Lunar Surface Soil Mechanics

The soil mechanics investigation was performed by the surface sampler carried on Surveyor 3 and 7. The sampler proved to be an extremely versatile and useful piece of equipment. Using this device, operators performed a number of bearing and impact tests and trenching operations. All these operations were monitored using the television camera, and photography of the results provided information for this investigation. This type of scientific investigation also continued during the Apollo missions, as Apollo crews performed many observational and sampling tasks related to soil mechanics.

Lunar Surface Electromagnetic Properties

Surveyor 5, 6, and 7 had a magnet attached to one of the spacecraft footpads to determine magnetic properties and composition of the soil. Surveyor 7 had addi­tional magnets on a second footpad and the surface sampler. Photographs showing the amount of dust adhering to magnets indicated the amount of magnetic particles in the soil and allowed estimates of the lunar soil compositions when compared with pre-mission experiment photographs of magnets in terrestrial soils of various compositions. On a larger scale, the ALSEP suite of the Apollo missions carried a lunar surface magnetometer to measure the strength of the Moon’s magnetic field.