of the High Alpha Conferences were published as NASA CP-3149 (1990), NASA CP-10143 (1994), and NASA CP-1998-207676 (1998). The volumes are unclassified but limited in distribu­tion by International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions.

[1319] Chambers, Partners in Freedom, pp. 216-218.

[1320] Fisher, et al., "Reynolds Number of Effects at High Angles of Attack," NASA TP-1 99 8­206553 (1998).

[1321] The most notable foreign advances in high-alpha technology have come from Russia, where close working relationships between the military and the TsAGI Central Aerodynamic Institute have focused on providing exceptional high-alpha maneuverability for the latest MiG and Sukhoi aircraft. Current products such as the Su-35 employ multiaxis thrust vectoring and carefully tuned high-alpha aerodynamics for outstanding capability.

[1322] Letter from James A. Blackwell, Lockheed vice president and general manager of the Lockheed ATF Office, to Richard H. Petersen, Director of the NASA Langley Research Center, Mar. 1 2, 1991.

[1323] The F-22 has outstanding capabilities at high angles of attack. However, for a number of reasons, the aircraft was designed with thrust vectoring only in pitch. Based on NASA fundamental high-alpha research on many configurations, yaw vectoring would significantly increase high-alpha maneuverability.

[1324] Chambers, Partners in Freedom. pp. 45-46.

[1325] Croom, Holly M. Kenney, and Murri, "Research on the F/A-1 8E/F Using a 22%-Dynamically – Scaled Drop Model," AIAA Paper 2000-3913 (2000).

[1326] Robert M. Hall, Shawn H. Woodson, and Chambers, "Accomplishments of the Abrupt Wing Stall Program and Future Research Requirements," AIAA Paper 2003-0927 (2003).

[1327] Ibid.; Francis J. Capone, D. Bruce Owens, and Hall, "Development of a Free-to-Roll Transonic Test Capability," AIAA Paper 2003-0749 (2003); Owens, Jeffrey K. McConnell, Jay M. Brandon, and Hall, "Transonic Free-To-Roll Analysis of the F/A-1 8E and F-35 Configurations," AIAA Paper 2004-5053 (2003).

[1328] Hall, Fremaux, and Chambers, "Introduction to Computational Methods for Stability and Con­trol (COMSAC)," http://ntrs. nasa. gov/archive/nasa/casi. ntrs. nasa. gov/ 200.400.84128_200.408.6282.pdf, accessed Sept. 10, 2009.

[1329] Bradford E. Green and James J. Chung, "Transonic Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations on Preproduction F/A-1 8E for Stability and Control," AIAA Journal of Aircraft, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 420-426 (2007); Green, "Computational Prediction of Roll Damping for the F/A-1 8E at Transonic Speeds," AIAA Paper 2008-6379 (2008).

[1330] . John J. Schneider, "The History of V/STOL Aircraft," (two parts) Vertifiite, vol. 29, nos. 3-4 (Mar.-Apr. and May-June, 1983), pp. 22-29, 36-43.

[1331] For NACA work on autogiros, see J. B. Wheatley, "Lift and Drag Characteristics and Gliding Performance of an Autogiro as Determined In Flight,’ NACA Report 434 (1932); Wheatley, "An Aerodynamic Analysis of the Autogiro Rotor With Comparison Between Calculated and Experimen­tal Results,’ NACA Report 487 (1934).

[1332] Michael J. Hirschberg, The American Helicopter: An Overview of Helicopter Developments in America, 1908-1999 (Arlington, VA: ANSER, 1999); and Col. H. F. Gregory, Anything a Horse Can Do (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1944). NACA-NASA contributions to helicopter develop­ment are examined in a separate case study in volume one of this work, by John F. Ward.

[1333] Edgar C. Wood, "The Army Helicopter, Past, Present and Future,’ Journal of the American Helicopter Society, vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1956), pp 87-92; and Lt. Gen. John J. Tolson, Airmobilily 1961-1971, a volume in the U. S. Army Vietnam: Studies series (Washington, DC: U. S. Army, 1973).

[1334] F. B. Gustafson, "History of NACA/NASA Rotating-Wing Aircraft Research, 1915-1970,’ Vertiflite, Reprint VF-70 (Apr. 1971), pp. 1 -27; John F. Ward, "An Updated History of NACA/NASA Rotary­Wing Aircraft Research 1915-1984,’ Vertiflite, vol. 30, no. 4 (May-June 1984), pp. 108-117.

[1335] See Stephan Wilkinson, "Going Vertical,’ Air & Space, vol. 11, no. 4 (Oct.-Nov. 1996), pp. 50-61; and Ray Wagner, American Combat Planes (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.,

1982 ed.), pp. 396-397, 515, and 529-530 for details on these aircraft.

[1336] John J. Schneider, "The History of V/STOL Aircraft,’ pt. 2, Vertiflite, vol. 29, no. 4 (May-June 1983), p. 36.

[1337] C. H. Zimmerman, Paul R. Hill, and T. L. Kennedy, "Preliminary Experimental Investigation of the Flight of a Person Supported by a Jet Thrust Device Attached to his Feet,’ NACA RM-L52D10 (1953); Robert H. Kirby, "Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Verti­cally Rising Airplane Research Model with Swept or Unswept Wings and x or + Tails,’ NACA TN-3312 (1956).

[1338] Maurice D. White, Bernard A. Schlaff, and Fred J. Drinkwater, III, "A Comparison of Flight – Measured Carrier-Approach Speeds with Values Predicted by Several Different Criteria for 41 Fighter-Type Airplane Configurations,’ NACA RM-A57L1 1 (1958).

1 0. Edwin P. Hartman, Adventures in Research, A History of Ames Research Center, 1940-1965, NASA SP-4302 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1970), p. 352.

[1340] L. Stewart Rolls and Robert C. Innis, "A Flight Evaluation of a Wing-Shroud-Blowing Boundary – Layer Control System Applied to the Flaps of an F9F-4 Airplane,’ NACA RM-A55K01 (1956);

Seth B. Anderson, Hervey C. Quigley, and Robert C. Innis, "Flight Measurements of the Low-Speed Characteristics of a 35° Swept-Wing Airplane with Blowing-Type Boundary-Layer Control on the Trailing-Edge Flaps,’ NACA RM-A56G30 (1956); George E. Cooper and Robert C. Innis, "Effect of Area-Suction-Type Boundary-Layer Control on the Landing-Approach Characteristics of a 35° Swept-Wing Fighter,’ NACA RM-A55K14 (1957); Hervey C. Quigley, Seth B. Anderson, and Robert C. Innis, "Flight Investigation of the Low-Speed Characteristics of a 45° Swept-Wing Fighter – Type Airplane with Blowing Boundary-Layer Control Applied to the Trailing-Edge Flaps,’ NACA RM-A58E05 (1958).

1 2. Seth B. Anderson, Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer: Flight Testing at Ames Research Center, 1940-1970, NASA SP-2002-4526, No. 26 in the Monographs in Aerospace History series (Washington, DC: GPO, 2002), p. 29; Robert C. Innis and Hervey C. Quigley, "A Flight Examination of Operating Problems of V/STOL Aircraft in STOL-Type Landing and Approach,’ NASA TN-D-862 (1961); Hartman, Adventures in Research, p. 354; Paul F. Borchers,

James A. Franklin, and Jay W. Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames: Fifty-Seven Years of Develop­ment and Validation of Aeronautical Technology, NASA SP-1998-3300 (Moffett Field, CA: Ames Research Center, 1998), Table 8, p. 49.

1 3. Hervey C. Quigley and Robert C. Innis, "Handling Qualities and Operational Problems of a Large Four-Propeller STOL Transport Airplane," NASA TN-D-1647 (1963), p. 4.

[1343] Fred J. Drinkwater, III, L. Stewart Rolls, Edward L. Turner, and Hervey C. Quigley, "V/STOL Han­dling Qualities as Determined by Flight Test and Simulation Techniques," paper presented at the 3rd

International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1962, NTIS Report 62N12456 (1962), pp. 1 2-1 3.

1 5. Quigley and Innis, "Handling Qualities and Operational Problems of a Large Four-Propeller

STOL Transport Airplane,’ p. 7.

[1346] Curt A. Holzhauser, Robert C. Innis, and Richard F. Vomaske, "A Flight and Simulator Study of the Handling Qualities of a Deflected Slipstream STOL Seaplane Having Four Propellers and Boundary-Layer Control," NASA TN-D-2966 (1965).

[1347] Barry C. Scott, Charles S. Hynes, Paul W. Martin, and Ralph B. Bryder, "Progress Toward Development of Civil Airworthiness Criteria for Powered-Lift Aircraft," FAA-RD-76-100 and NASA TM-X-731 24 (1976), pp. 2-3.

[1348] Hervey C. Quigley, Robert C. Innis, and Curt A. Holzhauser, "A Flight Investigation of the Performance, Handling Qualities, and Operational Characteristics of a Deflected Slipstream STOL Transport Airplane Having Four Interconnected Propellers," NASA TN-D-2231 (1964), p. 19;

Seth B. Anderson, Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer: Flight Testing at Ames Research Center, 1940-1970 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2002), pp. 41-42.

[1349] NASA test pilots from Langley and Ames participated in an 1 1-hour flight-test program in the German Dornier DO-31, a 1 0-jet-engine, 50,000-pound VTOL transport. The tests concentrated on transition, approaches, and vertical landing. Though a vectored and direct-lift thrust system, it is included here to show the international sweep of NASA research in the V/STOL field.

[1350] Theodore von Karman, Aerodynamics (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Publishing Co., 1963 ed.), pp. 32-34; Michael Eckert, The Dawn of Fluid Dynamics (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2006), p. 1 75; and Jan A. van der Bliek, 75 Years of Aerospace Research in the Nether­lands, 1919-1994 (Amsterdam: NLR, 1994), p. 20.

[1351] Elliott G. Reid, "Tests of Rotating Cylinders," NACA TN-209 (1924); E. B. Wolff "Tests for Deter­mining the Effect of a Rotating Cylinder Fitted into the Leading Edge of an Airplane Wing," NACA TM-354 (1926); Kurt Frey, "Experiments with Rotating Cylinders in Combination with Airfoils," NACA TM-382 (1926).

[1352] Wolff, "Tests for Determining the Effect of a Rotating Cylinder," p. 1.

[1353] Jakob Ackeret, Das Rotorschiff und seine physikalischen Grundlagen (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1925), pp. 34-48.

[1354] Alberto Alvarez-Calderon, "VTOL and the Rotating Cylinder Flap," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 107, no. 1 (Mar. 1963), pp. 249-255; see also his later "Rotating Cylinder Flaps for V/STOL: Some Aspects of an Investigation into the Rotating Cylinder Flap High Lift System for V/STOL Aircraft Conducted Jointly by the Peruvian Air Force and The National University of Engineering of Peru," Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 36, no. 10 (Oct. 1964), pp. 304-309.

[1355] Leonard Roberts and Wallace R. Deckert, "Recent Progress in VSTOL Technology,’ NASA TM-84238 (1982), pp. 3-4.

[1356] Engineering abbreviation for lift coefficient.

[1357] James A. Weiberg, Demo Giulianetti, Bruno Gambucci, and Robert C. Innis, "Takeoff and Landing Performance and Noise Measurements of a Deflected Slipstream STOL Airplane with Inter­connected Propellers and Rotating Cylinder Flaps," NASA TM-X-62320 (1973), p. 9.

[1358] Ibid., p. 1.

[1359] D. R. Cichy, J. W. Harris, and J. K. MacKay, "Flight Tests of A Rotating Cylinder Flap on a North American Rockwell YOV-10 Aircraft," NASA CR-2135 (1972), pp. ii and 17-1 8; re: addition of vertical fin root extensions, see David Willis, "North American Bronco," Aeroplane, vol. 38, no. 1 (Jan. 2010), p. 63.

[1360] D. D. Few, "A Perspective on 1 5 Years of Proof-of-Concept Aircraft Development and Flight Research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1 985,’ NASA RP-1 1 87 (1987), p. 7.

[1361] Weiberg, Giulianetti, Gambucci, and Innis, "Takeoff and Landing Performance and Noise Measurements of a Deflected Slipstream STOL Airplane,’ p. 9; Roberts and Deckert, "Recent Prog­ress in VSTOL Technology,’ p. 4.

[1362] M. H. Schmitt, "Remarks on the Paper of Mr. D. C. Whittley (Paper no. 1 3): Some Aspects of Propulsion for the Augmentor Wing Concept,’ NASA TT-F-14005 (1971), pp. 1 -9; W. S. Hindson and G. Hardy, "A Summary of Joint US-Canadian Augmentor Wing Powered-Lift STOL Research programs at the Ames Research Center, NASA, 1975-1980,’ NASA TM-81 215 (1980).

[1363] W. L. Cook and D. C. Whittley, "Comparison of Model and Flight Test Data for an Aug­mented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft,’ NASA TM-X-62491 (1975); Few, "A Perspective on 15 Years of Proof-of-Concept Aircraft,’ pp. 7-8; Roberts and Deckert, "Recent Progress in VSTOL Technology,’ p. 5.

[1364] E. H. Kemper and D. J. Renselaer, "CV-7A Transport Aircraft Modification to Provide an Augmen­tor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft, v. 1: Design Study," NASA CR-73321 (1969).

[1365] Few, "A Perspective on 1 5 Years of Proof-of-Concept Aircraft,’ pp. 7-8.

[1366] Hervey C. Quigley, Robert C. Innis, and Seth Grossmith, "A Flight Investigation of the STOL Characteristics of an Augmented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft,’ NASA TM-X-62334 (1974); Richard F. Vomaske, Robert C. Innis, Brian E. Swan, and Seth W. Grossmith, "A Flight Investigation of the Stability, Control, and Handling Qualities of an Augmented Jet Flap STOL Airplane,’ NASA TP-1254 (1978); L. T. Dufraimont, "Evaluation of the Augmentor-Wing Jet STOL Aircraft,’ NASA CR-169853 (1980).

[1367] Roberts and Deckert, "Recent Progress in VSTOL Technology,’ p. 5.

[1368] DeLamar M. Watson, Gordon H. Hardy, and David N. Warner, Jr., "Flight Test of the Glide – Slope Track and Flare-Control Laws for an Automatic Landing System for a Powered-Lift STOL Airplane,’ NASA TP-2128 (1983); James A. Franklin and Robert C. Innis, "Longitudinal Handling Qualities During Approach and Landing of a Powered Lift STOL Aircraft,’ NASA TM-X-62144 (1972); Elizabeth A. Muenger, Searching the Horizon: A History of Ames Research Center, 1940-1976, NASA SP-4304 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1985), p. 272.

[1369] Albert W. Hall, Kalman J. Grunwald, and Perry L. Deal, "Flight Investigation of Performance Characteristics During Landing Approach of a Large Powered-Lift Jet Transport,’ NASA TN-D-4261 (1967); T. N. Aiken and A. M. Cook, "Results of Full-Scale Wind tunnel Tests on the H.1 26 Jet Flap Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-7252 (1973); I. M. Davidson, "The Jet Flap,’ Journal of the Royal Aeronauti­cal Society, vol. 60, no. 541 (Jan. 1956), pp. 25-50; and D. A. Spence, "The Flow Past a Thin Wing with an Oscillating Jet Flap,’ Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 257, no. 1085 (June 3, 1965), pp. 445-477.

[1370] John P. Campbell, "Overview of Powered-Lift Technology,’ in NASA LRC, "Powered-Lift Aero­dynamics and Acoustics: A Conference Held at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, May 24-26, 1976,’ NASA SP-406 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1976), pp. 2-3.

[1371] Campbell, "Overview of Powered-Lift Technology,’ p. 3; for early studies, see Thomas R. Turner, Edwin E. Davenport, and John M. Riebe, "Low-Speed Investigation of Blowing from Nacelles Mounted Inboard and on the Upper Surface of an Aspect-Ratio-7.0 35° Swept Wing With Fuselage and Various Tail Arrangements,’ NASA Memo 5-1-59L (1 959); Domenic J. Maglieri

and Harvey H. Hubbard, "Preliminary Measurements of the Noise Characteristics of Some Jet – Augmented-Flap Configurations,’ NASA Memo 12-4-58L (1959).

[1372] Joseph R. Chambers, Innovation in Flight, NASA SP-2005-4539 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2005), p. 174.

[1373] Chambers details Langley’s progression from EBF to USB in his Innovation in Flight, pp. 173­181. See also Arthur E. Phelps, III, William Letko, and Robert L. Henderson, "Low Speed Wind – Tunnel Investigation of a Semispan STOL Jet Transport Wing-Body with an Upper-Surface Blown Jet Flap," NASA TN-D-71 83 (1973); Phelps and Charles C. Smith, Jr., "Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Upper Surface Blown Jet-Flap Powered-Lift Configuration," NASA TN-D-7399 (1973); Phelps, ‘Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Twin-Engine Straight Wing Upper Surface Blown Jet Flap Configura­tion," NASA TN-D-7778 (1975); William C. Sleeman, Jr., and William C. Hohlweg, "Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Four-Engine Upper Surface Blown Model Having a Swept Wing and Rectangular and D-Shaped Exhaust Nozzles," NASA TN-D-8061 (1975).

[1374] E. J. Montoya and A. E. Faye, Jr., "NASA Participation in the AMST Program," in NASA LRC Staff, "Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics: A Conference Held at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, May 24-26, 1976," NASA SP-406 (1976), pp. 465-478.

[1375] M. D. Shovlin and J. A. Cochrane, "An Overview of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Pro­gram," NASA TM-78545 (1978); Roberts and Deckert, "Recent Progress in VSTOL Technology," p. 6.

[1376] J. A. Cochrane, D. W. Riddle, and V. C. Stevens, "Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft—TheFirst Three Years of Flight Research," AIAA Paper 81-2625 (1981); J. A. Cochrane, D. W. Riddle, V. C. Stevens, and M. D. Shovlin, "Selected Results from the Quite Short-Haul Research Aircraft Flight Research Program," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 19, no. 12 (Dec. 1982), pp. 1076-1082; Joseph C. Eppel,

Dennis W. Riddle, and Victor C. Stevens, "Flight Measured Downwash of the QSRA," NASA TM – 101050 (1988); Jack D. Stephenson and Gordon H. Hardy, "Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)," NASA TP-2965 (1989);

Jack D. Stephenson, James A. Jeske, and Gordon H. Hardy, "Lateral-Directional Stability and Con­trol Characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)," NASA TM-102250 (1990).

[1377] Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, pp. 187-189; Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 1 88-1 89.

[1378] Quote from Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 1 87; V. C. Stevens, D. W. Riddle, J. L. Martin, and R. C. Innis, "Powered-lift STOL Aircraft Shipboard Operations—a Comparison of Simulation, Land-based and Sea Trial Results for the QSRA,’ AIAA Paper 81 -2480 (1981); Roberts and Deckert, "Recent Progress in VSTOL Technology,’ p. 7; David D. Few, "A Perspective on 1 5 Years of Proof-of-Concept Aircraft,’ p. 11.

[1379] Author’s recollections; Glenn E. Bugos, Atmosphere of Freedom, Sixty Years at the Ames Research Center, NASA SP-4314 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2000), p. 1 39.

[1380] John L. Loth, "Why Have Only Two Circulation-Controlled STOL Aircraft Been Built and Flown in Years 1 974-2004?’ in Gregory S. Jones and Ronald D. Joslin, eds., Proceedings of the 2004 NASA/ONR Circulation Control Workshop, NASA CP-2005-213509/PTI (Washington, DC: NASA, 2005), pp. 603-615; Robert J. Englar, "Development of the A-6/Circulation Control Wing Flight Demonstrator Configuration,’ U. S. Navy DTNSRDC Report ASED-79/01 (1979).

[1381] Robert J. Englar, "Development of Circulation Control Technology for Powered-Lift STOL Aircraft,’ and Dennis W. Riddle and Joseph C. Eppel, "A Potential Flight Evaluation of an Upper-Surface- Blowing/Circulation-Control-Wing Concept,’ both in NASA ARC, "Proceedings of the Circulation Control Workshop, 1986,’ NASA CP-2432 (1986); R. J. Englar, J. H. Nichols, Jr., M. J. Harris,

J. C. Eppel, and M. D. Shovlin, "Circulation Control Technology Applied to Propulsive High Lift Systems,’ Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Paper 841497, in Society of Automotive Engineers, V/STOL: An Update and Overview (Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1984), pp. 31-43.

[1382] Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 78; Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL, pp. 97-9-8.

[1383] Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 56.

[1384] Drinkwater, Rolls, Turner, and Quigley, "V/STOL Handling Qualities as Determined by Flight Test and Simulation Techniques,’ p. 15.

[1385] Turner and Drinkwater, "Some Flight Characteristics of a Deflected Slipstream VSTOL Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-1 891 (1963), p. 9; Turner and Drinkwater, "Longitudinal-Trim Characteristics of a Deflected Slipstream V/STOL Aircraft During Level Flight at Transition Flight Speeds,’ NASA TN-D-1430 (1962).

[1386] Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 19; Schneider, "The History of V/STOL,’ p. 36; Air­craft Industries Association, The Aircraft Year Book for 1959 (Washington, DC: American Aviation Publications, Inc., 1959), p. 447.

[1387] Donald L. Mallick, with Peter W. Merlin, The Smell of Kerosene: A Test Pilot’s Odyssey, NASA SP-4108 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2003), p. 55.

[1388] John P. Reeder, "Handling Qualities Experience with Several VTOL Research Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-735 (1961); Seth B. Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ NASA TM-81 280 (1981), pp. 8-9.

[1389] John P. Reeder, "Handling Qualities Experience with Several VTOL Research Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-735 (1961), p. 8.

[1390] Robert J. Pegg, "Summary of Flight-Test Results of the VZ-2 Tilt-Wing Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-989

(1962); Pegg, "Flight-Test Investigation of Ailerons as a Source of Yaw Control on the VZ-2 Tilt-Wing Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-1 375 (1962).

[1391] Jay Miller, The X-Planes: X-1 to X-45 (Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing, 2001 ed.), pp. 219-222.

[1392] Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 50.

[1393] More popularly known as the Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) XC-1 42A after the merger of Vought with these other partners.

[1394] Stuart G. Madison, "First Twelve Months of Flight of the XC-142A Program,’ Technical Review (of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots), vol. 7, no. 4 (1965), p. 20.

[1395] Recollection of USAF XC-142A project test pilot Jesse Jacobs to Richard P. Hallion in an e-mail on Dec. 19, 2009.

[1396] USAF Scientific Advisory Board, "Report of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board Aerospace Vehicles Panel,’ Feb. 1968, p. 4, copy in the office files of the SAB, Headquarters USAF, Pentagon, Washington, DC. The amount of $1 1 million in 1961 is approximately $355 million in 2009; $115 million in 1963 is approximately $813 million in 2009.

[1397] Ibid., p. 4.

[1398] USAF SAB, "Report of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board Aerospace Vehicles Panel,’ pp. 3-4.

[1399] Quoted from Seth B. Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ NASA TM-81280 (1981), pp. 9-10-9-1 1; W. P. Nelms and S. B. Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States — Past, Present, and Future,’ NASA TM-85938 (1984).

[1400] Henry L. Kelley, John P. Reeder, and Robert A. Champine, "Summary of a Flight-Test Evaluation of the CL-84 Tilt-Wing V/STOL Aircraft,’ NASA TM-X-1914 (1970). For the CL-84, see W. S. Longhurst, "Initial Development and Testing of Tilt-Wing V/STOL,’ Technical Review (of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots), vol. 7, no. 4 (1965), pp. 34-41; Frederick C. Phillips, "The Canadair CL-84 Tilt-Wing V/STOL Programme,’ The Aeronautical Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, vol. 73, no. 704 (Aug. 1969); Frederick C. Phillips, "Lessons Learned: The Development of the Canadair CL-84 Dynavert Experimental V/STOL Research Aircraft,’ Canadian Aviation Historical Society Journal, vol. 30, no. 3 (fall 1992).

[1401] Developed as a private venture by the Vanguard Air and Marine Corporation, the Omniplane had a ducted pusher propeller for forward flight, with two lift fans built into its wings. A Lycoming 0-540 520-horsepower piston engine was geared to run both the fans for vertical lift and the pusher propeller to enable transition and forward flight. The Omniplane was completed in 1959. Tests in the Ames 40-foot by 80-foot tunnel unveiled serious deficiencies, with the Omniplane subsequently receiv­ing a more powerful Lycoming YT53 turboshaft engine and a nose lift fan for pitch control. Ground trials followed in 1961, but a fan driveshaft failure so damaged the vehicle that the program was subsequently abandoned. The technical heir to this approach to ducted lift-fan/pitch-control-fan V/STOL, the Ryan XV-5, is discussed subsequently. See Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 105.

[1402] Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States,’ p. 3.

[1403] Reeder, "Handling Qualities Experience with Several VTOL Research Aircraft,’ pp. 2, 4, 6, 8; Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ p. 9-8.

[1404] Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States,’ p. 3.

[1405] Technical data on the X-22A and its development are well-covered in Miller, The X-Planes, pp. 249-255.

[1406] Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States,’ p. 4.

[1407] Daniel J. March, "VTOL Flat-Risers: Lockheed XV-4 and Ryan/GE XV-5,’ International Air Power Review, vol. 16 (2005), pp. 118-1 27. See, for example, Adolph Atencio, Jr., Jerry V. Kirk,

Paul T. Soderman, and Leo P. Hall, "Comparison of Flight and Wind tunnel Measurements of Jet Noise for the XV-5B Aircraft,’ NASA TM-X-62182 (1972); D. L. Stimpert, "Effect of Crossflow Velocity on VTOL Lift Fan Blade Passing Frequency Noise Generation,’ NASA CR-1 14566 (1973); Ronald M. Gerdes and Charles S. Hynes, "Factors Affecting Handling Qualities of a Lift-Fan Aircraft during Steep Terminal Area Approaches,’ NASA TM-X-62424 (1975).

81 . Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States,’ p. 4.

[1409] Paul M. Bevilaqua, "Genesis of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter,’ Journal of Aircraft, vol. 46, no.

6 (Nov.-Dec. 2009), pp. 1 826, 1 832. Tim Naumowicz, Richard Margason, Doug Wardwell, Craig Hange, and Tom Arledge, "Comparison of Aero/Propulsion Transition Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration,’ paper presented at the International Powered Lift Conference, West Palm Beach, FL, Nov. 18-21, 1996; David W. Lewis, "Lift Fan Nozzle for Joint Strike Fighter Tested in NASA Lewis’ Powered Lift Rig,’ in NASA Research and Technology 1997(Apr. 1998).

[1410] Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 58.

[1411] Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 15; Stu Fitrell and Hank Caruso, eds., X-traordinary Planes, X-traordinary Pilots: Historic Adventures in Flight Testing (Lancaster: Society of Experimental Test Pilots Foundation, 2008), p. 48.

[1412] Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ p. 9-7; Fitrell and Hank Caruso, eds., X-traordinary Planes, X-traordinary Pilots, p. 48.

[1413] Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ p. 9-7.

[1414] Ibid., p. 9-8; for earlier propeller side force studies, see Herbert S. Ribner, "Formulas

for Propellers in Yaw and Charts of the Side-Force Derivative,’ NACA WR-L-217 (originally ARR – 3E19) (1943).

[1415] Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ p. 9-8; Miller, The X-Planes, pp. 225-226; Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, p. 29.

[1416] Quotes from John P. Reeder, "Handling Qualities Experience with Several VTOL Research Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-735 (1961), pp. 4-5, 7, 11.

[1417] Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States,’ p. 4; Miller, The X-Planes, pp. 227-228.

[1418] Martin D. Maisel and Lt. Col. Clifford M. McKeithan, "Tilt-Rotor Aircraft,’ Army Research, Devel­opment & Acquisition Magazine (May-June 1980), pp. 1-2; Daniel C. Dugan, Ronald G. Erhart, and Laurel G. Schroers, "The XV-1 5 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft,’ NASA TM-81 244, AVRADCOM TR-80-A-15 (1980).

[1419] Few, "A Perspective on 1 5 Years of Proof-of-Concept Aircraft Development and Flight Research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1 970-1985,’ NASA RP-1 187 (1987), p. 9. For XV-15 background and development, see Martin D. Maisel,

Demo J. Giulianetti, and Daniel C. Dugan, The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft From Concept to Flight, NASA SP-2000-451 7, No. 17 in the Monographs in Aerospace History series (Washington, DC: GPO, 2000), pp. 26-41. As well, Bell had won a NASA design study contract (NASA V/STOL Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Study, Contract NAS2-6599) for a "representative military and/ or commercial tilt-proprotor aircraft.’ The company designated this the Model D302. It could carry 40 passengers 400 nautical miles at 348 knots and 30,000 feet, or 48 troops or 5 tons of cargo over a 500-nautical-mile radius at up to 370 knots. See Bell Helicopter Co., "V/STOL Tilt-Rotor Study Task I: Conceptual Design (NASA Contract NAS2-6599),’ vol. 1, Bell Report 300-099-005, NASA CR-1 14441 (1973), p. I-1.

[1420] Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 59.

[1421] Dugan, Erhart, and Schroers, "The XV-15,’ p. 2; Martin D. Maisel and D. J. Harris, "Hover Tests of the XV-1 5 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft,’ AIAA Paper 81-2501 (1981).

[1422] Dugan, Erhart, and Schroers, "The XV-15,’ p. 9.

[1423] Maisel, Giulianetti, and Dugan, History of the XV-15, pp. 89-90, 101-102.

[1424] Ibid., pp. 98-99.

[1425] As is detailed in Maisel, Giulianetti, and Dugan, History of the XV-15, and more briefly treated in Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, pp. 59-61 .

[1426] Brenda Forman, "The V-22 Tiltrotor ‘Osprey:’ The Program That Wouldn’t Die,’ Vertiflite, vol. 39, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1993), pp. 20-23.

1 00. Swanborough, Vertical Flight Aircraft, has data on these.

1 01. H. C.M. Merewether, Prelude to the Harrier: P 1 127 Prototype Flight Testing and Kestrel Evalu­ation (Beirut, Lebanon: HPM Publications, 1998).

[1429] Schneider, "The History of V/STOL Aircraft," pt. 2, p. 41; March, "VTOL Flat-Risers," pp. 118-127.

1 03. Ronald M. Gerdes, "The X-14: 24 Years of V/STOL Flight Testing," Technical Review (of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots), vol. 16, no. 2 (1981), p. 3, and p. 11, Table I; W. P. Nelms and S. B. Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States—Past, Present, and Future," NASA TM – 85938 (1984), p. 2; Schneider, "The History of V/STOL Aircraft," pt. 1, p. 29.

1 04. Anderson, Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer: Flight Testing at Ames Research Center, 1940­1970, No. 26 in the Monographs in Aerospace History series (Washington, DC: GPO, 2002), p. 32.

[1432] Gerdes, "The X-14: 24 Years of V/STOL Flight Testing,’ p. 5.

1 06. Anderson, "Historical Overview of V/STOL Aircraft Technology,’ p. 9-7; Nelms and Anderson, "V/STOL Concepts in the United States—Past, Present, and Future,’ p. 2.

[1434] Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 11.

1 08. Recollection of Hugh Merewether in Merewether, Prelude to the Harrier, p. 1 3. Sadly, Pinier was later killed in a hovering accident with the Mirage Balzac in 1964.

1 09. Frank A. Pauli, Daniel M. Hegarty, and Thomas M. Walsh, "A System for Varying the Stability and Control of a Deflected-Jet Fixed-Wing VTOL Aircraft," NASA TN-D-2700 (1965).

1 10. Total thrust was 3,800 pounds for the X-14, 4,900 for the X-14A, and 5,500 for the X-14B. Gross weight was 3,100 pounds for the X-14, 3,970 for the X-14A, and 4,270 for the X-14B. Thus, thrust to weight ratio for the X-14 was 1.226, 1.234 for the later X-14A, and 1.288 for the eventual X-14B. Computed from Gerdes, "The X-14: 24 Years of V/STOL Flight Testing,’ p. 11, Table I.

[1438] Terrell W. Feistel, Ronald M. Gerdes, and Emmet B. Fry, "An Investigation of a Direct Side-Force Maneuvering System on a Deflected Jet VTOL Aircraft,’ NASA TN-D-5175 (1969), pp. 13-14.

[1439] L. Stewart Rolls and Ronald M. Gerdes, "Flight Evaluation of Tip-Turbine-Driven Fans in a Hovering VTOL Vehicle,’ NASA TN-D-5491 (1969).

1 1 3. Gerdes, "Lift-Fan Aircraft-Lessons Learned: the Pilot’s Perspective," NASA CR-177620 (1993), p. 9.

[1441] At NASA’s Flight Research Center, researchers built an experimental jet – and rocket-powered lunar landing simulator, the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV), which led to a series of Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV). This constituted yet another example of NASA’s creative work in the VTOL field, but, as it was specifically related to the space program, it is not treated further in this essay. See Gene J. Matranga, C. Wayne Ottinger, and Calvin R. Jarvis, with Christian Gelzer, Unconventional, Contrary, and Ugly: The Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, NASA SP-2204-4535, No. 35 in the Monographs in Aerospace History series (Washington, DC: GPO, 2006).

1 15. Anderson, Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer, p. 32.

1 16. Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 57.

1 17. Gerdes, "The X-14: 24 Years of V/STOL Flight Testing," pp. 8-9.

[1445] The author had wide-ranging experience in high-performance naval fighters and sophisticated variable stability aircraft before flying the X-14; for his early flying background, see G. Warren Hall, Demons, Phantoms, and Me: A Love Affair with Flying (Bloomington, IN: 1st Books Library, 2003)—ed.

1 19. Joseph R. Chambers, Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U. S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s, NASA SP-2000-4519 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2000), pp. 13-14. The Air Force had requested NASA tunnel tests of the P. 1 127; see Charles C. Smith, "Flight Tests of a 1/6-Scale Model of the Hawker P 1127 Jet VTOL Airplane," NASA TM-SX-531 (1961). As a result of these trials, the P. 1127 was given pronounced anhedral on its horizontal tail, and ultimately its size was increased as well.

1 20. Mallick, The Smell of Kerosene, p. 55.

1 21. John P. Reeder, Memorandum for Associate Director (of Langley Research Center), Subject: Flight Evaluation by NASA Pilots of the Hawker P-1 1 27 [sic] V/STOL strike-fighter aircraft in Eng­land, July 24, 1 962, copy in NASA Headquarters Historical Division archives.

1 22. Chambers, Partners in Freedom, p. 16; details on the Kestrel are from Francis K. Mason, The Hawker P 1 127and Kestrel, No. 1 98 in the Profile Publications series (Leatherhead, Eng.: Profile

Publications, Ltd., 1967); Richard P. Hallion, "Hawker XV-6A Kestrel," in Lynne C. Murphy, ed., Air­craft of the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976). 1 23. Smith, "Flight Tests of a 1/ 6-Scale Model of the Hawker P 1 1 27"; Reeder, "Flight Evaluation by NASA Pilots of the Hawker P-1 1 27"; Samuel A. Morello, Lee H. Person, Jr., Robert E. Shanks, and Richard G. Culpepper, "A Flight Evaluation of A Vectored-ThrustJet V/STOL Airplane During Simulated Instrument Approaches Using the Kestrel (XV-6A) Airplane," NASA TN-D-6791 (1972); Richard J. Margason, Raymond D. Vogler, and Matthew M. Winston, "Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speeds of a Model of the Kestrel (XV-6A) Vectored-Thrust V/STOL Airplane," NASA TN-D – 6826 (1972); William T. Suit and James L. Williams, "Longitudinal Aerodynamic Parameters of the Kestrel Aircraft (XV-6A) Extracted from Flight Data," NASA TN-D-7296 (1973); Suit and Williams, Lateral Static and Dynamic Aerodynamic Parameters of the Kestrel Aircraft (XV-6A) Extracted from Flight Data," NASA TN-D-7455 (1974).

1 24. Eastman N. Jacobs, "The Drag and Interference of a Nacelle in the Presence of a Wing,’ NACA TN-320 (1929).

1 25. K. V. Stenberg, "YAV-8B Flight Demonstration Program," AIAA Paper 83-1055 (1983).

1 26. Their prolific research is referenced in the recommended readings at the end of this work.

1 27. Ernesto Moralez, III, Vernon K. Merrick, and Jeffrey A. Schroeder, "Simulation Evaluation of the Advanced Control Concept for the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)," AIAA Paper 87-2535 (1987); John D. Foster, Ernesto Moralez, III, James A. Franklin, and Jeffery A. Schroeder, "Integrated Control and Display Research for Transition and Vertical Flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Air­craft (VSRA)," NASA TM-100029 (1987); Paul F. Borchers, Ernesto Moralez, III, Vernon K. Merrick and Michael W. Stortz, "YAV-8B Reaction Control System Bleed and Control Power Usage in Hover and Transition," NASA TM-104021 (1994); D. W. Dorr, Ernesto Moralez, III, and Vernon K. Merrick, "Simulation and Flight Test Evaluation of Head-Up Display Guidance for Harrier Approach Transitions," AIAA Journal of Aircraft, vol. 31, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1994), pp. 1089-1094.

1 28. Borchers, Franklin, and Fletcher, Flight Research at Ames, p. 62. The JSF competition pitted two rival designs, the Boeing X-32, and the Lockheed Martin X-35, against each other for a future joint-service USAF-USN-USMC fighter-bomber. The Marine variant would be a V/STOL. Eventually, the X-35 won, and the JSF moved into development as the F-35.

1 29. Craig E. Hange, "Short Field Take-Off and Landing Performance as an Enabling Technology for a Greener, More Efficient Airspace System,’ Report ARC-E-DAA-TN554, paper presented at the Green Aviation Workshop, NASA Ames Research Center, Apr. 25-26, 2009.

1 30. Excerpted from Gerdes, "Lift-Fan Aircraft-Lessons Learned: the Pilot’s Perspective,’ NASA CR-1 77620 (1993). References to illustrations and figures have been removed.

[1458] . The author gratefully acknowledges the essential and superb support provided by Russ Barber and Glenn Bever, of the Dryden Flight Research Center, and Bruce Jackson, Steve Rizzi, and Donna Amole, of the Langley Research Center. This case study is dedicated to the many diligent professionals in the United States and Russia who made this project a reality and to my wife, Natale, and my sons, Jack and Sam, without whose love and support it could not have been completed.

[1459] Much of the background material for this essay, unless otherwise referenced, comes from the author’s extensive notes and papers related to this program. As one of the NASA research pilots participating in this experiment, the author was a firsthand witness to the events described herein. Where published documents do not exist, interviews and the notes from the other participants were used to complete the account.

[1460] Joseph R. Chambers, Innovation in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics, NASA SP-2005-4539, pp. 49-54. Chambers provides an informative history of supersonic research at NASA from the 1 960s through the High­Speed Research program as well as a complete bibliography.

[1461] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, pp. 58-60.

[1462] Interview of Marvin R. Barber by author, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, July 1, 2009. Russ Barber was the NASA Dryden Project Manager for the Tu-144 flight experiment from Sept.

1 994 through Dec. 1998. He managed the contractual, budget, and support activities and served as an interface between NASA and the contractors, including Boeing and Tupolev.

[1463] Barber, "The Tu-144LL Supersonic Flying Laboratory,’ unpublished, draft NASA study, NASA HD archives, 2000.

[1464] Barber interview.

[1465] Chambers, Innovation in Flight, p. 60.

[1466] Roy V. Harris, Jr., "Tu-1 44LL Flight Experiments Review and Critique,’ NASA HSR Program Office, NASA Langley Research Center (Feb. 9, 1 999). This valuable, unpublished document was a report to the HSR Program Office by a former NASA Langley aerodynamicist and Director of Aeronautics. The HSR Program Office tasked him to independently review the Phase I results, data quality, data uniqueness, and program applicability, and to make recommendations regarding use of the Tu-144LL. Harris was an expert on supersonic flight.

[1467] E-mail interview of Norman H. Princen by author, Apr. 7, 2009.

1 1. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, "The Tu-144LL: A Supersonic Flying Laboratory,’ Inter­net Fact Sheet.

[1469] Ibid.

1 3. Stephen A. Rizzi, "Brief Background of Program and Overview of Experiment,’ unpublished notes, NASA Langley Research Center, June 19, 1998.

1 4. Barber interview.

1 5. Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

[1473] Robert A. Rivers, E. Bruce Jackson, C. Gordon Fullerton, Timothy H. Cox, and

Norman H. Princen, "A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tupolev Tu-1 44 Supersonic Transport,

NASA TM-2000-209850 (Feb. 2000), p. 4.

1 7. Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

1 8. Interview of Fullerton by author, Lancaster, CA, July 1, 2009.

1 9. Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.

[1477] Langley engineer and USPET member Bruce Jackson coined USPET on arrival in Russia as a wordplay between NASA’s penchant for acronyms and the Russian language the team was trying to learn. The name stuck, at least informally.

[1478] Rivers, et al., "A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tu-144," NASA TM-2000-209850, p. 1 8. Complete details of the flight-test planning and preparation for the American-flown flights is provided in that document.

[1479] Howard Moon, Soviet SST: The Technopolitics of the Tupolev-144 (New York: Orion Books,

1 989), pp. 75-88. Moon provides a detailed history of Tupolev’s efforts to build and market the Tu-144 against a background of politics and national pride.

[1480] Paul Duffy and Andrei Kandalov, Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft (Shrewsbury, England: Air – life Publishing, Ltd., 1996), pp. 153-157. Duffy and Kandalov report on the history of the Tupolev Design Bureau and give an account of the development of the Tu-144.

[1481] Duffy and Kandalov, Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft, pp. 153-157.

[1482] Rivers, et al., "A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tu-1 44," NASA TM-2000-209850, p. 2.

[1483] Stephen A. Rizzi, Robert G. Rackl, and Eduard V. Andrianov, "Flight Test Measurements from the Tu-144LL Structure/Cabin Noise Experiment," NASA TM-2000-209858 (Jan. 2000), p. 1.

[1484] A more thorough description can be found in Rivers, et al., "A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tu-144," NASA TM-2000-209850, pp. 4-15. This technical manuscript contains a detailed systems and operations description of the Tu-144, which, as far as is known, is the only extant English description. The systems information was obtained from the author’s extensive notes, taken onsite at the Tupolev test facility in Zhukovsky, Russia, in Sept. 1998. These notes were derived from one-on-one lectures from various Tupolev systems experts, as conveyed through translators. While there may be some minor discrepancies, these systems descriptions should for the most part accurately portray the Tu-144LL. Other than the powerplant and some fuel system modifications, this account describes the generic Tu-144D aircraft as well.

[1485] British Aircraft Corporation, Ltd., Commercial Aircraft Division, An Introduction to the Slender Delta Supersonic Transport (Bristol, England: Printing and Graphic Services, Ltd., 1975), pp. 15-19.

[1486] Barber, "Tu-144LL Reports, Data, and Documentation Disposition,’ NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, July 1 1, 2001.

[1487] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

[1488] Barber, "Tu-144LL Reports, Data, and Documentation Disposition."

[1489] Rizzi, et al., "Structure/Cabin Noise Experiment," NASA TM-2000-209858; Robert G. Rackl and Stephen A. Rizzi, "Structure/Cabin Noise," HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220, TU-144LL Follow On Program, vol. 5 (June 1 999). Unfortunately, the data archival effort received a setback when Boeing, for reasons unknown, discarded much of its HSR documentation on pre-2001 efforts. Barber, "Tu-144LL Reports, Data, and Documentation Disposition."

[1490] E-mail interview of Glenn A. Bever by author, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, May 28, 2009.

[1491] Ibid.

[1492] Ibid.

[1493] The Boeing Company, "Volume 2: Experiment 1.2. Surface/Structure Equilibrium Temperature Verification," Flight Research Using Modified Tu-144 Aircraft, Final Report, HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220 (May 1998). This and the subsequent volumes of the Boeing contractor report, HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220, provide much detail on the six Phase I experiments, while the Follow-On Program Boeing contractor report of June 1999 reports on the Phase II experiments.

[1494] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique."

[1495] The Boeing Company, "Volume 3: Experiment 1.5, Propulsion System Thermal Environment Database," Flight Research Using Modified Tu-144 Aircraft, Final Report, HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220 (May 1998).

[1496] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique."

[1497] The Boeing Company, "Volume 4: Experiment 1 .6, Slender Wing Ground Effects,’ Flight Research Using Modified Ju-144 Aircraft, Final Report, HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220 (May 1998).

[1498] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

[1499] Rizzi, "Brief Background of Program and Overview of Experiments.’

[1500] Rizzi, et al., "Structure/Cabin Noise Experiment,’ NASA TM-2000-209858, pp. 1-5.

[1501] Interview of Donna Amole by author, Hampton, VA, July 3, 2009.

[1502] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

[1503] The Boeing Company, "Volume 7: Experiment 3.3, Cp, Cf, and Boundary Layer Measurements Database,’ Flight Research Using Modified Tu-144 Aircraft, Final Report, HSR-AT Contract No. NAS1-20220 (May 1998).

[1504] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique.’

[1505] Ibid.

[1506] Eugene A. Morrelli, "Low-Order Equivalent System Identification for the Tu-144LL Supersonic Trans­port Aircraft,’ Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 2, (Mar.-Apr. 2003), p. 354.

[1507] Harris, "Flight Experiments Review and Critique."

[1508] Rivers, et al., "A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic Transport," NASA TM-2000-209850, describes flights 20-23 in detail, to include the planning, execution, and results.

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