Rockwell B-1 Lancer


The B-1B’s designation (В-one) has led to its ‘Bone’ nick-name. As is often the case, its official title of Lancer is almost never used by B-1 В crews.



uffering one of the more protracted develop­ment periods of any recent military aircraft, today’s Rockwell B-1 В Lancer long-range multi-role strategic bomber is derived from the preceding B-1 A design. The R-1A programme was cancelled in 1977, and then resurrected in September 1981 with an order for 100 B-1 Bs. The design features a nlended low-wing/body configuration with VG outer wing panels and advanced high-lift devices, four GE Fi01 turbofans (mounted in pairs below the wing} with fixed intake geometry, a strengthened landing gear, three internal weapons bays, optional weapons bay fuel tanks for increased range, and external under fuselage stores stations for additional fuel or weapons. A moveable bulkhead in the forward weapons bay allows for the carriage of a diverse range of different sized weapons including ALCMs. The low-altitude, high-speed penetration role against sophisticated air defence systems was to be carried out using electronic jamming equipment, !R countermeasures, radar warning systems and the application of ‘low observable’ technology.

The offensive avionics system is centred around the AN/APQ-164 multi-mode radar, which includes a low-observable phased-array antenna for low-altitude terrain following and accurate navigation The

AN/ALQ-161A system is the core of the B-113*s continuously upgraded defensive capaoility.

The first production B-1 В flew on 18 October 1984. Deliveries began on 27 July 1985 with SAC achieving IOC exactly a year later. Today the Lancer equips three Air Combat Command and two ANG wings. Until 1991. the B-1 В was tasked w th the strategic role and is compatible with a variety of nuclear devices, which it can deliver over an unrefu­elled range of approximately 12000 km (7,455 miles). A conventional munitions upgrade pro­gramme (CMUP) was begun in 1993, with block numbers denoting successive improvements. Block D is the current standard, allowing use of many precision weapons such as JSOW and WCMD (Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser), and Block F (to be completed in 2009) will see the defensive systems upgraded to meet the highest threat levels. The capacity for regular Mk 82 bombs is 84 in the three bomb bays and another 44 on the external pylons, which are rarely, if ever, used.

The B-1 saw its combat debut in Operation Desert Fox during December 1998, and later in 1999 against Yugoslavia in Operation Allied Force where over 100 sorties were flown and more than 5,000 Mk 82 bombs dropped.

Подпись: For much of its career the B-1 В was sidelined as its specialist nuclear strike role became less and less relevant Now it is an important combat asset. Specification: Rockwell B-1B Lancer Powerplant: four 36,92-kN (30,730 lb)

General Electric F101GE-102 turbofens Dimensions: wig span 41,67 m (136 ft 87 in) (at 15э] and 23.84 in (78 ft 27 in)(at 67° 30 ): length 44.81 m (1471t); height 10.36 m (34(110 in)

Weights: empty equipped 87G81 kg (‘=92.000 lb); maximum take-off 216365 <g(477.00C lb) Performance: maximum level speed a: high altitude about Mach 1.25 or (1324 kmh, 823 inpli); penetration speed at 61 m (200 It) more than 965 kmh (600 mph); range 12000 km (7,455 miles) with standard fuel Armament: maximum internal payload of 34020 kg (75.000 lb)

Eurocopter Tiger


Pie-production aircraft PT4 was used to trial the French Tiger HAP configuration, with a roof – mounted sight and Mistral AAMs.


Подпись: Specification: Eurocopter PAH-2 Tiger Powerplant: two 873-kW (1.171-hp) MTU/ TurbomecH/RolIs-Royce MTR 390 lurboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 13.00 m (42 ft ТА in); fuselage length 14.00 m (45 ft 11A in); height overall 4.32 m(14 ft 2 in) Weights; basic empty 3303 <g •!/.2/b lb): normal take-off 5600 kg (12,767 lb): maximum overload take-off 6000 kg (13,227 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed at optimum altitude 230 kmh (174 mph); max rale of climb at sea level more than 600 m (1,969 ft) per minute; endurance over 3 hours Armament (НАС) primary armament of Mistral AAMs; (HAP) G1AT AM-30781 30-mm cannon and stub wings with up to lour pylons


he Eurocoptei Model 665 Tiger/Tigre was

developed to meet a Franco-German requirement for a next-generation anti-tank helicopter (German PAH-2 ano French army НАС). Development began in 1984, and resumed in March 1987 (after reap­praisal) in a modified form to cover a common anti­tank version for the two armies, and an armeo escort version (HAP) for the French army. A devel­opment contract awarded to Eurocopter in November 1989 provides for construction of five prototypes including two in full anti-tank Tiger (GermanyVTigre (France) configuration and one as the escort Gerfaut.

The Tiger has a slender fuselage with two seats in tandem, stepped and offset to each side of the centreline. The structure makes extensive use of composite materials, and an advanced four-bladed composite semi-rigid main rotor is fitted. Other design features include Spheriflex tail rotor and fixed tricycle undercarriage with single wheels and high energy absorption.

The original German army PAH-2 Tiger was a dedicated anti-tank variant, but was redesigned as a more flexible multi-role aircraft under the designation UHT (originally UHU). with a mast-mounted FLIR night-vision system for the WSO, and з nose – mounted FLIR for the pilot. The aircraft is able to carry up to eight HOT 2 or Trigat anti-armour missiles, or four HOTs and four Stinger 2 AAMs for self-defence. Germany has a requirement for 212

UHTs, ar. d the first 80 have been ordered. The first 115 French army Tigers will be Tiger HAPs. Originally known as the Gerfaut, HAP is an escort and fire-support variant, with no mast-mounted sight, but with e roof-mounted TV, FUR, laser rangefinder and direct-optics sensors, and with an undernose 30-mm cannon turret – France will later receive 100 dedicated anti-tank Tiger HACs (renamed from the original ‘Tigre’l, with a UHT-type mast-mounted sight and other improvements.

The first Tiger prototype flew on 27 April 1991, at first with a mast-mounted sight, but later recon­figured with a roof-mounted sight in the Gerfaut configuration. It was once expected that the French army would receive Gerfauts in 1994 and Tigres in 1999, with the Bundeswehr receiving its first UHU Tigers in 1998. Service introduction is now scheduled for 2003. A joint French/German training centre has been established at Le Luc, in France. The Tiger was unsuccessfully offered to the British and Dutch armies. A HAP-based variant, the Aussie Tiger, is a contender in the Australian Air 87 competition.

The German Army Tiger UHT configuration has a mast-mounted sight. It has no undernose cannon though one may be added in the years to come.

Подпись: The name Eurofighter Typhoon has been adopted for export sales of the Eurofighter aircraft, outside the initial four customer nations.

The Eurofighter consortium was officially formed in June 1986 by Britain. Germany and Italy (soon joined by Spain) to produce an air superiority fighter for service from the late 1990s. This ‘ollowec the issue of an outline Air Staff Target by the four part­ners, plus France, in 1983. The Eurofighter design drew heavily on BAe’s Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP), and a number of other technology demonstrator programmes. The twin-RB.199 EAR technology demonstrator first flew in August 1986 and amassed invaluable data before retirement in May 1991, The Eurofighter copied EAP’s unstable canard delta layout, adding active digital fly-by-wire flight controls, advanced avionics, multi-function cockpit displays, carbon-fibre composite construction and extensive use of aluminium-lithium alloys and titanium.

The new ECR-90 multi-mode pulse-Doppler look – up/look-down radar was selected for development in May 1990, building on the proven and highfy – regarded Blue Vixen used by the Sea Harrier. While optimised for AMRAAM use, ECR-90 also provides CW illumination for SARH AAMs. The radar is supplemented by an IRST Integrated defensive aids comprise missile approach, laser and radar warning systems, wingtip ESM/ECM pods.

Two of the Seven Eurofighter development aircraft, the British-built DA4 (seen here) and Spain’s DA6, were built in two-seat configuration.

chaff/flare dispensers and a towed radar decoy.

A development contract signed in late 1988 covered the building and testing of eight EFA prototypes (though this total was subsequently reduced to sevenl, In 1992, Germany demanded major cost – reductions, triggering major project reviews and leading to major delays, against threats of withdrawal. Various less capable ‘New EFA’ config­urations were studied before Germany decided to procure a smaller number of standard aircraft, stripped of their advanced DASS, and re-christened as the Eurofighter 2000- The original requirement for 765 EFAs (250 each for the RAF and the Luftwaffe, 165 for the AMI and 100 for the Ejercito del Airej was cut back and now stands at 620, (232 for the RAF, 180 for the Luftwaffe. 130 for Italy and 103 4or Spain!. The name Typhoon was adopted for export aircrs*t (and for the RAF’s Eurofighte’s) in 1998, and strong interest in the aircraft has already been expressed by Greece and Norway.

The prototype EFA 2000 made its long-awaited first flight on 27 March 1994 from Marching. Germany, and began what was to be a successfu (if occasionally troubled) flight test programme. The first production Eurofighters were rolled out during 2001, and service entry is expected in 2003.


Specification: Eurofighter Powerplant: two90-kN {20.250-lbl Eurojet EJ200 turbo fans

Dimensions: wing span 10.50 m (34 ft 5/ in); length 14.53 m (47 ft 7 in), height 4.00 m (13 f! 1.5 in)

Weights: empty 3750 kg (21.49b )t>); maximum take-off 21000 kg (46,297 lb I Performance: maximum level speed 2125 kmh (1,321 mph); take-off run 500 ml 1,640 ft) at normal take-off weight; landing run 500 m (1,640 ft) at normal landing weight, combat radius between 463 and 556 km (288 and 345 miles)

Armament: Mauser Mk 27 27-mm cannon, maximum ordnance 6500 kg (14,330 lb]


Boeing B-52 Stratofortress


The ‘LA’ tail code on this B-52H marks it one from the 2nd Bomb Wing, based at Barksdale AFB. Air Combat Command’s second B-52 Wing is Minot AFB’s 5th BW.


Подпись: Specification: Boeing B-52H Stratofortress Powerplant: eight Vb.62-kN (17.000-lb) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-3 turbafans Dimensions: wing span 56.39 in (185 ft); length 19.05 tn (160 ft 10.9 ini: height 12.40 m 140 ft 9 in) Weights: maximum take-off 229088 kg (505,000 lb) Performance: cruising speed al high altitude 819 kim (509 mph): penetration speed at low altitude between 652 and 676 kmfi (405 aid 420 mphl; service ceiling 16765 m 155,000 ft); range, with one aerial refuelling, at least 13889 km (8,875 miles) Armament: up lo 22680 kg (50,000 lb) ef nuclear and conventional ordnance


he first B-52 Stratofortresses rolled off the Boeing production. ins in 1952, and from then until 1962 a total of 744 were built. The B-52 was the backbone of Strategic Air Command (SAC) until 1992, when the assets and tasks of SAC and TAG were merged no the newly-established Air Combat Command. Today only one version of the oomber remains in service, the B-52H. The USAF Inventory stands at 94 aircraft, but they have a striking power out of all proportion to their number.

The B-52 is the only USAF aircraft cleared to carry all the nuclear and conventional weapons in the Air Force arsenal. The B-52 was designed as a nuclear bomber and, alongside the B-2, it is still tasked with this strategic strike mission – using free-fall nuclear bombs or cruise-missiles. Because of its immense range and heavy load-carrying ability the В-52Я has now adopted a range of conventional roles, including anti-shipping attacks, mine-laying, area bombing and long-range precision stand-off attacks. B-52s fired some of the first shots of Operation Desert Storm, and flew what became the longest combat mission in aviation history, on the first night of operations in 1991, Seven B-52Gs attacked targets in Iraq using a new version of the Air-Launched Cruise Missile, the AGM-86C, with a high-explosive warhead. This weapon gave the B-52 a completely new precision attack capability, which has now been transferred to the B-52H. The last B-52Gs were retired in March 1994.

The superior conventional weapons capability of the B-52G was transferred to the В 52H under the CMUP (Conventional Mission Upgrade Program) effort. Inside the main bomb-bay the B-52 is fitted with the Common Stores Rotary Launcher which can carry four B28 nuciear bombs, eight B61 or B83 nuclear bombs or eight AGM-86B/C cruise missiles. Another 12 cruise missiles can be carried externally. Depending on the underwing pylon configuration, up to 51 750-lb bombs can be carried – 24 under the wing and 27 in the bomb-bay. The B-52H can also carry AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles, AGM-142A Have Nap stand-off attack missiles, Paveway II laser-guided bombs and Ouickstrike mines.

The USAF currently has two active Bomb Wings (a total of four squadrons) and single Air Force Reserve Wing (one squadron) equipped with the B-52H. In early 2001, Boeing submitted an unso­licited proposal to the USAF to re-engine all the remaining B-52Hs. The bombers’ eight TF-33 turbo­fans would be replaced by four more modem Rolls Royce (Allison) RB-211-535 turbofans.

This 2nd Bomb Wing B-52H is dropping a load of 750-lb M117 bombs. A B-52H can carry up to 5І MH7s, totalling some 38,250-lb (17,350-kg) of high-explosive.

Подпись: In USAF service the C-17 is flown by Air Mobility Command and has become an increasingly precious resource as AMC’s older C-5s and C-141s wear out.

In August 1981 McDonnell Douglas was chosen to develop the USAF’s C-X requirement for a new heavy cargo transport, to replace the C-141 Starlit ter. The new aircraft had to be capable of carrying outsize loads, such as the M1 tank and combat helicopters, while retaining a tactical opera­tions capability, including LAPES drops and short landings into austere strips.

The design of the resulting C-17A adopted a classic military transport configuration with a high – mounted supercritical wing, a rear-fuselage loading ramp and undercarriage housings on each side of the fuselage. However, it incorporates such advanced features as winglets, high-performance turbofans (military versions of the Boeing 757 s PW2040) and an all-digital fly-by-wire control system. Short-field performance is aided by an externally – blown flap system and thrust reversers.

The C-1 7 can be configured for cargo, para­troops, combat troops, hospital litter patients, or combinations of all these. For strategic airlift, it can carry 202 personnel, or 18 standard 463L pallets. Typical loads include two М2 Bradley AFVs. two 5-ton 8×8 trucks with trailers, three AH-64 Apache helicopters or six OH-58D helicopters The C-17 can air-drop up to 102 paratroops or platform loads

The C-17 has impressive short-field capabilities, thanks to its high-performance wing (for short take­offs) and thrust-reverseis (for short landings),

of up to 49895 kg (110,000 lb). The Internal cargo loading system Is fully mechanised for operation by a single loadmaster.

The C-17 endured a turbulent development period and came close to cancellation on several occasions, due largely to cost overruns and technical difficulties. Plans to acquire 210 USAF aircraft have been revised downwards to just 120. The first prototype flew on 15 September 1991, followed by the first initial production C-17A on 18 May 1992. On 5 February 1993 the aircraft was renamed as the C-17A Globemaster III and the first example was delivered to an operational USAF unit on 14 June 1993 On 17 January 1995, the 17th Airlift Squadron at Charleston AFB, was declared opera­tionally ready for worldwide missions’. In 1997 the C-17 became a product of the Boeing Company, when McDonnell Douglas was taken over in August that year.

The C-17 won its operational spurs during Operation Joint Endeavor, supporting peacekeeping in Bosnia, and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, Britain’s Royal Air Force intends to lease four C-17s from 2001 onwards, to provide much-needed strategic airlift capability. By March 2001 the USAF had taken delivery of 73 C-17As.


Specification: Boeing C-17A Globemaster III Powerplant: four 185.49-kN (41.700-lb)

Pratt S Whitney FI 17-P-1D0 turberfars Dimensions: span 52.2Э no (171 ft 3 in) between winglet tips: length B3.Q4 in {174 ft in); height IS.79 m (55 ft 1 ini Weights: operating empty 12201G kg |2GS, ll]l] lb); maximum taka-off 263083 kg (580,000 lb); maximum payload 78Ю8 kg (172,200 lb) Performance; maximum cruising speed at tow altitude 648 kmh 1403 mphl: service ceiling 13715m (45,000 ft); take-off field length with 75750-kg(167, ООО-lb) payload 22R6 m (7,50011); landing field length 914 m (3,000 ft) with thrust reversal; range with 36286-kg (80.000-lb) payload 7630 km {4.741 miles)


Lockheed Martin P-З Orion



ased on the Lockheed L-188 Electra medium – range passenger airliner, the P-З Orion was developed to meet a 1957 US Navy requirement for a new anti-submarine aircraft to replace the Lockheed P-2 Neptune. An initial batch of seven P-3As was ordered and the Or on entered service in mid-1962. The following P-3B variant introduced uprated Allison T56-A-14 engines, higher weights and provision for AGM-12 Bullpup ASMs. The P-3C variant entered service in 1969 and remains the US Navy’s primary land-based ASW aircraft. US Navy Ohons have undergone several systems updates over the years. The P-3C Update I (1975) added more modern mission systems. P-3C Update II (1977) added an undernose FLIR to 44 aircraft. P-3C Update 111 (1984) added a new acoustic processor and other modernised systems.

The US Navy employs a fleet of 12 specially – modified Oriors to perform the Elint-gathering role as the EP-3E ‘Aries II’. The EP-3J is a US Navy EW jamming trainer fitted with internally – and pod – mounted jamming equipment. Five Orions are used tor range support work, comprising two EP-3A SMILS (Sonobuoy Missile Impact Locating System) aircraft and three RP-3A (EATS) (Extended Area Test System] aircraft used for accurate tracking and

The P-З Orion is essentially the world’s standard maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft. It also has a very effective surface attack capability.

14 Wing of the Canadian Armed Forces has two component squadrons which pool operations of the CAF’s 13 CP-HOs and three CP-140As.

instrumentation o1 missile tests. Further variants include the oceanographic reconnaissance RP-3A, weather reconnaissance WP-3A/D. VP-ЗА executive transport, TP-ЗА aircrew trainer, UP-ЗА utility transport and NP-3A/B trials aircraft, The P-3 AEW&C is fitted with an APS-145 airborne early warning radar (adopted from the E-2 Hawkoye) in a dorsal rolodome, and is used by the US Customs Service on anti-drug patrols.

The CP-140 Aurora is a version of the P-3C purchased in 1976 by the Canadian Armed Forces. It is configured internally to Canadian requirements, and is equipped with an avionics system based on that of the S-3A Viking. Three CP-l40s have been converted to CP-140A Arcturus standard, with their ASW equipment removed. They serve as environmental. Arctic and fishery patrol aircraft.

Export customers for the Orion include Australia, New Zealand, Iran, Pakistan, Portugal, Greece, Japan, Argentina, Chile, South Korea, the Netherlands, Spain and Thailand (P-3T/UP-3T) Japan’s P-3s were built by Kawasaki and include a number of EP-3 electronic reconnaissance versions. Australia’s P-3s are currently being upgraded ro AP-3C standard with new radars and improved onboard mission systems.

image141Specification: Lockheed P-3C Orion Powerplant: lour 3661-kW (4,910-hp) Allison T56-A-14 turboprops

Dimensions: wing spar 30.37 m 199 ft 3 in); length 35.61 m(1 to ft 10 in); height 10.27 m

{33 ft 8/in)

Weights: empty 27330 kg (61.491 o), maximum take-off 64410 kg (142,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 7S1 knh (473 mph), patrol spaed 381 kmh (237 mph); sendee ceiling 8625 m (28.300 ft): maximum mission radius 3835 km (2.333 miies): mission endurance 17 hours 12 minutes Itwo engines) Armament: maximum expendable oad 6072 kg (20,0001Ы on 10 stores stations and in internal weapons bay

Dassault Mirage F1


Подпись: Specification: Dassault Mirage F1C Powerplant: one 70.21-kN (15,785-lb) SNECMA Afar 9K-5Q terboje: Dimensions: wing span 9.32 m (30 ft 6/ in) with winglip AAMs; lengti 15.33 m (Ь0 ft 2/ in|; height 4 53 m (14 ft 9 ini1 Weights: empty 74C0 kg 116,314 lb); maximum take-off 16200 kg (35,715 Ibl Performance: maximum level speed 2338 kmh (1,453 mphj; service ceiling 23000 n (85.615 ft), combat radius 425 kin (264 mlEs) on a hi-lo-hi attack mission with 14 250-kg |551-lb) bombs Armament: two internal DEFA 553 30-mm cannon with 13b rpg. maximum ordnance load of 6300 kg (13,889 lb)


espite its suffix, the Mirage F1C was the initial production version of Dassault’s successor to its highly successful Mirage ІП/5 delta. It was deve ooed to meet ап Агтёе de ҐAir fAA) require merit for an all-weather interceptor. Forsaking the Mirage Ill’s delta configuration *’or a high-mounted wing and conventional tail surfaces, the prototype first flew on 23 December 1966, Mirage F1C production deliveries to the AA began in May 1973. The initial 83 aircraft were followed by 79 Mirage F1C-20Qs with fixed refuelling probes (necessitating a small fuselage plug), The AA also received 20 Mirage F1B tandem-seat trainers which retained their Tull combat capability.

Dassault converted 64 F1C-200S to serve as dedicated tactical reconnaissance platforms. These Mirage F1CR-200s arc equipped with an infra-red linescan unit, undernose cameras and centreline pods for SLAR, LOROP or Elint equipment. They also have a modernised cockpit with a Martin-Baker Mk 10 ejection seat, new RWR and two additional underwing hardpoints for chaff/flare dispensers. The F1CR fleet is now being equipped with the PRESTO stand-off reconnaissance pod, replacing the interim DFSIRF system.

The Mirage F1CT (T-Tactique) was a logical product of the shortfall in French ground attack capability and a surplus of air defence fighters following Mirage 2000C deliveries. From 1991, 55 Mirage FICs were converted to F1CT standard

France’s dual-role Mirage FICRs are tasked with reconnaissance and attack missions, and had their combat dehut in 1991, during Desert Storm.

have peer given expanded tactical capability with a laser rangefinoer. improved RWR and chaff/f:are dispensers. FlCTs are most often deployed with the French units still based in Africa. The last remaining AA F1C squadron is also based in Africa, with IEC4/33 in Djibouti,

The Mirage F1 has been widely exported. F1Cs were sold to Soutn Africa (F1CZ. now withdrawn), Morocco (F1CH), Jordan (F1CJ), Kuwait (F1CK, F1CK2. now withdrawn), Greece (F1CG) and Spain (F1CEK The Mirage F1A was a simplified version for day visual attack missions, equipped with the Aida II ranging radar in a reprofiled nose. It was sold to Libya (FIADi and South Africa (F1AZ fitted with a laser-ranger, now withdrawn).

The Mirage FlE (and corresponding Mirage FID trainer) was an upgraded multi-role fighter/attack version for export, fitted with an INS. central nav/attack computer and HUD. F1Es were exported to Ecuador (F1JA/E), Iraq (F1EQi. Jordan (F1EJ), Libya (FlED), Morocco (FlEH and FlEH-200), Qatar (FIEDA and F1DDA) and Spain (F1EE-200)

Between 1999 and 2001 Spain’s 52 Mirage F1s received a cockpit upgrade adding new communications, self – defence and navigation systems

Подпись: Dassault Mirage 2000C, 2000-5 Airdefence/multi-role fighter The Mirage 2000-5F is the Armee de I'Air’s version of the freshly upgraded multi-role fighter. It can carry the Mica missile - with four fitted on this aircraft.

For the third Mirage generation, Dassault returned to the delta configuration, using negative longitu­dinal stability and a fly by-wire flight control system to eliminate many of the shortcomings of a conven­tional delta – As such, the Mirage 2000 has its predecessor’s large internal volume ano low wave drag, but has improved agility, slow-speed handling and lower landing speed. The first of five prototypes was initially flown on 10 March 1978. The first of 37 production Mirage 2000Cs made its maiden flight on 20 November 1982 and deliveries began in April 1983, with IOC in July 1984. All eariy production 2000C-S2. – S3 aircraft had SNECMA M53-5 engines, and introduced successive improvements to the Thomson-CSF RDM radar. The Mirage 2000C-S4 and – S5 introduced the uprated M53-P2 powerplant and the superior RDI radar optimised for look- down/shoot-down intercepts with two MATRA Super 530D missiles. With RDM radar, Mirage 2000Cs carried Super 530F and Magic 1 missiles.

Export versions of the RDM-equipped, M53-P2- powered variant have been delivered to Abu Dhabi (Mirage 2000EAD, 22 aircraft), Egypt (Mirage 2000EM, 16), Greece (Mirage 2000EG, 36), India (Mirage 2000HS Vajra, 46) and Peru (Mirage 2000P 10).

The Mirage 2000B tandem two-seat trainer first flew in August 1983. It loses some internal fuel and both cannon in order to accommodate the second cockpit. Abu Dhabi’s two-seat trainers are known as Mirage 200QDADs, India’s are Mirage 2000THs and Peru’s are Mirage 2000DPs. The reconnais­sance-configured Mirage 2000R has a radar nose and carries podded sensors: multi-camera, side­looking airborne radar, and long-range optical. Abu Dhabi has acquired eight Mirage 2000RADs

The upgraded Mirage 2000-5 introduces an advanced five-screen cockpit display. Mica AAMs, RDY multi-mode radar, and advanced self-protec­tion suite and additional avionics. The 2000-5 is aimed largely at the export market, and significantly improves the basic aircraft’s combat capability. The French air force is also acquiring the Mirage 2000-5F through the conversion of 37 of its existing 2000Cs. The first converted prototype flew on 26 February

1996. The first export customer for the -5 came in 1992 when Taiwan ordered 60 Mirage 2000-5Els (including 12 2000-5DI trainers). Deliveries began in

1997. Other orders have come from Qatar (12 Mirage 2000-5EDA/DDAs). Abu Dhabi (UAE) and Greece are acquiring a further improved version the Mirage 2000-5 Mk II. also referred to as the Mirage 2000-9

Подпись: Qatar’s two-seat Mirage 2000-5s are known as Mirage 2000-5DDAs. These aircraft are quipped with the RDY radar, but are not combat capable. Specification: Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Powerplant: ore 95.12-kN (21,384-lb) SNECMA M53-P2 turbofan Dimensions: wing span 9,13 m (29 ft 112 in); length 14.36 nr. (47 ft 1И in): height 5 20 m (17 ft/in)

Weights: empty /500 kg (16,534 lb), maximum take-off 17000 kg (37.478 lb)

Performance: maximum level speed more than 2338 kmh (1.453 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 17060 m (55,971 ft) par minute: service ceiling 18900 m (59.055 ft); combat range over 1480 km (920 miles) with four 250-kg bombs

Armament: two 30 mm 0EFA 554 cannon with 125 rpg: 6300-kg (13,890-lb) ordnance

Saab 37 Viggen


High performance strike fighter



aab’s System 37, tne Viggen (thunderbolt) was developed as a relatively low-cost Масо 2 fighter capable of deployed short-field operations. The design pioreerec the use of flap-equipped canards with a stabie delta-wing configuration. The selected RM8A turbofan was based on the commercial P&W JT8D-22 and equipped with a thrust reverser and Swedish afterburner.

The initia AJ 37 Viggen all-weather attack variant featured sophisticated nav/attack and landing sys­tems and the PS-37 multi-role radar. The first of seven Viggen prototypes initially flew on 8 February 1967 and deliveries of the first of 109 AJ 37s began in 1971. The primary armament comprised Saab Rb 04E anti-ship missiles (replaced by the far more capable long-range Rbs 15) and licence-built AGM-65 Maverick ASMs.

Several AJ 37-based variants were developed. The SF 37 was tasked with all-weather day and night overland reconnaissance. It is equipped with various optical and IR cameras, and carries podded sensors. The SH 37 was modified for all-weather sea surveillance and patrol with a secondary maritime strike role. It has a modified radar, ventral night reconnaissance and long-range camera pods. A tandem two-seat SK 37 trainer was also developed with a stepped rear cockpit fitted with a bulged canopy and twin periscopes.

The next-generation JA 37 Jakt Viggen (fighter Viggen) was developed as a dedicated interceptor.

The Viggen’s operational career is being cut short by budget cuts and the arrival of the next generation Gripen. The last JA 37s will be withdrawn in 2003.

It introduced a new pu se Doppler look-down/shoot – down PS-47 radar, new avionics, an uprated and modified RM8B engine and a ventral 30 mm cannon. A modified AJ 37 was flown as the JA 37 prototype on 27 September 1974. Overall production of this variant was increased to 149, tak­ing total Viggen procurement to 330. JA 37s entered service in 1978. A number of aircraft have now undergone the JA 37 Mod D upgrade, giving them AIM-120 AMRAAM capability.

Force cuts during the 1990s brought about the retirement of many AJ 37s as squadrons were dis­established and aircraft were scrapped. The advent of the JAS 39 Gripen brought about a rationalisation of the Viggen fleet. The attack/recce Viggens were upgraded to a new ‘multi-role’ standard, allowing them to familiarise pilots with Gripen weapons and procedures. Under this upgrade AJ 37s became AJS 37s, SF 37s became AJSF 37s and SF!37s became AJSH 37s. A number of two-seat SK 37s have also been radically modified to serve as SK 37E EW/SEAD aircraft.

Sweden’s fighter Viggens wear a mix of overall grey and green/brown splinter camouflage. The splinter scheme was applied to all attack/recce Viggens.

image200Specification: Saab JA 37 Viggen Powerplani: one 125 04-kN (28,11 C-lb) Volvo Flygmotor RMI33 turbofar with Swedish anerhi. rner and thrust reverser Dimensions: wing span 10.30 m (34 ft 0/1 ini, length 16.40 m (53 ft 9/1 in) including probe; heigh 5.90 m (19 ft 4И in)

Weights: normal take-off 15000 <g (33,069 lb); тзхіпшпі take-oil 17C00 kg (37.478 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2126 kmh [1,321 mph); combat radius more than 1000 km (622 miles) on hi-lo-hi profile Armament: one ventral 30-mm Oerlikon KCA cannon with 150 rounds; maximum ordnance 13,000 lb (5897 kg)

Fairchild A-10 Thunderbolt



riginally conceived as a counter-insurgency air­craft for the Vietnam War, the Fairchild A-10A Thunderbolt II emerged in 1972 as a dedicated dose air support aircraft, with a primary anti-armour role. The А-10’s operating environment dictated a highly-survivable design incorporating a ‘arge-area wing for excellent low-altitude manoeuvrability, rear-mounted engines shrouded from ground fire by either the wings or tailplane and redundant, armoured and duplicated flight controls and hydraulic systems. Titanium ‘bathtubs’ protect both the pilot and the ammunition tank.

The principal weapon is the AGM-65 Maverick anti-armour missile, supplemented by an enormous GAU-8/A 30-mm seven-barrelled rotary cannon. Avionics of the A-10 remained very basic for most of the aircraft’s career, with no laser designator or rangefinder fitted. The pilot has a HUD. and a screen for displaying images from Maverick or other EO-guided weapons. A Pave Penny marked target seeker detects and tracks targets designated by laser. Most current aircraft have received tne LASTE modification, which finally adds an autopilot and also improves gun accuracy.

The A-10 entered USAF service in 1977 At its peak deployment, a six A-10 squadrons were stationed in the UK, with more in Korea and the Continental USA. Debates raged as to the vulnerability of the A-10, and it was finally decided to gradually withdraw the type in favour of the F-16. At the

This A-10 of the Spangdahlem-based 81st FS is carrying a huge warload of Mk 82 bombs, Maverick missiles, Sidewinder AAMs and an ALQ-131 ECM pod.

same time, redundant A-10s became available to replace OV-1 Os in the forward air contro role. Unchanged, these were redesignatec ОА-ЮА and redistributed to tactical air support squadrons.

For the FAC role the A-10s are armed with rocket pods for marking targets and AIM-9 AAMs for self – defence. In xhe twilight of its career, the A-10 proved its worth during 1991 Desert Storm opera­tions, destroying huge numbers of tanks, artillery pieces and vehicles. A modest upgrade programme is now underway, Lockheed Martin having won the contract in February 2001. The A-10 will receive a ‘precision engagement capability’ adding a new mission computer, new cockpit MFDs, a MIL STD 1760 databus, a new datalink, precision-weapons capability (including JDAM and WCMD), improved navigation equipment, TERPROM TRNS and new cefensive aids. A re-cngining programme nas been proposed, but not funded The A-10 has not been exported, although it is still possible that some 50 airframes may be sold to Turkey. The type is expected to remain in USAF service until 2028.

For its primary intended role as a tank killer on the Central European front, the A-10 was built around the massive CAU-8 30-mm cannon.

Specification: Fairchild A-10A Powerplant: two 40.32-kN (9.065*lb) General Electric TF34-GE-1G0 turbcfans Dimensions: wing spar f 7.53 m (57 ft 6 in); 16.26 m (length 53 ft 4 in!: height 4.47 m (14 ft 8 in)

Weights: bas e empty 9771 kg (71,541 lb); maximum take-off 22680 kg (50,000 lb) Performance: maximum eve! speed 706 kmh (439 mph); maximum rate of Climb 1828 m (6.000 ft) per minute: combat radius 1000 km (620 miles) on a deep strike mission or 463 km (288 miles) on a close air support mission Armament: one GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1,174 rounds: maximum ordnance load of 7258 kg (16,000 lb)




Boeing C-135 family


France’s fleet of KC-135FRs have been modified to carry underwing hose-and-drogue pods to refuel probe-equipped aircraft.


Подпись: Specification; Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker Powerplant four 97 86-kN 122,000-lb) CFM International F103-CF-100 ttirbofans Dimensions: wing span 38.88 m (130 ft 10 in); length 41,53 m 1136 ft 3 in к height 12.70 m (41 ft 8 in| Weights: operating empty 48220 kg (105,306 !b); maximum take-off 146284 kg I322.5QD lb); internal fuel 92210 <0 (203.288 lb); maximum payload 37650 kg (33,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speec at high altitude 982 krrh(610 mph); cruising speed at 10670 m 135,000 ft) 856 kind (532 mph); maximum rate of climb 393 m {1,290 It) per minute; service ceiling 13715 m (45,000 ft); operational radius 4633 km (2.879 miles)


ollowing Successful trials of the Boeing 367-80 transport prototype with a Boeing-designed ‘flying boom’ refuelling probe under the rear fuselage, the US Air Force placed an order for an initial batch of 29 KC-135A Stratotanker aircraft, in September 1955. These would be the first of a grand total of 732 to be built. The first KC-135A flew in August 1956 and the initial production Stratotanker was delivered to Castle AFB in June 1957. The last KC-135A was delivered to the USAF in 1965.

Two major turbofan re-engining programmes have since been undertaken. The first involved the conversion of 188 early-model aircraft to KC-135E standard, adding TF33 turbofans and wider-soan tailplanes. The thrust reverser-equipped TF33 allowed greater safety margins. The use of shorter runways and reduced noise pollution. The KC-135E, is 14 per cent more fuel efficient than the KC-135A and can off-load 20 percent more fuel.

The Boeing-developed KC-135R first flew in August 1982 and is the mainstay of today’s USAF tanker fleet. Over 400 these CFM56-powered conversions have been funded to date, with the first entering service in July 1984, The USAF’s specialist KC-135Q tankers (once dedicated to the SR-71 fleet), have now been re-engined as KC-135Ts and are used for F-117 support tasks. A KC-135R can off-load 50 percent more fuel, is 25 percent more fuel efficient, costs 25 per cent less to operate and is 96 percent quieter than a KC-135A.

About 550 KC-135S remain in service. Boeing also built another 88 C-135s of various kinds for special missions. The most important of these is the RC-135 family of reconnaissance aircraft. Current types include 15 RC-135V and RC-135W ‘Rivet Joint’ aircraft, and two RC-135U ‘Combat Sent’ aircraft These are all sophisticated electronic intelligence gathering platforms, with a range of tactical and strategic roles. There is also a single RC-135S ‘Cobra Ball’ aircraft, which uses high – powered optical systems to examine missile re-entry vehicles and satellites in low-earth orbit, All of the USAF’s RC-135s are attached to the 55th Wing, based at Offutt AFB, Nebraska,

KC-135 tankers have been exported to France (14 KC-135Fs now KC-135FRs) and Singapore (four KC-l35Rs). Approximately 544 USAF C-135s of all types will undergo the Pacer Crag cockpit and navi­gation systems upgrade (Crag stands for compass radar and GPS), in addition to acquiring TCAS and GATS/GATM capability, allowing them to operate within improved future air traffic control systems.

The USAF now has a fleet of 15 RC-135V and RC-135W aircraft, which are its most important signals and electronic intelligence-gathering assets.

Подпись: RAF Sentry AEW.Mk 1s have been consistently among the most capable E-3s, thanks to their CFM56 engines, advanced systems and excellent tactics.

Boeing’s E-3 Sentry is the world’s largest and most capable AWACS (airborne warning and control system) aircraft. The EC-137D prototype first flew on 5 February 1972. followed by xhe first E-3A on 31 October 1975. Using the airframe of a 707-3208 airliner fitted with a radar ‘rotodome’ and an exten­sive crew of mission operators, the E-3 is a flying C3I Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) platform. E-3s are used to control the ‘air battle’ monitoring all airborne activity and controlling combat operations over a wide area, At the heart of the system is the AM/APY-2 Overland Downlook Radar, which is capable of tracking up to 600 low – flying aircraft. Since entering service. Sentries have been involved in combat operations in Grenada 11983), Lebanon (1983), Panama (1989) and Iraq (1991) and continuing operations in the Balkans.

Twenty-two E-3 As and two EC-137Ds, collectively termed ’core" aircraft when they were standardised in the late 1970s, were upgraded to E-3B level with faster computers. ECM-resistant communications and additional radios and display consoles. The first E-3B was redelivered in July 1984. In 1984, 10 E-3As were modified to E-3C siandard with a larger crew capacity, most E-3B equipment and ‘Have Quick’ communications equipment. All but the first 25 E-3

The large bulges which have been added to upgraded NATO and USAF (Block 30/35) E-3s house the new AN/AYR-1 ‘Quick Look’ ESM/Elint system.

airframes have inboard underwing hardpoints. E-3A ‘standard’ versions have been delivered to Saudia Arabia (five) and NATO (18). The USAF has 33 E-3s.

Both US and NATO aircraft have undergone recent upgrades to enhance their capabilities, and add new electronic surveillance systems. US Sentries have undergone The Block 30/35 Modification Program, which includes an electronic surveillance capability to detect and identify air and surface-based emitters, the JT1DS datalink, increased computer memory end GPS navigation. In addition, a five-year U. S./NATO Radar System Improvement Program (RSIP) was launched in 1999 RSIP involves major hardware and software modifications to the existing racar system.

Improved and re-engined Sentries have oeen delivered to the UK (seven E-3D Sentry AEW. Mk 1) and France (four E-3F SDA (Systeme de Detection Aeroportee)). Both versions entered service in 1991 and are powered by CFM56 turbofans. They are also fitted with IFR probes, in addition to the stan­dard E-3 inflight-refuelling receptacle. RAF aircraft have wingtip-mounted Loral Yellow Gate ESIYI pods (becoming the first E-3s with this capability) CFM56 engines also power the five E-3As and eight KE-3A tanker aircraft, acquired by Saudi Arabia.


Specification: Boeing E-3C Sentry

Powerplant:four93 41-Ш (21,000-lb) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-100/100A ter bo fans Dimensions: wing span 44.42 m [145 ft 9 in); length 46.61 in (152 ft 11 in): heiqht 12.73 m (41 ft 9 in)

Weights: aperating empty 77996 kg 1171,950 b); maximum take-off 147420 kg (325,000 lb); internal fuel 90B0Q litres (23,937 US gal) Performance: maximum level speed at high altitude 853 kmh (530 mph). operating ceiling 8840 m (29.000 ft): operational radius 16)2 km (1,002 miles) for a six-hour patrol without flight refuelling; endurance more than 11 houis with flight refuelling


Lockheed Martin X-35 JSF


Подпись: Specification: Lockheed X-35B JSF Powerplant: one 173.55-klN: (39,000-!b| Prar. & Whitney JSD19-611 turbofan engine, with two-stage shaft-driven counter rotating lift far. (SlGVL version! Dimensions: wing spar 10 7 m (35 ft 10 in); length 15.47 m (50 It Э ini: wing area £2.7rrv libO.Ssq^) Weights: maximum take-off' 6692 kg (36,800 lb) Performance: maximum level speed over Mach 1.0: Armament one internal Bk 2127-nim cannon IFnII specification not available!


he US Joint Strike Fighter {JSF! programme is

an ambitious effort to develop a replacement for an entire generation of USAF, US Navy and US Marine Corps aircraft using ore common ‘stealthy’ airframe. The JSF is earmarked to replace the F-16, F/A-18, AV-8B and other types in the US inventory, and will also be exportable to customers world­wide. The JSF has its loots ir a number of studies for advanced, affordable combat aircraft that were launched in the early 1990s These were merged into the JAST (Joint Advanced Strike Technology) programme in 1995, which later became JSF.

Three contractors – Boeing, Lockheed Martin and McDonnell Douglas – were selected by the US DoD to submit JSF designs. In November 1996 Boeing and Lockheed Martin were chosen to build two demonstrator aircraft, essentially JSF prototypes, to conduct a Concept Demonstration Program. At the end of this period one contractor would be chosen to build its JSF design. Lockheed Martin’s CDP aircraft was given the designation X-35.

While the JSF concept demands a common airframe, there will be different versions for the three main US users. The USAF and the US Navy are looking for a conventional take-off and landing (CTOU capability, though Navy CV aircraft will have to be modified for carrier operations. The Marines need aircraft with short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) capability to replace the Harrier, so the USMC’s JSF variant will have to have a modified

The CV-configured X 35C is similar to the CTOL X-35A, but has larger wings and empennage, a refuelling probe, re-inforced landing gear and a booh,

propu sion system, for vertical lift. Britain’s Fleet Air Arm (Royal Navy) has also signed up to acquire the STOVL JSF to replace its Sea Harriers.

Lockheed has built tnree CDP a rcraft. The CT0L X-35A the STOVL X-35B and the CV X-35C. The X-35A made Its maiden flight on 24 October 2000, the X-35C flew next on 16 December 2000. In March 2001 the X-38B completed its ‘hover pit’ testing, in preparation for its first flight. The X-35 design is more conventional than Boeing’s rival X-32, but Lockheed as adopted a completely new propulsion solution. The X 35B’s -611 STOVL engine uses a vectoring lift fan for vertical flight which can be coupled/decoup’led to/from the main engine using a gear/clutch mechanism. The engine also has a swivelling exhaust nozzle, and bifurcated intakes (between which the lift fan is positioned.

A decision date on the winning design has been delayed several times, but is now planned before the end of 2001. The first operational JSFs are expected to be the Marines’ STOVL variants in 2008. followed by the CTOL aircraft in 2010.

Lockheed Martin’s X-35 design looks very different to the the rival Boeing X-32 – but both aircraft must meet the same mission requirements.



he Douglas A-4 Skyhawk first ‘lew in proto­type form on 22 June 1954, and entered service in Octobe’ 1956. It provided the US Navy end the US Marine Corps with their principal light attack platform for over 20 years Total production of all varisnts reached 2,960. Early models comprised the J65-powereo A-4A, A-4B and A-4C (differing in avionics and engine power), and the the J52- engined A-4E, and A-4F with a dorsal avionics hump. Export mode! s included the A-4G (Australia), A-4H (Israel). A-4K (New Zealand), A-4PTM (Malaysia), A-4S (Singapore) and A-4KU (Kuwait). The A-4L was a rebuilt A-4C for the USN Reserve. The ast major p’oduction model was the A-4M, based on the A-4F but with a J52-P-408A engine and new canopy. A-4lls for Israel were similar, bux featured uprated avionics, including a HUD.

Skyhawks bore the brunt of the naval air war in Vietnam, flying the most missions and suffering the heaviest osses. A-4s have also seen combat with Israel, Argentina and Indonesia.

The TA-4F two-seat variant came along late, but was used first as a FAC by the USMC and later as the main jet trainer for the USN. It features two cockpits in tandem with a single canopy. The USMC’s OA-4IVI was a specialised two-seater used

Argentina acquired 32 rebuilt and upgraded A-4ARs between 1997 and 2000. They are fitted with a version of the APG-66 multi-mode radar, theARG-1.

for FAC duties. The definitive TA-4J trainer was a simplried TA-4F which usually lacked cannon arma­ment and combat capability. The last USN Training Command A-4s were retired in 1999, but one squadron retains TA-4Js for adversary and fleet support duties.

Although Australia. Malaysia and Kuwait have retired their A-4s, the other export users continue to operate them. New Zealand bougntthe remaining A-4Gs and upgradec them with the APG-66 raoar, new avionics, AIM-9L Sidewinder and Maverick – missile capabi ity, under project Kahu. The Argentine air force bought surplus A-4/OA-AMs and also upgraded them as the A-4AR Fightinghawk, Brazil bought the former-Kuwaiti T/A-4KUs for service on its recently acquired former-French aircraft carder Foch (now renamed Sao Paulo) as the AF-1A and AF-1B.

Singapo’e has the most highly modified Skyhawks, having upgraded surplus A-4B/Cs as A-4Ss and TA-4Ss trainers with seperate rear canopes. These aircraft were first upgraded to T/A-4S-1 Super Skyhawk standard, re-engined with the GE F404 turbofan. A follow-on upgrade brought them up to T/A-4SU Super Skyhawk standard, with a new digital avionics suite.

Подпись:Specification: McDonnell Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II

Powerplant: one 50-kN (11.280-lb) Pratt & Whitney J52-P-40S non-afterburning turbojet Dimensions: w ig span 8.38 m (27 ft б in); lennth 12.72 m (41 ft 8M in) height 457 m (14 ft Ш inf

Weights: operating amply 4747 kg (10,250 lb): maximum Luke-off і0206 kg 124,COO lb) Performance: maxinun level spaed 1102 knrh 685 rriph); service uei ing 12190 m (40.000 ft); combat radius 547 km (346 miles! with a 18′ 4-kg (4,000-lb) war bad Armament: two h/k 12 20-ГЛГП cannon, maximum ordnance 4153 kg (9,155 lb)

(( _ _ United States