Lockheed Martin P-З Orion



ased on the Lockheed L-188 Electra medium – range passenger airliner, the P-З Orion was developed to meet a 1957 US Navy requirement for a new anti-submarine aircraft to replace the Lockheed P-2 Neptune. An initial batch of seven P-3As was ordered and the Or on entered service in mid-1962. The following P-3B variant introduced uprated Allison T56-A-14 engines, higher weights and provision for AGM-12 Bullpup ASMs. The P-3C variant entered service in 1969 and remains the US Navy’s primary land-based ASW aircraft. US Navy Ohons have undergone several systems updates over the years. The P-3C Update I (1975) added more modern mission systems. P-3C Update II (1977) added an undernose FLIR to 44 aircraft. P-3C Update 111 (1984) added a new acoustic processor and other modernised systems.

The US Navy employs a fleet of 12 specially – modified Oriors to perform the Elint-gathering role as the EP-3E ‘Aries II’. The EP-3J is a US Navy EW jamming trainer fitted with internally – and pod – mounted jamming equipment. Five Orions are used tor range support work, comprising two EP-3A SMILS (Sonobuoy Missile Impact Locating System) aircraft and three RP-3A (EATS) (Extended Area Test System] aircraft used for accurate tracking and

The P-З Orion is essentially the world’s standard maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft. It also has a very effective surface attack capability.

14 Wing of the Canadian Armed Forces has two component squadrons which pool operations of the CAF’s 13 CP-HOs and three CP-140As.

instrumentation o1 missile tests. Further variants include the oceanographic reconnaissance RP-3A, weather reconnaissance WP-3A/D. VP-ЗА executive transport, TP-ЗА aircrew trainer, UP-ЗА utility transport and NP-3A/B trials aircraft, The P-3 AEW&C is fitted with an APS-145 airborne early warning radar (adopted from the E-2 Hawkoye) in a dorsal rolodome, and is used by the US Customs Service on anti-drug patrols.

The CP-140 Aurora is a version of the P-3C purchased in 1976 by the Canadian Armed Forces. It is configured internally to Canadian requirements, and is equipped with an avionics system based on that of the S-3A Viking. Three CP-l40s have been converted to CP-140A Arcturus standard, with their ASW equipment removed. They serve as environmental. Arctic and fishery patrol aircraft.

Export customers for the Orion include Australia, New Zealand, Iran, Pakistan, Portugal, Greece, Japan, Argentina, Chile, South Korea, the Netherlands, Spain and Thailand (P-3T/UP-3T) Japan’s P-3s were built by Kawasaki and include a number of EP-3 electronic reconnaissance versions. Australia’s P-3s are currently being upgraded ro AP-3C standard with new radars and improved onboard mission systems.

image141Specification: Lockheed P-3C Orion Powerplant: lour 3661-kW (4,910-hp) Allison T56-A-14 turboprops

Dimensions: wing spar 30.37 m 199 ft 3 in); length 35.61 m(1 to ft 10 in); height 10.27 m

{33 ft 8/in)

Weights: empty 27330 kg (61.491 o), maximum take-off 64410 kg (142,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 7S1 knh (473 mph), patrol spaed 381 kmh (237 mph); sendee ceiling 8625 m (28.300 ft): maximum mission radius 3835 km (2.333 miies): mission endurance 17 hours 12 minutes Itwo engines) Armament: maximum expendable oad 6072 kg (20,0001Ы on 10 stores stations and in internal weapons bay

Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’


The Tu-160 clearly shares a common design ‘inspiration’ with the Rockwell B-1, but it is a far larger aircraft – built in far fewer numbers.



he Tu-160 ‘Blackjack’ is the world’s largest bomber, and is the heaviest combat aircraft ever built. The Tu-160 was heavily influenced by the Rockwell B-1A, designed to penetrate at high leve, relying on performance and a highly sophisticated ECM suite to get through hostile defences. The B-1A was cancelled, and then subsequently resur­rected as the B-1B, relying on low-level subsonic flight and reduced RCS to penetrate. The Tu-160 remains committed to both low – evel transonic penetration and high-level supersonic penetration, however. The aircraft is a dedicated cruise missile carrier, with two tandem fuselage weapons bays each containing a rotary carousel for six RK-55 (AS-15 ‘Kent’) cruise missiles (with 200-kT warhead and a range in excess of 3000 km), 12 Kh-15P (AS-16 ‘Kickback’) ‘SRAMskis’ or free-fall bombs The Tu-160’s variable-geometry wing and full- span leading-edge slats and trailing-edge double – slotted flaps confer a useful combination of benign low-speed handling and high supersonic speed, Its cockpit is eouipped with fighter-type control columns and conventional_analog instrument displays, with no MFDs, CRTs and no HUD. The long pointed radome houses a TFR, with a fairing below for *he forwarc-looking TV camera used for visual weapon aiming. A retractable IFR probe endows intercont nertal range.

The development programme of the Tu-160 was extremely protracted. Following a first flight on 19

December 1981, series production eventually began at Kazan in 1986 and continued until termina­tion in January 1992, One incomplete aircraft was later finished ano delivered in 2000. Even after the aircraft entered service, problems continued to severely restrict operations. These included a shortage of basic flying equipment, problems with the aircraft’s K-36A ejection seats and poor reliability of engines and systems.

Between 32 and 39 Tu-160s have been built, including prototypes, about four of which are now derelict at ZhukhovskC Nineteen Tu-160s were delivered to the 184th Heavy Bomber Regiment at Priluki from ‘987. These were left under Ukrainian command after the break-up oJ the USSR, but eight were later transferred back to Russian control and the remainder were scrapped (or, in the case of three aircraft, demilitarised as commercial satellite launch p atforms). Six newer aircraft wen* to Engels, which had been intended to be the first Tu-160 base, where they ware joined by the eight ex-Ukrainian aircraft in 2001.

Подпись: The small numbers of Tu-160s available to the Russian airforce restricts the bomber’s effectiveness, but it is still a formidable warplane. Specification: Tupolev Tu-160 ‘Blackjack-A’ Powerplant: four 245.16-kN (55,115-lb) SSEE Trud (Kuznetsov) NK-321 turbojets Dimensions: wig span 55.7G m |i B2 ft 9 in) spreac and 35.60 rh Г16 ft 9.75 in) swept; length 5410 nri (177 ft 6 in); height 13.10 n (43 ft 0 in)

Weights: empty equipped 110D03 kg (260,140 lb); maximum take-off 276000 kg [506.261 lb!

Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ at 11030 m 136,030 ft) 2000 kmh (1,243 mpb); range 14000 km (8,699 miles]

Armament: maximum ordnance ;oad about 15330 kq (36,000 в) in two tandem fuselage weapons bays.

Подпись: Westland LynxAnti-tank, battlefield utility, naval ASW and ASuV helicopter


The Lynx HAS. Mk 3 is the Royal Navy’s primary light anti-submarine and shipboard anti-surface helicopter. It is being replaced by the HMA. Mk 8.



aunched under (he Anglo-French helicopter agreement of Feoruary 1967, the Westland Lynx is an extremely versatile and agile nelicopter with cigital flight controls and a four-bladed semi-rigid main rotor. The first prototype flew on 21 March 1971. The production Lynx HAS. Mk 2 undertook a range of shipboa-d missions including ASW, SAR. ASV search and strike, reconnaissance, troop trans­port, and VertRep duties. The HAS. Mk 3 intro­duced Gem 41-1 turboshafts, and subsequent upgrades included the HAS. Mk 3S with secure speech facility, the HAS. Mk 3ICE tor use aboard the Antarctic survey vessel Endurance, the HAS. Mk 3CTS with a new central tactical system and the HAS. Mk 3GM with improved cooling, IR jammers and ALQ-167 ECM pods. Foreign customers for the first-generation naval Lynx were Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Nigeria and Norway,

The second-generation Lynx introduced new composite rotor blades with swept ‘BERP’ high­speed tips, which were fitted to new-bulld Super Ly nxes delivered to Brazil, South Korea and Portugal. These aircraft also had a new 360° under­nose radar and some had provision for a nose – mounted FLIR. The new rotor was also a feature of
the Royal Navy Lynx HAS. Mk 8, produced by conversion of surviving HAS. Mk 3s. This variant also introduced an undernose radome, a nose- mounted thermal imager turret, a rear-mounted MAD, Orange Crop ESM and a Yellow Veil ECM jamming pod.

The Army Lynx had a skid undercarriage, and was ordered by the UK Army Air Corps as the Lynx AH. Mk 1. The only export customer was the Qatar Police. Able to carry 12 troops or 907 kg (2,000 lb) of internal freight, most AAC Lynxes were modified with roof-mounted sights and provision for eight TOW anti-tank missiles, Most were subsequently converted to Lynx AH. Mk 7 standards (also produced in smell numbers as a new-build aircraft), with a reverse-direction tail rotor, uprated Gem 41 engines and a box-like IR exhaust shroud. The Lynx AH. Mk Э (offered for export as the Battlefield Lynx) incorporated all the AH. Mk 7 modifications and also introduced a new nosewheel undercarriage The first new-build example flew on 20 July 1990.

Westland is now offering a Super Lynx 200 configuration, with LHTEC CTS800-4N turboshafts, and a Super Lynx 300 with T8QQ engines, an EFlS cockpit, and advanced avionics. The latter version was ordered by Malaysia and South Africa.

Подпись: The German navy’s newest Mh 88 Super Lynxes are fitted with the Sea Spray 3000 radar, FUR, AQS-18 dipping sonar and Sea Skua missiles. MS Specification: Westland Lynx AH. Mk 7 Powerplant two846-kW|t,135Tip) Rolls – Royce Gem 42-1 turboshgf-s Dimensions: main rotor diameter 12.80 m •|42 (t|; length overall, rotors turning ’19 ft 9 in (15.16 m); height overall 12 ft (3.73 m) with rotors stationary

Weights: operating empty 3072 kg 16,77/ lb| in the anti-tank role: maximum take-oil 4876 kg) ■110,75C lb); maximum payload 3.30U lb (1365 kg) Performance: maximum contnucibs cruising speed 256 kmh (159 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 756 m (2,480 ft) per minute; hovering ceiling 3230 m (10,600 ft); combat radius 46 km (29 miles) lor a 2-hour patrol Armament: 550 kg (1,210 lb) of ordnance

Boeing C-135 family


France’s fleet of KC-135FRs have been modified to carry underwing hose-and-drogue pods to refuel probe-equipped aircraft.


Подпись: Specification; Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker Powerplant four 97 86-kN 122,000-lb) CFM International F103-CF-100 ttirbofans Dimensions: wing span 38.88 m (130 ft 10 in); length 41,53 m 1136 ft 3 in к height 12.70 m (41 ft 8 in| Weights: operating empty 48220 kg (105,306 !b); maximum take-off 146284 kg I322.5QD lb); internal fuel 92210 <0 (203.288 lb); maximum payload 37650 kg (33,000 lb) Performance: maximum level speec at high altitude 982 krrh(610 mph); cruising speed at 10670 m 135,000 ft) 856 kind (532 mph); maximum rate of climb 393 m {1,290 It) per minute; service ceiling 13715 m (45,000 ft); operational radius 4633 km (2.879 miles)


ollowing Successful trials of the Boeing 367-80 transport prototype with a Boeing-designed ‘flying boom’ refuelling probe under the rear fuselage, the US Air Force placed an order for an initial batch of 29 KC-135A Stratotanker aircraft, in September 1955. These would be the first of a grand total of 732 to be built. The first KC-135A flew in August 1956 and the initial production Stratotanker was delivered to Castle AFB in June 1957. The last KC-135A was delivered to the USAF in 1965.

Two major turbofan re-engining programmes have since been undertaken. The first involved the conversion of 188 early-model aircraft to KC-135E standard, adding TF33 turbofans and wider-soan tailplanes. The thrust reverser-equipped TF33 allowed greater safety margins. The use of shorter runways and reduced noise pollution. The KC-135E, is 14 per cent more fuel efficient than the KC-135A and can off-load 20 percent more fuel.

The Boeing-developed KC-135R first flew in August 1982 and is the mainstay of today’s USAF tanker fleet. Over 400 these CFM56-powered conversions have been funded to date, with the first entering service in July 1984, The USAF’s specialist KC-135Q tankers (once dedicated to the SR-71 fleet), have now been re-engined as KC-135Ts and are used for F-117 support tasks. A KC-135R can off-load 50 percent more fuel, is 25 percent more fuel efficient, costs 25 per cent less to operate and is 96 percent quieter than a KC-135A.

About 550 KC-135S remain in service. Boeing also built another 88 C-135s of various kinds for special missions. The most important of these is the RC-135 family of reconnaissance aircraft. Current types include 15 RC-135V and RC-135W ‘Rivet Joint’ aircraft, and two RC-135U ‘Combat Sent’ aircraft These are all sophisticated electronic intelligence gathering platforms, with a range of tactical and strategic roles. There is also a single RC-135S ‘Cobra Ball’ aircraft, which uses high – powered optical systems to examine missile re-entry vehicles and satellites in low-earth orbit, All of the USAF’s RC-135s are attached to the 55th Wing, based at Offutt AFB, Nebraska,

KC-135 tankers have been exported to France (14 KC-135Fs now KC-135FRs) and Singapore (four KC-l35Rs). Approximately 544 USAF C-135s of all types will undergo the Pacer Crag cockpit and navi­gation systems upgrade (Crag stands for compass radar and GPS), in addition to acquiring TCAS and GATS/GATM capability, allowing them to operate within improved future air traffic control systems.

The USAF now has a fleet of 15 RC-135V and RC-135W aircraft, which are its most important signals and electronic intelligence-gathering assets.

Подпись: RAF Sentry AEW.Mk 1s have been consistently among the most capable E-3s, thanks to their CFM56 engines, advanced systems and excellent tactics.

Boeing’s E-3 Sentry is the world’s largest and most capable AWACS (airborne warning and control system) aircraft. The EC-137D prototype first flew on 5 February 1972. followed by xhe first E-3A on 31 October 1975. Using the airframe of a 707-3208 airliner fitted with a radar ‘rotodome’ and an exten­sive crew of mission operators, the E-3 is a flying C3I Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) platform. E-3s are used to control the ‘air battle’ monitoring all airborne activity and controlling combat operations over a wide area, At the heart of the system is the AM/APY-2 Overland Downlook Radar, which is capable of tracking up to 600 low – flying aircraft. Since entering service. Sentries have been involved in combat operations in Grenada 11983), Lebanon (1983), Panama (1989) and Iraq (1991) and continuing operations in the Balkans.

Twenty-two E-3 As and two EC-137Ds, collectively termed ’core" aircraft when they were standardised in the late 1970s, were upgraded to E-3B level with faster computers. ECM-resistant communications and additional radios and display consoles. The first E-3B was redelivered in July 1984. In 1984, 10 E-3As were modified to E-3C siandard with a larger crew capacity, most E-3B equipment and ‘Have Quick’ communications equipment. All but the first 25 E-3

The large bulges which have been added to upgraded NATO and USAF (Block 30/35) E-3s house the new AN/AYR-1 ‘Quick Look’ ESM/Elint system.

airframes have inboard underwing hardpoints. E-3A ‘standard’ versions have been delivered to Saudia Arabia (five) and NATO (18). The USAF has 33 E-3s.

Both US and NATO aircraft have undergone recent upgrades to enhance their capabilities, and add new electronic surveillance systems. US Sentries have undergone The Block 30/35 Modification Program, which includes an electronic surveillance capability to detect and identify air and surface-based emitters, the JT1DS datalink, increased computer memory end GPS navigation. In addition, a five-year U. S./NATO Radar System Improvement Program (RSIP) was launched in 1999 RSIP involves major hardware and software modifications to the existing racar system.

Improved and re-engined Sentries have oeen delivered to the UK (seven E-3D Sentry AEW. Mk 1) and France (four E-3F SDA (Systeme de Detection Aeroportee)). Both versions entered service in 1991 and are powered by CFM56 turbofans. They are also fitted with IFR probes, in addition to the stan­dard E-3 inflight-refuelling receptacle. RAF aircraft have wingtip-mounted Loral Yellow Gate ESIYI pods (becoming the first E-3s with this capability) CFM56 engines also power the five E-3As and eight KE-3A tanker aircraft, acquired by Saudi Arabia.


Specification: Boeing E-3C Sentry

Powerplant:four93 41-Ш (21,000-lb) Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-100/100A ter bo fans Dimensions: wing span 44.42 m [145 ft 9 in); length 46.61 in (152 ft 11 in): heiqht 12.73 m (41 ft 9 in)

Weights: aperating empty 77996 kg 1171,950 b); maximum take-off 147420 kg (325,000 lb); internal fuel 90B0Q litres (23,937 US gal) Performance: maximum level speed at high altitude 853 kmh (530 mph). operating ceiling 8840 m (29.000 ft): operational radius 16)2 km (1,002 miles) for a six-hour patrol without flight refuelling; endurance more than 11 houis with flight refuelling




The ALX (service designation T-29/AT-29) is a radical evolution of the original Tucano design. Braid will use its aircraft to patrol the vasl Amazonian region.



evelopment of the EMBRAFR EMB-312 Tucano (Toucan) h:gh-performance turboprop trainer started in 1978 in response; to a Brazilian air force specification, First flown on 16 August 1980, the first of 133 T-27s for the FAB entered service in September 1983. Designed to provide s ‘jet-like’ flying experience, the Tucano has a single control lever governing both propeller pitch and engine throttling, ejection seats, and a staggered tandem – olace cockpit. Four underwing hardpoints can carry ordnance for weapons training.

Tucanos have been exported to Argentina (30), Colombia (14), Egypt (54), France (40), Flonduras (12). Iran (25), Iraq (84), Paraguay (6), Peru (30) and Venezuela (31). French Tucanos are the improved EMB-312F version, with an updated cockpit avionics fit. Venezuela operates an armed version of the T-27 trainer, designated AT-27.

I he Tucano’s most notable export success came in March 1985, when it won a British order for 130 aircraft to replace the RAF’s Jet Provost trainers. Considerable modifications were made to tailor the basic airframe to exacting requirements, including substituting an 820-kW (1,100-shp) Garrett TPE331- 12B turboprop – which significantly improved the rate of climb – and reprofiling the cockpit to provide

The Shorts Tucano T. Mk 1 became the RAF’s basic trainer from 1987 onwards. All RAF training aircraft are being repainted in this overall black scheme.

commonality with the BAe Hawk, EMBRAER flew’ a Garrett-engined prototype in Brazil in February 1986 and delivered this to Shorts in Belfast as a pattern aircraft. The resultant Shorts Tucano T. Mk 1 retains only 20 per cent commonality with EMBRAFR-built aircraft, The first production aircraft flew on 30 December 1986. and initial deliveries to the RAF took place in June 1988. Customers for the armed export Shorts Tucano include Kenya (12 Tucano Mk 51s) and Kuwait 116 Tucano Mk 52s) EMBRAER is currently building 99 ALX (T-29) light combat aircraft for the FAB, based on the EMB-314 Super Tucano (previously EMB-312FI Tucano H) design. The ALX is streiched by 1.37 m (4 ft 5% in) compared to the EMB-312 and fitted with a 1193-kW (1,600-hp) PT6A-68-1 turboprop. The ALX has an armoured, NVG-compatible cockpit with HUD and MFDs, five weapons hardpoints and a FUR system (two-seat version). Embraer flew a Tucano H development aircraft in September 1991. Two EMB-314 prototypes made their maiden flights on 15 May and 14 October 1993, respectively, and they now serve as the ALX development aircraft. Brazil plans to acquire between 30 and 40 two-seat AT-29s to replace its AT-26 Xavante (licence-built MB.326) advanced jet trainers.


Specification: EMBRAER EMB-312 Tucano Powerplant: une 559-kVV (750-hp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop Dimensions: wring span 11.14 m (36 ч 6/ in); length 9.85 m (32 ft 4I4 in): height 340 m (11 ft YA in)

Weights: basic Empty 1870 kg (4.123 lb); max take-off 3175 kg (7,000 lb|. with stores Performance: maximum level speed 448 kmh (278 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 680 m (2,231 ft) per minute: service ceiling 9145 m (30,000 ft), typical range 11344 km (1,145 miles) with internal fuel; endurance about 5 hours with internal fuel Armament: four stores stations for maximum ordnance of 1000 kg (2.205 lb)


France (China) Multi-purpose helicopter


The armed AS 565SB Panther can cany four AS 15TT anti-ship missiles and is fitted with an undemose Omera ORB 32 search radar.



n the early 1970s Aerospatiale (now Eurocopter) began development of a helicopter to replace the Alouette III. The initial version, the SA 360 Dauphin, featured a four-bladed main rotor, fenestroo tail rotor, tailwheel landing gear and accommodation for a pilot and up to nine passengers. Production a:rcraft were powered by a 783-kW (1,050-shp) Astazou XVHIA. Despite the development of a military SA 361H, t was obvious that the Dauphin needed twin engines. The Arriel-powered SA 365C Dauphin 2 flew for the first time on 24 January 1975 The SA 365N introduced a retractable tricycle undercarriage, greater use of composites in the construction and other improvements.

Aerospatiale developed the SA 366G1 for a US Coast Guard requirement to replace its Sikorsky HH-52s. The HH-65A Dolphin featured many US – built components, including 507-kW (680-hp) Textron Lycoming LTS101 750A-1 engines. A Total of 101 HH-65As was delivered between 1987 and 1991.

Eurocopter went on to develop the improved AS 365IM3 Dauphin and the significantly redesigned AS 365N4 (now renamed the EC 155) Eurocopter has redesignated its military Dauphin variants on several occasions, leading to a confusing list of names and numbers. Today, two baseline versions are on offer, the army/air force AS 565UB Panther, and the armed navalised AS 565SB Panther. These designations supersede a range of earlier models including the armed AS 565AA, the anti­
tank AS 565CA. the utility AS 565UA, the armed naval AS 565SA (late’ AS 565SB: and the naval utility/SAR AS 565MA (later AS 565MB).

Beginning in 1987 the Brazilian army took delivery of 36 AS 565AAs, becoming the ma|or customer for the land-based military Dauphin Interest in the nava’ version (originally AS 365F) has been stronger. In 1980 the Saudi navy ordered four SAR/surveil – lance-configured AS 365Fs (later AS 565MA) and 20 missile-armed attack-configured AS 365Ns (later AS 565SA). In 1986 Ireland took delivery of five AS 365Fs for SAR and fisheries patrol. In 1988 the French navy ordered 13 AS 565Fs for shipboard operations. In 1994 the Israeli navy ordered 20 AS 565SA Atalef (‘bat’} aircraft for a similar role.

The Dauphin is built under licence by the Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Company (HAMC) in China, as the Z-9 Haitun (‘dolphin’). The initial production Z-9 variant was equivalent to the SA 365N and it was followed by the Z-9A (AS 365N1), the Z-9B (AS 365N2) and the Z-9G (missile-armed version for the People’s Liberation Army).

Подпись: The French navy’s shipboard AS 565F Dauphins (now referred to as AS 565SB Panthers) are used for SAR and ‘planeguard’ rescue tasks at sea. Specification: Eurocopter AS565SB Panther Powerplant: two 835-kW (851 – hp) Turbomeca Arriel 2C turboshafts

dimensions: main rotor diameter 11 .94 in (39 ft 7 ir), lengtn overall, rotor t jrnirg 13.68 m (44 ft lUM In); height overall 3.S8 m(13 ‘t A in) Weights: empty 2281 kg (5.028 b); maximum take-eff 4250 kg (9.37C b)

Performance: maximum cruising speed at sea level 278 mill (173 mpb); maximum rate of ciimb at sea level 468 m (1,535 ft) per minute; hovering ceiling 2600 m (8,530 ft) IGE, and 2500 m (8,200 ft) 0GE, radius of action 2Б0 km (155) with four missiles Armament: four AS 15TT anti-ship missiles

Lockheed Martin X-35 JSF


Подпись: Specification: Lockheed X-35B JSF Powerplant: one 173.55-klN: (39,000-!b| Prar. & Whitney JSD19-611 turbofan engine, with two-stage shaft-driven counter rotating lift far. (SlGVL version! Dimensions: wing spar 10 7 m (35 ft 10 in); length 15.47 m (50 It Э ini: wing area £2.7rrv libO.Ssq^) Weights: maximum take-off' 6692 kg (36,800 lb) Performance: maximum level speed over Mach 1.0: Armament one internal Bk 2127-nim cannon IFnII specification not available!


he US Joint Strike Fighter {JSF! programme is

an ambitious effort to develop a replacement for an entire generation of USAF, US Navy and US Marine Corps aircraft using ore common ‘stealthy’ airframe. The JSF is earmarked to replace the F-16, F/A-18, AV-8B and other types in the US inventory, and will also be exportable to customers world­wide. The JSF has its loots ir a number of studies for advanced, affordable combat aircraft that were launched in the early 1990s These were merged into the JAST (Joint Advanced Strike Technology) programme in 1995, which later became JSF.

Three contractors – Boeing, Lockheed Martin and McDonnell Douglas – were selected by the US DoD to submit JSF designs. In November 1996 Boeing and Lockheed Martin were chosen to build two demonstrator aircraft, essentially JSF prototypes, to conduct a Concept Demonstration Program. At the end of this period one contractor would be chosen to build its JSF design. Lockheed Martin’s CDP aircraft was given the designation X-35.

While the JSF concept demands a common airframe, there will be different versions for the three main US users. The USAF and the US Navy are looking for a conventional take-off and landing (CTOU capability, though Navy CV aircraft will have to be modified for carrier operations. The Marines need aircraft with short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) capability to replace the Harrier, so the USMC’s JSF variant will have to have a modified

The CV-configured X 35C is similar to the CTOL X-35A, but has larger wings and empennage, a refuelling probe, re-inforced landing gear and a booh,

propu sion system, for vertical lift. Britain’s Fleet Air Arm (Royal Navy) has also signed up to acquire the STOVL JSF to replace its Sea Harriers.

Lockheed has built tnree CDP a rcraft. The CT0L X-35A the STOVL X-35B and the CV X-35C. The X-35A made Its maiden flight on 24 October 2000, the X-35C flew next on 16 December 2000. In March 2001 the X-38B completed its ‘hover pit’ testing, in preparation for its first flight. The X-35 design is more conventional than Boeing’s rival X-32, but Lockheed as adopted a completely new propulsion solution. The X 35B’s -611 STOVL engine uses a vectoring lift fan for vertical flight which can be coupled/decoup’led to/from the main engine using a gear/clutch mechanism. The engine also has a swivelling exhaust nozzle, and bifurcated intakes (between which the lift fan is positioned.

A decision date on the winning design has been delayed several times, but is now planned before the end of 2001. The first operational JSFs are expected to be the Marines’ STOVL variants in 2008. followed by the CTOL aircraft in 2010.

Lockheed Martin’s X-35 design looks very different to the the rival Boeing X-32 – but both aircraft must meet the same mission requirements.



he Douglas A-4 Skyhawk first ‘lew in proto­type form on 22 June 1954, and entered service in Octobe’ 1956. It provided the US Navy end the US Marine Corps with their principal light attack platform for over 20 years Total production of all varisnts reached 2,960. Early models comprised the J65-powereo A-4A, A-4B and A-4C (differing in avionics and engine power), and the the J52- engined A-4E, and A-4F with a dorsal avionics hump. Export mode! s included the A-4G (Australia), A-4H (Israel). A-4K (New Zealand), A-4PTM (Malaysia), A-4S (Singapore) and A-4KU (Kuwait). The A-4L was a rebuilt A-4C for the USN Reserve. The ast major p’oduction model was the A-4M, based on the A-4F but with a J52-P-408A engine and new canopy. A-4lls for Israel were similar, bux featured uprated avionics, including a HUD.

Skyhawks bore the brunt of the naval air war in Vietnam, flying the most missions and suffering the heaviest osses. A-4s have also seen combat with Israel, Argentina and Indonesia.

The TA-4F two-seat variant came along late, but was used first as a FAC by the USMC and later as the main jet trainer for the USN. It features two cockpits in tandem with a single canopy. The USMC’s OA-4IVI was a specialised two-seater used

Argentina acquired 32 rebuilt and upgraded A-4ARs between 1997 and 2000. They are fitted with a version of the APG-66 multi-mode radar, theARG-1.

for FAC duties. The definitive TA-4J trainer was a simplried TA-4F which usually lacked cannon arma­ment and combat capability. The last USN Training Command A-4s were retired in 1999, but one squadron retains TA-4Js for adversary and fleet support duties.

Although Australia. Malaysia and Kuwait have retired their A-4s, the other export users continue to operate them. New Zealand bougntthe remaining A-4Gs and upgradec them with the APG-66 raoar, new avionics, AIM-9L Sidewinder and Maverick – missile capabi ity, under project Kahu. The Argentine air force bought surplus A-4/OA-AMs and also upgraded them as the A-4AR Fightinghawk, Brazil bought the former-Kuwaiti T/A-4KUs for service on its recently acquired former-French aircraft carder Foch (now renamed Sao Paulo) as the AF-1A and AF-1B.

Singapo’e has the most highly modified Skyhawks, having upgraded surplus A-4B/Cs as A-4Ss and TA-4Ss trainers with seperate rear canopes. These aircraft were first upgraded to T/A-4S-1 Super Skyhawk standard, re-engined with the GE F404 turbofan. A follow-on upgrade brought them up to T/A-4SU Super Skyhawk standard, with a new digital avionics suite.

Подпись:Specification: McDonnell Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II

Powerplant: one 50-kN (11.280-lb) Pratt & Whitney J52-P-40S non-afterburning turbojet Dimensions: w ig span 8.38 m (27 ft б in); lennth 12.72 m (41 ft 8M in) height 457 m (14 ft Ш inf

Weights: operating amply 4747 kg (10,250 lb): maximum Luke-off і0206 kg 124,COO lb) Performance: maxinun level spaed 1102 knrh 685 rriph); service uei ing 12190 m (40.000 ft); combat radius 547 km (346 miles! with a 18′ 4-kg (4,000-lb) war bad Armament: two h/k 12 20-ГЛГП cannon, maximum ordnance 4153 kg (9,155 lb)

(( _ _ United States

Westland Sea King

Naval ASW, ASuV, AEW, SAR and utility helicopter


The Royal Navy (and Royal Marines) rely on the Sea King HC. Mk 4, better known as the Commando, as its primary assault transport.



our Sikorsky-built S-61s were shipped to Westland in 1966 as pattern aircraft for the Royal Navy’s licence-produceo Sea King HAS. Mk 1 Flying on 7 May 1969, it had British avionics and ASW systems, including search radar, sonar, Doppler and bathythermographic equipment, and AFCS. Weapons included Mk 44 torpedoes, Mk 11 depth charges or a WE177 nuclear depth bomb. The 56 RN HAS. Mk Is were followed by 21 HAS. IVIk 2s (and 37 conversions) with uprated engines, six-bladed tail rotors and intake deflector/filters. The withdrawal of HMS Ark Royal left the Royal Navy without shipbome AEW cover, and nine HAS. Mk 2s were converted to Sea King AEW. Mk 2 standards, with a Searchwater radar with a retractable radome in an inflatable radome. Three similar AEW radar systems were sold to Spain for the conversion of three US-built Spanish navy SH-3H Sea Kings. The surviving AEW Sea Kings are now being upgraded to AEW. Mk 7 stan­dard. with a new puise-Doppler multi-mode radar, new mission computer, JTlDSand IFF.

The Sea King HAS. Mk 5 (85 produced, some 55 by conversion of HAS. Mk 2s) featured Sea Searcher radar, improved processing and Orange Crop ESM. The HAS. Mk 6 has an integrated sonar processor, deep water dipping sonar, and Orange Reaper ESM. Five new-build HAS. Mk 6s followed the prototype (a converted HAS. Mk 5) and 69 conversion kits were supplied to RNAY Fleetlands.

The similar Advanced Sea King was developed specifically for export, India buy:ng 12 Sea Eagle- compatible Sea King Mk 42Bs and six SAR-config – ured Sea King Mk 42Cs.

About half a dozen Royal Navy HAS. Mk 5s were stripped of ASW equipment for use in the SAR role as HAR. Mk 5s, while 19 dedicated Sea King HAR. Mk 3 SAR aircraft were delivered to the RAF Six more HAR. Mk 3As were ordered in February 1992, equipped to an even higher standard, with a new radar, a new AFCS and improved nav systems and radios. ASW and SAR Sea Kings were exported to Australia, Belgium. Egypt, Germany, India, Norway, and Pakistan/

Development of an assault/tactical transport Sea King began in mid-1971, resulting in the Westland Commando No interest was initially expressed by the UK, but Egypt and Qatar placed orders. RN interest began in 1978, as a replacement for the Wessex. Forty-one Commando HC. Mk 4s were procured for the RN. Two similar Sea King Mk 4Xs were built for the RAE as test aircraft.

Подпись: The Sea King HAS.Mk 6 is the Fleet Air Arm’s primary anti-submarine helicopter. The Sea King is finally being replaced by the EH Industries Merlin. Specification: Sea King HAS. Mk 6 Powerplant: wo 1238-kWfl,660-hp) Ro Is Rcyce Gnome H.1400-1T turboshafts Dimensions: main rotor diameter 18.80 m (62 ft}; length overall, rolors turning 22 15m (72 It 8 in), fuselage 17.02 m{55 ft 10 in); height overall 5.13 m (16 ft 10 in) with rotors turning

Weights: empty equipped 7428 kg (16,377 Ibl; maximum take-off 9752 kg (21.500 lb) Performance: maximum cruising speed 204 kmh (126 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 619 m (2.030 ft) per minute;

Boeing F-15A, F-15B, F-15C, F-15D Air superiority fighter


This mix of F-15Cs (and a single F-15D) are from the two Eagle squadrons of the Kadena AFB-based 18th Wing, one of PACAF’s key units.



he McDonnell Douglas-designed F-15 Eagle is viewed as the world’s best air superiority fighter and interceptor, particularly in the BVR [beyond visual range) air-to-air mission. It was designed for the USAF’s 1966 FX requirement which called for a long-range air superiority fighter to replace the F-4. McDonnell won that competition and flew a proto­type F-15 A on 27 July 1972, followed by a prototype F-15B two-seat trainer in July 1973.

The F-15 has an advanced aerodynamic design with large lightly-loaded wings conferring high agility. It features a sophisticated avionics system and its APG-63 radar introduced a genuine look-down/ shoot-down capability. Radar-guided AIM-7 AAMs form the primary armament, augmented by AIM-9 AAMs. While still in use. the AIM-7 has now been superseded by the far more capable AIM-120 AMRAAM. The USAF is also preparing to introduce the latest AIM-9X off-boresight short-range missile.

The USAF received 360 production F-l5As and 58 F-15Bs from 1976. Most remaining F-15A/Bs now serve with ANG units. The only foreign F-15A/B operator is Israel, which currently operates a force of about 50 A/Bs.

The F-15C, an improved and updated F-15A, was the definitive production version. The two-seat F-15D was a similarly-improved F-15B. First flying on 26 February 1979, the F-15C introduced uprated F100 engines and provision for conformal fuel tanks (CFTs). initial deliveries were made in September
1979 and F-15C/Ds later replaced F-15A/Bs with three wings. The F-15 Multistage lmprovement Program’ was initiated in February 1983, with the first production MSIP F-15C produced in 1985. Improvements included an upgraded central computer, a Programmable Armament Control Set, allowing for advanced versions of the AIM-7, AIM-9, and AIM-120A missiles, and an expanded Tactical Electronic Warfare System that provides improvements to the ALR-56C radar warning receiver and ALQ-135 countermeasure set. The final 4-3 were fitted with a Hughes APG-70 radar.

F-15C/Ds were delivered to the USAF (408/62), Israel (18/9) and Saudi Arabia (98). The equivalent F-15J/DJ is Japan’s principal air superiority fighter. Most of the JASDF’s 213 planned Eagles have been assembled under licence by Mitsubishi.

The USAF is now fitting all its F-15A/Cs with the upgraded APG-63(V)1 radar. The first of these air­craft entered service in April 2001. During 2000, 18 special F-15Cs were fitted with the APG-63(V}2 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar.

A yellow fin stripe marks this F-15C as an aircraft from the 2nd Fighter Squadron, 325th Fighter Wing, based at Tyndall AFB, in Florida.

image43Specification: Boeing F-15C Eagle Rowe rp I ant: two 106.0-Ш (23,830-lb) Pratt & Whitney FI OD-P-220 turbofans Dimensions: span 13.05 m (42 ft 10 in); length 19.43 m |63 ft 9 in); height 5.63 n {18 ft 5/ in) Weights: operating empty 12793 kg 128.600 lb); normal lake-oil 20244 kg (44,630 Ibi; maximum take-off 30844 kg 168.000 lb), with CFTs Performance: maximum level speed more than 2655 kmh (1.650 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level more [ban 15240 ш 150,000 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18290 m (60.000 ft); combat radius 1967 km (1.222 miles) (interception mission)

Armament: one M61 20-mm cannon with 940 rounds; maximum ordnance 7257 kg [16,000 lb)



uccessor to The ubiquitous Sud Alouette II, the Aerospatiale (now Eurocopter) Gazelle originated in a mid-1960s project oy Sud Aviation. Despite using many of its predecessor’s dynamic systems (includ:ng the 268-kW (360-shp) Astazou II power – plant), the X.300 design, soon renamed SA 341, achieved increased speed and manoeuvred lity through adoption of a more powerful turboshaft, aerodynamically-shaped cabin and covered tail – boom, and advancec rotor technology. The Gazelle used a rigid main rotor head, glass-fibre blades and the revolutionary ‘fenestron’ or fan-in-fin tail rotor. The SA 340 prototype flew on 12 April 1968 with non-standard conventional rotors. The revised SA 341 Gazelle incorporated the new rotor technology, and introduced a longer cabin, larger tail surfaces and a 440-kW (590-shp) Astazou III.

Six versions were launched initially: SA 341B (British Army Gazelle AH. Mk 1>, SA 3410 (Royal Navy HT. Mk 2 trainer); SA 341D (RAF HT. Mk 3 trainer); SA 341E (RAF HCC. Mk 4 VIP transport} – all with the Astazou INN: SA 341F (French army – ALAT) with Astazou NIC; and military export SA 341 FI. In the UK, Westland built 294 Gazelles, including 212 AH. Mk is. Generally unarmed, they carried rockets during the 1982 Faiklands War,
wh le nearly 70 were fitted with target-finding magnryirg sights for missi e-armed Lynxes, during the late 1980s. Of 170 SA 341 Fs. ALAT converted 40 to carry four HOT ATGMs as SA 341Мз anc 62 with a GIAT M621 20-mm cannor and SFOM 80 sight as the SA 34lF/Canon. Others have acquired an Athos scouting sight.

Powered by a 640-kW (858-shp) Astazou XIVH, the SA 342 replaced the SA 341 Foreign exports began with the military SA 342K, the latter soon replaced by SA 342Ls with an improved fenestron The ALAT equivalent is designated SA 342M and over 200 have been deliverec since 1980, typically armed with four HOT missiles arc fitted with an M397 sight.

During the 1991 Gulf War, 30 i-rench SA 342Ms were converted to SA 342M/Celtic standard, fitted with two Mistral air-to-air missiles and a SFOM 80 sight. This interim model has been replaced ny the definitive SA342ML1/ATAM ant-helicopter model This version is armed with four Mistrals ano a T2000 sight, and 36 Gazelles have been thus converted. The ALAT is also upgrading 70 of its at:ack-configured AS 342Ms to AS 342M1 Viviane standard, through the addition of the Viviane thermal – imaging sight, with a laser rangefinder.

Подпись: French army (ALAT) Gazettes have always operated in the armed rote. This SA 342M is seen launching a HOT wire-guided anti-tank missile. Specification: Eurocopter SA 341F Gazelle Powerplant: one 440-kW (590-hp) Turbomfica Astazou IMA

Dimensions: шзіп rotor diameter 10.50 m 134 ft 54 in); engtli overs!. rotor turning 11.97 n I39 fl 3 in) and fuselage 9.53 m (31 ft 3 in}: height overall 3.18 m (10 ft э25 in Weights: empty 920 kg (2,928 lb}: maximum take-off 1800 <g (3,968 lb)

Performance: maximum cruising speed 264 krrh [134 mph); maximum rate of climb at sea level 540 m (1,770 ft) per minute, service ceiling 5030 rri (16,405 It), hovering ceiling 2650 m (9.350 It) iCit: range 670 krr [416 mi es| Armament: maximum payload 700 kg (1,540 lb)

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom миш-гоіе combat aircraft


The first upgraded Peace Icarus F-4E for Greece made its maiden flight on 28 April 1999. The bulk of the actual upgrade is being handled by HAI.



he McDonnell F-4 Phantom was originally designed as e shipboard interceptor for the USN and USMC. The prototype (XF4H-1) first flew on 27 May 1958. The first production version was The F-4B None of the naval versions remain in jse as fighters and even the handful operated by test agenc:es have now been_retired. saving only QF-4INI/S drones in service. I he USAF’s initial F-4C variant was followed by the F-4D optimised for air-to-ground operations. All US F-4C/Ds have been retired, but the model remains active n Iran end Sooth Korea.

The definitive F-4E for the USAF first flew in June 1967, and introduced a 20-miri cannon fitted under the nose. F-4Es remains in service with Egypt, Greece, Iran, Israel, South Korea and Turkey. The type has been withdrawn from US service and many have been converted to QF-4E target drones.

The F-4G ‘Wild Weasel’ anti-radar variant resulted from the conversion of 116 F-4E airframes. Deleting the integral cannon and adding an APFi-38 RHAWS. They were the last US Phantoms to see active service, in the 1991 Gulf War. The survivors have been converted to QF-4G drores.

Five irso’ Pnantom operators have upgraded their surviving aircraft, extending airframe ives and adding modern radar, improved avionics and self- defence systems. In the mid-1980s Israeli launched the Kurnass 2000 upgrade, which adds a completely new mission avionics package to ts
remaining F-4Es and RF-4E/RF-4E(S) Oref (raven) reconnaissance aircraft. Israel is now upgrading Turkish F-4Es to Phantom 2000 standard with EL/IV1-2032 multi-mode radars, a digita cockoit anc enhanced weapons capability.

The Luftwaffe’s F-4F ICE (Improved Combat Efficiency) upgrade added the APG-65 radar and AMRAAM capability to about 150 aircraft. DASA is also upgrading 39 Greek F-4Es to a similar level, under the Peace Icarus programme. Japan operates about 90 upgraded F-4EJ Kais, with APG-66 ‘adars, expanded weapons capability and updated avionics.

The reconnaissance-configured RF-4Cand RF-4E have a modified nose housing ootical cameras, e. ectronic equipment,. IR sensors and a mapping/ terrain avoidance radar. RF-4Es remain active with Greece, Iran, Turkey and Israel, while Spain operates modernised RF-4Cs. Israel’s armed RF-4Es are equipped with ndigenous reconnaissance and avionics equipment and have fixed refuelling probes. Japan operates 14 UQgraded RF-4EJ Kais with new radars and modernised recce systems.

Подпись:Specification: McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom II

Powerplant: two r9.82-klN (17,900-lb) General Electric J79-GET7A afterburning turbojets Dimensions: wing span 11.71 m (38 ft b n), length 19.70 n (03 ft); height 5.02 mfl6 ft 5/ in) Weights: basic empty 13757 kg I33.328 ib); combat take-off 18818 kg (41,487 lb): maximum take-off 28C30 kc (51,795 lb) Performance: maximum level speed 2393 kmh (1,485 mpn), maximum rate of climb a: sea level 18715 m (31,400 ft) per minute: service ceiling 18Э75 in [62,250 ft); area interception combat radius 1266 km (786 miles)

Armament: one V151 20-mrr cannon with 640 rounds, maximum ordnance 7253 <п 116.0DCI lb!