Category Praxis Manned Spaceflight Log 1961-2006

STS-72

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Launch Vehicle Duration Call sign Objective 1996-001A 11 January 1996

Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 20 January 1996

Runway 15, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida OV-105 Endeavour/ET-75/SRB BI-077/SSME #1 2028; #2 2039; #3 2036 8 days 22 hrs 1 min 47 sec Endeavour

Retrieval of Japanese Space Flyer Unit; deployment and retrieval of OAST-Flyer; EDFT-03

Flight Crew

DUFFY, Brian, 42, USAF, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-45 (1992); STS-57 (1993)

JETT Jr., Brent Ward, 37, USN, pilot

CHIAO, Leroy, 35, civilian, mission specialist 1, 2nd mission

Previous mission: STS-65 (1994)

SCOTT, Winston Elliott, 45, USN, mission specialist 2 WAKATA, Koichi, 32, civilian, Japanese mission specialist 3 BARRY, Daniel Thomas, 42, civilian, mission specialist 4

Flight Log

The launch of STS-72 was delayed for 23 minutes due both to problems with ground sites and the need to avoid a potential collision with an item of space debris. On FD 3, Japanese MS Wakata used the RMS to grasp the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU), which had originally been launched in March 1995 aboard an H-2 rocket from the Tanegashima Space Centre in Japan. Over a ten-month period, more than a dozen onboard instruments and experiments had been operating in a research programme that encompassed materials and biological science. Prior to grappling the unit with the RMS, the twin solar arrays had to be jettisoned after it was found that they were not correctly retracted.

The next day, the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Flyer (OAST – Flyer) was deployed, again by Wakata using the RMS, on an independent two-day flight that extended to approximately 72 km from Endeavour. Attached to the SPARTAN platform were four experiments that investigated spacecraft contamina­tion, global positioning technology, laser ordnance devices and an amateur radio package. The flyer was retrieved on FD 6. In addition to the deployment and retrieval operations, the crew had a programme of payload bay and mid-deck secondary

STS-72

The Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) is retrieved using the Shuttle’s RMS. The yet-to-be – deployed OAST Flyer satellite is seen in the payload bay at bottom centre

experiments to conduct, which mainly consisted of studies in ozone concentrations in the atmosphere, a laser to accurately measure the distance between the Earth’s surface and the orbiter, and a range of biological and biomedical experiments.

The crew also completed two EVAs as part of the EDFT programme of prep­aration for extensive EVA activities during ISS construction. During the first EVA (15 Jan, 6 hours 9 minutes), astronauts Chiao (EV1) and Barry (EV2) evaluated a new portable work platform and the Rigid Umbilical Structure, which was being devel­oped as a possible retention device for ISS fluid and electrical lines. During the second EVA (17 Jan, 6 hours 54 minutes), this time conducted by Chiao and Scott (EV3), the portable work platform was again evaluated and the astronauts also tested the design of a utility box, another item under development for ISS, which would hold avionics and fluid line connections. During the EVA, Scott tested his suit in severe cold temperatures of up to —75°C, to find out whether the revised design would keep him warm during the test. In fact, the 35-minute test resulted in temperatures of — 122°C being recorded, providing a tough test of the suit’s extremities (fingers and feet) and coolant loop bypass system. Scott reported that he was aware of the low temperatures but remained comfortable and though had he been working rather than staying still, he determined that he would have felt warmer in either situation.

Milestones

185th manned space flight

104th US manned space flight

74th Shuttle mission

10th flight of Endeavour

33rd US and 60th flight with EVA operations

3rd EDFT exercise

. SOYUZ TMA6

Flight Crew

KRIKALEV, Sergei Konstaninovich, 46, civilian, Russian ISS-11 and Soyuz commander, 6th mission

Previous missions: Soyuz TM7 (1988); Soyuz TM12 (1991); STS-60 (1994); STS-88 (1998); ISS-1 (2000/01)

PHILLIPS, John Lynch, 54, civilian, US ISS-11 science officer, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-100 (2001)

VITTORI, Roberto, 40, Italian Air Force, Soyuz flight engineer, 2nd mission Previous mission: Soyuz TM34 (2002)

Flight Log

The eleventh residency aboard ISS would be the first to receive a Shuttle mission since STS-113 in December 2002. The loss of Columbia and her crew had created the need to fly two-man resident crews, termed caretakers, because orbital operations were restricted by the availability of onboard supplies, and station expansion curtailed by the grounding of the Shuttle. This was the fifth such caretaker crew, but the docking of STS-114 in July signified that full station operations could soon be resumed.

Flying to the station with EO-11 was ESA astronaut Vittori, who completed 23 experiments in 91 sessions under the Eneide programme. His research consisted of studies in human physiology, biology, demonstrations of new technology and a programme of education demonstrations. Vittori would also participate in a number of ceremonial and public relations broadcasts, a feature of most crew exchanges and international missions in space. Vittori would return to Earth aboard TMA5 along with the two ISS-10 crew members.

Almost as soon as the new crew were left alone on the station, their time was taken up by problems with the Elektron system, which finally broke down in early May.

. SOYUZ TMA6

Change of shift on ISS. The ISS-10 and 11 crews give the thumbs-up to the continuation of manned station operations. L to r John Phillips and Sergey Krikalev (ISS-11), Leroy Chiao (ISS-10), Italian Roberto Vittori (ESA) and Salizhan Sharipov (ISS-10)

There were sufficient alternative oxygen supplies aboard the station to keep the crew supplied until the end of the year, with re-supply by the Shuttle and Progress, but it was still disconcerting as troubleshooting on the unit would be added to an already heavy work programme. Other maintenance included work on the treadmill vibration isolation system. The crew received their first re-supply craft (Progress M53) in June, which delivered 2,383 kg of cargo. This included 111 kg of oxygen and 420 kg of water, as well as 40 solid fuel oxygen generation cartridges and spare parts for the Elektron unit.

The crew also completed a range of science studies, including Earth observations, medical experiments, and microgravity research. In addition they tested new software that had been installed to support the Canadarm2 unit on the station and relocated their Soyuz from the Pirs module to the Zarya module on 19 July, freeing the docking compartment for their EVA the following month. The re-docking operation took approximately 30 minutes to complete. During these relocation manoeuvres, the station had to be prepared for autonomous flight, in case the Soyuz failed to re-dock and the crew were forced to return to Earth.

On 28 July, the STS-114 crew docked Discovery with the station, bringing much – welcomed supplies and visitors to the crew, and confidence in the resumption of Shuttle ISS assembly flights. In August, the Russian Vodzukh carbon dioxide removal system failed and while the Russian ground controllers investigated the problem and came up with a repair plan, the American unit in Destiny was activated to take over the operation. On 16 August Krikalev surpassed Sergei Avdeyev’s career record of time logged in space (747 days 14 hours 14 minutes 11 seconds).

The two men performed their only EVA on 17 August (4 hours 57 minutes). For Phillips, it was the first excursion outside a spacecraft in space, but for veteran Krikalev, this was his eighth EVA. Their tasks included retrieving exterior sample cassettes, installing a new reserve TV camera for ATV dockings, and photographing exterior experiments and surfaces. Some of the activities planned for the EVA could not be accomplished due to lack of time and would be rescheduled for later crews. Following their EVA, the crew cleaned their equipment and resumed their scientific and maintenance work in preparation for their next visitors, the crew of Soyuz TMA7 and the third space flight participant. In their final days in orbit, the two men began packing up their research results, increased their exercise programme in preparation for the return to gravity and checked the systems of Soyuz TMA6. They would return to Earth with space flight participant Greg Olsen after he completed his week aboard the station.

During the descent of TMA6, there was a small pressure leak from the DM, which was noted before the undocking from ISS. An obstruction of some kind seemed to have prevented the air tight seal of the forward DM hatch into the OM. On module separation the leak continued to vent, although the crew were protected in their Sokol suits. The landing occurred successfully but Phillips had to be given smelling salts to prevent him drifting into unconsciousness. The astronaut later explained that he was far more uncomfortable in the DM than he had been in the Shuttle he had returned on in 2001. He was not sure if he became unconscious for a short time, but he knew his head was spinning. In images from the recovery operation, he certainly looked weak and pale.

Milestones

243rd manned space flight

99th Russian manned space flight

92nd manned Soyuz mission

6th manned Soyuz TMA mission

39th Russian and 93rd flight with EVA operations

10th ISS Soyuz mission (9S)

8th visiting mission (VC-7)

5th resident caretaker ISS crew (2 person)

Phillips is launched on his 54th birthday (15 Apr)

Krikalev celebrates his 47th birthday in space (27 Aug)

Krikalev sets a new cumulative record of 803 days 9hrs 39 mins in space, on six missions

1st cosmonaut to fly six missions (Krikalev)

1st person to conduct a second residence aboard ISS (Krikalev)

APOLLO BLOCK I

Early planning for Apollo included a series of manned missions designed to evaluate the systems and procedures of the Apollo parent craft (the Command and Service Module, or CSM) in Earth orbit, prior to committing it to lunar distance flights or flights with the Lunar Module. These capsules were termed Block 1 and did not feature the docking and transfer tunnel system utilised on the lunar missions. Sub­sequent Block II CSMs were designed to fly in conjunction with the LM in Earth orbit or deep space, or to support the lunar landing flights. More advanced missions that fell under the Apollo Applications Program banner would use a proposed (but unflown) Block III series of CSMs. Some of the amendments proposed to support extended – duration lunar missions were actually incorporated into the “J” series of scientific Apollo missions flown in 1971-1972 using upgraded Block II CSMs and LMs. Block III CSMs were also planned to support flights to orbital workshops (later Skylab), but none were fabricated. There was also a Block I mission known as Apollo 2, but this was cancelled in 1966 when it became apparent that it was too much of a duplication of the Apollo 1 mission, given the desire to press on with qualifying the Block II series of CSMs, the Lunar Module and the Saturn V for manned flights.

APOLLO 1

Int. Designation

None – fatal pad fire accident prior to planned launch

Launched

Planned 21 February 1967

Launch Site

Pad 34, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

Planned 7 March 1967

Landing Site

Pacific Ocean

Launch Vehicle

Saturn 1B

Duration

Planned 13 days 18 hours 50 minutes

Callsign

Apollo 1

Objective

First manned qualification test of Apollo (Block I) CSM in Earth orbit for up to 14 days; test firings of the Service Propulsion System; evaluation of systems and procedures by crew and vehicle

Flight Crew

GRISSOM, Virgil Ivan “Gus”, 40, USAF, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: Mercury Redstone 4 (1961); Gemini 3 (1965) WHITE II, Edward Higgins, 36, USAF, senior pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 4 (1965)

CHAFFEE, Roger Bruce, 31, USN

SOYUZ 6, 7 AND 8

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Подпись:Подпись: Duration Callsign Objective 1969-085A (Soyuz 6), 086A (Soyuz 7), 087A (Soyuz 8)

11 (Soyuz 6), 12 (Soyuz 7) and 13 (Soyuz 8) October 1969 Pad 1, Site 5 (Soyuz 7); Pad 31, Site 6 (Soyuz 6, Soyuz 8), Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 16 (Soyuz 6), 17 (Soyuz 7) and 18 (Soyuz 8) October 1969 Soyuz 6 – 179.2 km (111 miles) northwest, Soyuz 7 – 153.6 km (95 miles) northwest and Soyuz 8 – 144 km (89 miles) north of Karaganda R7 (11A511) for all three launches; spacecraft serial numbers (7K-0K) #14 (Soyuz 4); #15 (Soyuz 5);

#16 (Soyuz 8)

4 days 22hrs 42 min 47 sec (Soyuz 6); 4 days 22hrs 40 min 23 sec (Soyuz 7); 4 days 22hrs 50 min 49 sec (Soyuz 8) Soyuz 6 – Antey (Antaeus); Soyuz 7 – Buran (Snowstorm); Soyuz 8 – Granit (Granite)

Soyuz “troika” group flight; rendezvous and docking between Soyuz 7 and 8; space welding experiments on Soyuz 6

Flight Crew

SHONIN, Georgy Stepanovich, 34, Soviet Air Force, commander Soyuz 6 KUBASOV, Valery Nikoleyevich, 34, civilian, flight engineer Soyuz 6 FILIPCHENKO, Anatoly Vasilyevich, 41, Soviet Air Force, commander, Soyuz 7

VOLKOV, Vladislav Nikoleyevich, 33, civilian, flight engineer Soyuz 7 GORBATKO, Viktor Vasilyevich, 34, Soviet Air Force, research engineer, Soyuz 7

SHATALOV, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, 42, Soviet Air Force, commander Soyuz 8 and group commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: Soyuz 4 (1969)

YELISEYEV, Aleksey Stanislovich, 35, civilian, flight engineer Soyuz 8, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz 5 (1969)

Flight Log

Soyuz 6 was to have been a solo mission but was flown together with Soyuz 7 and 8 which were to perform a Soyuz 4/5-type rendezvous, docking and transfer mission. Soyuz 6 – without a docking probe – set off first at 16: 10 hrs local time on 11 October. It carried two cosmonauts, Shonin and Kubasov, and entered a 51.7° inclination

SOYUZ 6, 7 AND 8

The Soyuz 6 crew of Kubasov (left) and Shonin

orbit, which would, after four manoeuvres, reach a maximum altitude of 242 km (150 miles). Their objectives were the usual Soviet ones of “testing, checking, perfect­ing and conducting” plus a unique experiment called Vulcan, in which automatic welding would be attempted inside the unpressurised Orbital Module. On the 77th orbit of Soyuz 6, three processes were attempted: electron beam, fusible electrode and compressed arc welding, under the control of Kubasov. The samples were returned to Earth. In 1990, some 21 years later, it was revealed that the low-pressure compressed arc had inadvertently almost burned a hole right through the inner compartment flooring and damaged the hull of the Orbital Module. The crew were at first unaware of this as they were sealed in the DM during the welding operation, but found the damage when they entered the OM towards the end of their mission.

When Soyuz 7 was launched at 15: 45 hrs local time from Baikonur the day after, most observers felt that a docking was likely since, at the time, it was not known that

SOYUZ 6, 7 AND 8

The crews of Soyuz 6-8 pose for a “group shot”. Back row from left: Gorbatko, Filipchenko and Volkov (Soyuz 7). Front row from left: Kubasov and Shonin (Soyuz 6), Shatalov and Yeliseyev (Soyuz 8)

Soyuz 6 could not do so. Indeed, one of Soyuz 7’s stated objectives was “manoeuvring and navigation tests” with Soyuz 6. But Filipchenko, Gorbatko and Volkov were supposed to dock not with Soyuz 6 but with Soyuz 8, which was duly launched at 15: 19 hrs local time on 13 October, with Shatalov and Yeliseyev, the first Soviet space – experienced crew.

Problems with the Igla rendezvous system were experienced, and a manual attempt at docking was not successful. The nearest the two craft came to one another was 487m (1,600ft), observed for 4 hours 24 minutes by Soyuz 6 from about 1.6km (1 mile) away. Maximum altitudes achieved by Soyuz 7 and 8 were 244 and 235 km (152 and 146 miles) respectively during their missions which, with Soyuz 6, entailed detailed Earth and celestial observations under the group command of Shatalov.

The “mystery missions”, which in total involved 31 orbital change manoeuvres, ended on 17, 18 and 19 October, 179.2km (111 miles) northwest, 153.6km (95 miles) northwest and 144 km (89 miles) north of Karaganda respectively.

Milestones

34th, 35th and 36th manned space flights 13th, 14th and 15th Soviet manned space flights 1st three-manned-spacecraft mission 1st time with seven people in space at once

Shortest turnaround between missions – ten months, for Shatalov and Yeliseyev

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Launch Vehicle Duration Callsign Objective

Подпись: APOLLO 12
Подпись: 1969-099A 14 November 1969 Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 24 November 1969 Pacific Ocean Saturn V AS-507; spacecraft designations: CSM-108; LM-6 10 days 4hrs 36 min 25 sec CSM - Yankee Clipper; LM - Intrepid Second manned lunar landing mission (H-1)

Flight Crew

CONRAD, Charles “Pete” Jr., 39, USN, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: Gemini 5 (1965); Gemini 11 (1966)

GORDON, Richard Francis Jr., 40, USN, command module pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: Gemini 11 (1966)

BEAN, Alan LaVern, 37, USN, lunar module pilot

Flight Log

Flying to the Moon a second time wasn’t any easier, but it seemed that way after the euphoria of Apollo 11. Indeed, Apollo 12 had two particular hazards, one deliberate and one unpredictable but none the less avoidable. The deliberate hazard was to be the hybrid trajectory to the Moon, which did not guarantee Apollo 12 a “free return’’ by lunar loop if there was a major systems failure en route. The second hazard could have been avoided had NASA not decided to launch the mighty Saturn V in heavy rain and dark storm clouds, seemingly to please the space budget-cutter, President Richard Nixon, who had come to the KSC to watch.

About 36 seconds after 11: 22 hrs local time, with the Saturn already out of view, Pad 39A was hit by lightning. So was Apollo 12. Commander Conrad saw the multicoloured control panel displaying systems shorts and said that it seemed that “everything in the world had dropped out.’’ LMP Bean restored systems as the second and third stages proceeded effortlessly into 199 km (124 miles) 32° orbit. All the electrical circuits were checked and the go for the Moon was given. The S-IVB burned for 5 minutes 45 seconds and the transposition and docking manoeuvre was success­ful, but the S-IVB was placed into an unusual and highly elliptical orbit of the Earth, rather than into solar orbit, due to a malfunction.

The TV shows were jocular and informative. Conrad and Bean checked out the Lunar Module, and one mid-course correction was made to place Apollo out of the free return and on course for a lunar orbit with desirable lighting conditions at the landing point. Apollo 12’s SPS lit up on the lunar far side and placed the spacecraft

SOYUZ 6, 7 AND 8

Pete Conrad examines the Surveyor 3 spacecraft. The Apollo 12 Lunar Module can be seen on the horizon.

into a 110 by 312 km (68 x 194 miles) orbit, which was adjusted two orbits later to an eventual 110 km (68 miles). At T + 107 hours 54 minutes, the Lunar Module became Intrepid and the Command Module Yankee Clipper, illustrating that this was an all­Navy crew. DOI began at T + 109 hours 23 minutes with a 29-second firing placing Intrepid at a perilune of 14.4 km (9 miles) for the PDI. Before this, there was hectic activity between the ground and the crew to update the LM’s navigation programme, which continued two minutes into the burn that began at T + 110 hours 20 minutes.

The high-spirited crew came into their Ocean of Storms landing site, close to the unmanned Surveyor 3 spacecraft which had landed there in 1967. Conrad landed Intrepid about 856 m (2,808 ft) northwest of Surveyor at T + 110 hours 32 minutes at 3°11’51" south 23°23’7.5" west. CMP Gordon spotted both Intrepid and Surveyor from orbit in Yankee Clipper. The first moonwalk began at T + 115 hours 10 minutes when the jocular Conrad hopped, skipped and hummed across the surface. After joining him, Bean took the colour television camera to place it on a tripod, but the camera was pointed at the Sun and blacked out. The by now dwindling TV audiences switched off.

The first 3 hour 56 minute EVA on 19 November involved erecting the US flag and deploying the first ALSEP array of lunar experiments, one of which was powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator with a radioactive fuel source. The second

EVA on 20 November, lasting 3 hours 49 minutes, was highlighted by the visit to Surveyor, bits of which were cut off to be taken home for analysis. Conrad’s fall in the lunar dust caused a “spacesuit might leak’’ scare, but from the antics of later moon – walkers, one wonders what the fuss was about.

The highly successful moonwalks over, after 31 hours 31 minutes on the Moon, Intrepid sailed for Yankee Clipper. The rendezvous and docking 3 hours 30 minutes later was watched live by TV audiences, who could even see Intrepid’s crew in the windows of the LM and the little spurts of the RCS jets. Conrad and Bean removed their dusty spacesuits and crossed into Yankee Clipper naked, except for their head­sets. Intrepid was sent crashing into the Moon and the reverberations from the impact were picked up by the ALSEP seismometer now on the surface.

Yankee Clipper broke anchor after 45 orbits and 88 hours 56 minutes over the Moon. The crew witnessed a spectacular solar eclipse on the way home and splashed down near USS Hornet at 15° south 165° west at T + 10 days 4 hours 36 minutes 25 seconds. Like the Apollo 11 crew, Conrad, Gordon and Bean had to live in the Apollo quarantine container for three weeks to ensure that no “moon bugs’’ came home with them.

Milestones

37th manned space flight

22nd US manned space flight

6th manned Apollo flight

6th Apollo CSM manned flight

4th Apollo LM manned flight

4th manned flight to and orbit of the Moon

2nd manned lunar landing and moonwalk

1st manned mission with two EVAs

1st manned spacecraft to spend a day on the Moon

1st manned mission to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators

8th US and 10th flight with EVA operations

Подпись:

Подпись: APOLLO 13
Подпись: 1970-029A 11 April 1970 Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 17 April 1970 Pacific Ocean Saturn V AS-508; spacecraft designations: CSM-109; LM-7 5 days 22hrs 54 min 41 sec CSM - Odyssey; LM - Aquarius Third manned lunar landing mission (H-2)

Flight Crew

LOVELL, James Arthur Jr., 42, USN, commander, 4th mission Previous missions: Gemini 7 (1965); Gemini 12 (1966); Apollo 8 (1968) SWIGERT, John Leonard “Jack” Jr., 39, command module pilot HAISE, Fred Wallace Jr., 36, lunar module pilot

Flight Log

Command module pilot Thomas “Ken” Mattingly had the bad luck, two days before the flight of Apollo 13, to be declared not immune to the German measles that he had been exposed to by back-up LMP Charlie Duke. He was dropped and replaced by back-up Jack Swigert, who was put through his paces in the simulator to ensure his readiness and compatibility with the remaining prime crew members, James Lovell and Fred Haise. Lift-off seemed routine at 14: 32hrs local time, but the Saturn V burn lasted 44 seconds longer, because the four remaining engines of the S-II had to burn for an extra 34 seconds to make up for the loss of the fifth one, and the S-IVB had to burn for an additional ten seconds.

Initial orbit of 33.5° and 156 km (97 miles) apogee was achieved. The S-IVB ignited, the transposition and docking was successful and the stage was sent towards an impact on the Moon, big enough to be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. The television pictures were of high quality, but were not shown live by any network. Apollo 13 indeed seemed a milk run to the Moon, targeted for the Fra Mauro highlands. Then, at T + 55 hours 55 minutes 20 seconds on 13 April, oxygen tank No. 2 in the Service Module, which had undetected heater switches welded together due to an electrical malfunction in a pre-launch test, exploded 328,000 km (222,461 miles) from Earth.

The reaction of the crew was calm and stoic as they faced a lingering death in space. Power was going down fast in the Command Module. The only hope was to use the LM Aquarius, thankfully still attached, as it was the trans-lunar coast rather than

SOYUZ 6, 7 AND 8

Apollo 13 crew (1 to r) Haise, Swigert and Lovell, relieved to be back on Earth after a trying mission

the return journey. Aquarius’s descent engine was used three times, T + 61 hours 30 minutes, for 30 seconds, to get Apollo 13 back on a lunar looping “free return’’ trajectory which would at least guarantee making landfall on Earth – somewhere, hopefully in the Indian Ocean: for 4 minutes 28 seconds to speed the return journey, at T + 142 hours 53 minutes; and for 15.4 seconds to fine-tune the trajectory. Rookies Haise and Swigert had strained at their windows to get a peek at the lunar far side during the lunar loop, which made them and Lovell the farthest travellers from Earth, at a distance of 397,848 km (247,223 miles).

Conditions on board were pitiful. It was extremely cold and the spacecraft was operating on the power equivalent of a single light bulb by the end of the mission. The crew, ably supported by thousands of engineers, scientists and fellow astronauts on the ground, even had to jury-rig an air conditioning unit to get rid of carbon dioxide. Aquarius was separated just before re-entry, followed by the Service Module, giving the incredulous crew their first view of the devastation that had been below them. Left with a little battery power, the Command Module Odyssey limped home to a splash­down at T + 5 days 22 hours 54 minutes 41 seconds, close to the USS Iwo Jima at 21° south 165°west. The shortest US three-person flight in history had captured the hearts of the world, and ended with a service of thanksgiving on the recovery ship.

The events of Apollo 13, as well as a tightening of the NASA budget, helped to seal the fate of future missions. Apollo 20 had already been axed in January 1970, and

by September, Apollo 15 and 19 had been cancelled and the remaining missions renumbered to end with Apollo 17. The fear of losing a crew in space, or of their being stranded on the Moon with no hope of rescue, and the desire to move on to new programmes closer to Earth, together with the escalating cost of the war in southeast Asia and social unrest in the United States, all contributed to the end of the Apollo lunar programme.

Milestones

38th manned space flight

23rd US manned space flight

7th Apollo manned space flight

7th Apollo CSM manned flight

5th Apollo LM manned flight (docked only)

5th manned flight to the Moon

1st manned lunar loop flight

1st aborted lunar landing mission

1st flight by crewman on fourth mission

1st flight by crewman on second Moon mission

Int. Designation

1988-106A

Launched

2 December 1988

Launch Site

Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed 6

December 1988

Landing Site

Runway 17, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-104 Atlantis/ET-23/SRB BI-030/SSME #1 2027;

#2 2030; #3 2029

Duration

4 days 9 hrs 5 min 35 sec

Callsign

Atlantis

Objective

3rd classified DoD Shuttle mission

Flight Crew

GIBSON, Robert Lee “Hoot”, 42, USN, commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS 41-B (1984); STS 61-C (1986)

GARDNER, Guy Spence, 40, USAF, pilot

MULLANE, Richard Michael, 43, USAF, mission specialist 1, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 41-D (1984)

ROSS, Jerry Lynn, 40, USAF, mission specialist 2, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS 61-B (1985)

SHEPHERD, William McMichael, 39, USN, mission specialist 3

Flight Log

STS 62-A, the first manned polar orbiting space flight, was to have been launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California in 1986. The flight was cancelled and the Vandenberg pad mothballed after the Challenger disaster. It re-emerged as STS-27, with a new commander, Hoot Gibson, replacing Bob Crippen, and a new mission specialist, William Shepherd, replacing Dale Gardner. Orbiter Atlantis was equipped with an enormous electronic intelligence and digital imaging reconnaissance satellite which was to be placed into a 57° inclination orbit, the highest inclination permitted by a Shuttle from the KSC.

The first launch attempt was called off on 1 December with the crew aboard at T — 9 minutes due to high winds at altitude. There was a minor delay the following day, before the spectacular take-off at 09: 30 hrs local time, with the Shuttle making a dramatic, sloping lateral movement away from the pad as it performed a 140° roll programme and headed up the east coast of the USA. Debris from the top of one of the SRBs broke away and severely damaged some of the underside of Atlantis, as the crew would see after they landed. Once in orbit the official communications, which began at T — 9 minutes, ended for this military mission.

STS-27

L to r: Gardner, Gibson and Shepard at work during STS-27

According to analysis and ground observations, the giant Lacrosse was deployed from the payload bay by the RMS and inspected. Its 45 m (147 ft) span solar panels were supposed to unfurl but did not at first. If an EVA was required to free the panels it was not announced but the panels were freed, possibly by an RMS-induced shake, and the deployment followed at about T + 7 hours into the mission. Little information about it was released, except that a gallon of water had leaked in the cockpit. STS-27 marked the third time that eleven people were in space at once, with six cosmonauts on board the Mir space station at the same time.

The flight ended at T + 4 days 9 hours 5 minutes 35 seconds on runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base after a northerly approach from its high-inclination orbit, only the second afternoon landing in the Shuttle programme. The crew busied themselves examining the underside of the orbiter, which had suffered extensive damage to its heatshield tiles, resulting in the need to replace 707 of them, the greatest tile loss on the programme. Despite this, STS-27 had qualified Atlantis for the Return – to-Flight programme.

Milestones

123rd manned space flight 57th US manned space flight 27th Shuttle mission 3rd flight of Atlantis

Int. Designation

1993-023A

Launched

7 April 1993

Launch Site

Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

17 April 1993

Landing Site

Runway 33, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Launch Vehicle

OV-103 Discovery/ET-54/SRB BI-058/SSME #1 2024; #2 2033; #3 2018

Duration

9 days 6 hrs 8 min 24 sec

Call sign

Endeavour

Objective

Operation of ATLAS-2 science package located in the payload bay; SPARTAN-201 free flying astronomy platform

Flight Crew

CAMERON, Kenneth Donald, 43, USMC, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-37 (1991)

OSWALD, Stephen Scott, 41, USNR, pilot, 2nd mission Previous mission: STS-42 (1992)

FOALE, Colin Michael, 36, civilian, mission specialist 1, payload commander, 2nd mission

Previous mission: STS-45 (1992)

COCKRELL, Kenneth Dale, 42, USNR, mission specialist 2 OCHOA, Ellen Lauri, 34, civilian, mission specialist 3

Flight Log

The 6 April launch attempt for STS-56 was halted at T — 11 seconds by the orbiter’s computers. Incorrectly configured instrumentation on the LH high-point bleed valve in the main propulsion system indicated it was in an “off” position instead of the “on” position. The launch was set for 8 April, after a 48-hour scrub was implemented.

Once again the crew worked in two shifts throughout the mission. Foale and Cockrell operated the Red Shift, while Cameron, Oswald and Ochoa worked the Blue Shift. All seven ATLAS instruments had flown on ATLAS-1 in 1992 and were scheduled to fly a third time on ATLAS 3 in 1994. The ATLAS payload continued the collection of data regarding the relationship between energy from the Sun and the middle atmosphere of Earth, and how such a relationship affects the ozone layer. The other primary payload was deployed by the RMS on 11 April. The Shuttle Pointing Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-201 (SPARTAN-201) was a free-flying science platform whose configuration was designed to study the velocity and acceleration of solar wind particles and to make observations of the Sun’s

STS-56

Mounted on a Spacelab pallet at centre is the primary payload of STS-56, ATLAS-2. The SPARTAN-201, with a protective covering over its instruments, is mounted directly behind ATLAS-2. This photo was taken in Bay 3 of the Orbiter Processing Facility at KSC during cargo-processing in February 1993

corona. The data collected during its independent flight was stored onboard tape recorders for play-back after its return to Earth. The RMS retrieved the SPARTAN – 201 on 13 April.

In addition to the primary payload, the flight included a suite of mid-deck payloads, focusing on biomedical and life science research, Earth location targeting equipment and optical calibration tests. In addition, SAREX was flown again, with the crew making numerous radio contracts with schools across the globe. They also reported brief contact with the Russian Mir space station, the first such confirmed contact between the Shuttle and space station using amateur equipment.

The landing of STS-56 was originally planned for 16 April, but was delayed due to bad weather conditions. The payload commander on this mission, Mike Foale, indicated that he did not wish to fly the third ATLAS mission having flown the first two, as he did not wish to become known as “Mr. Atlas” for the rest of his astronaut career. He suggested Ellen Ochoa as the next PC. This format of re-flying crew members on the same series of missions freed up training time and utilised actual flight experience to provide an on-going flow of CB contact with series payloads from one flight to the next.

Milestones

159th manned space flight

84th US manned space flight

54th Shuttle mission

16th flight of Discovery

4th Spacelab pallet-only mission

1st amateur radio contact between Shuttle and Mir

Cockrell celebrates his 43rd birthday in space (9 Apr)

STS-85

Подпись: Int. Designation Launched Launch Site Landed Landing Site Launch Vehicle Duration Call sign Objective 1997-039A 7 August 1997

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 19 August 1997

Runway 33, Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC, Florida

OV-103 Discovery/ET-87/SRB BI-089/SSME #1 2041;

#2 2039; #3 2042

11 days 20hrs 26 min 59 sec

Discovery

CRISTA-SPAS-02 operations

Flight Crew

BROWN Jr., Curtis Lee, 41, USAF, commander, 4th mission Previous missions: STS-47 (1992); STS-66 (1994); STS-77 (1996)

ROMINGER, Kent Vernon, 41, USN, pilot, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-73 (1995); STS-80 (1996)

DAVIS, Jan, 43, civilian, mission specialist 1, payload commander, 3rd mission Previous missions: STS-47 (1992); STS-60 (1994)

CURBEAM Jr., Robert Lee, 35, USN, mission specialist 2 ROBINSON, Stephen Kern, 41, civilian, mission specialist 3 TRYGGVASON, Bjarni Vladimir, 52, civilian, Canadian payload specialist 1

Flight Log

Continuing the Mission to Planet Earth programme, as well as preparations for the construction of ISS, the STS-85 mission featured a complex payload from Germany, Japan and the US, as well as an international crew.

The primary payload on this flight was the Cryogenic IR Spectrometer and Telescope for the Atmosphere Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2), making its second flight on the Shuttle as part of the fourth cooperative mission between the German space agency DARA and NASA. There were three telescopes and four spectrometers on the satellite. Deployed on FD 1, it operated for over 200 hours and was retrieved on FD 10. After completing its primary objective, CRISTA-SPAS was used in a simulation exercise to prepare for the first ISS assembly flight, STS-88, with the payload being manipulated as if it were the Russian Functional Cargo Block (FGB-Zarya) that was to be attached to the US Node 1 (Unity).

The Technology Applications and Science 01 (TAS-01) payload included seven separate experiments to gather data on the topography of the Earth and its atmo­sphere, to study the energy from the Sun and to evaluate new thermal control devices. International Extreme UV Hitchhiker 02 was a set of four experiments that studied

STS-85

Canadian astronaut Bjarni Tryggvason inputs data into a computer for the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) experiment located on the mid-deck of Discovery. Behind him, the use of mid-deck lockers for stowage both inside and outside is evident

UV radiation from stars, the Sun and other solar system sources. The Japanese Manipulator Flight Demonstrator (MFD) consisted of three separate experiments located on a support structure in the payload bay and were designed to test a mech­anical arm that was being evaluated for possible inclusion on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) planned for ISS. Despite some glitches, a series of exercises was performed by the crew in space and a team of operators on the ground.

There was also a range of in-cabin payloads, including a UV imaging system to observe Comet Hale-Bopp, crystal growth and materials-processing experiments, the Orbiter Space Vision System (to be used during ISS assembly for determining precise alignment and pointing capability). Canadian astronaut Bjarni Tryggvason, principle investigator of the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM), had a major role on the flight in evaluating his own equipment, performing fluid physics experiments to determine sensitivity to spacecraft vibrations when using MIM, and its application to ISS and future research facilities. The MIM had been in operation aboard Mir since April 1996 and was first operated by Shannon Lucid, where it supported a number of Canadian and US experiments in materials science and fluid physics.

The 18 August landing opportunities were waived off due to ground fog in the local area, allowing the crew an extra day on orbit.

Milestones

201st manned space flight 116th US manned space flight 86th Shuttle mission 23rd flight of Discovery

The Log Book 1961-2006

This table lists all the manned space flights that were official astro-flights (X-15); X-Prize (Spaceship One); sub-orbital (Mercury-Redstone); launch pad aborts (Soyuz T10-1) and missions in progress (Soyuz 18-1; STS 51-L; STS-107). For space station residents and visiting missions, where crews have launched separately but returned on the same vehicle, individual durations are shown below the specific return mission.

Подпись: Year Mission Подпись: Crew at launch

Подпись:

Подпись: Date (dd/mm/yy) Duration (dd: hh: mm: ss)

Подпись:Подпись:

12/04/61

05/05/61 (sub-orbital) 21/07/61 (sub-orbital) 06/08/61-07/08/61

20/02/62

24/05/62

17/07/62

11/08/62-15/08/62

12/08/62-15/08/62

03/10/62

17/01/63

15/05/63-16/05/63

14/06/63-19/06/63

16/06/63-19/06/63

27/06/63

19/07/63

22/08/63

12/10/64-13/10/64

18/03/65-19/03/65

23/03/65

03/06/65-07/06/65

29/06/65

10/08/65

21/08/65-29/08/65

29/09/65

14/10/65

04/12/65-16/12/65

Gemini 6

Schirra/Stafford

1966 Gemini 8 Gemini 9 Gemini 10 Gemini Ц X-15-3-174 Gemini 12

Armstrong/Scott D. Stafford/Cernan Young/Collins M. Conrad/Gordon Dana

Lovell/Aldrin

1967 Apollo 1 Soyuz 1 X-l 5-3-190 X-15-3-191

Griss om /White / Chaffee

Komarov

Knight

Adams

1968 X-15-1-197 Apollo 7 Soyuz 3 Apollo 8

Knight

Schirra/Eisele/Cunningham

Beregovoy

Borman/Lovell/Anders

1969 Soyuz 4 Soyuz 5

Shatalov

Volynov/Yeliseyev/Khrunov

Apollo 9 Apollo 10 Apollo 11 Soyuz 6 Soyuz 7 Soyuz 8 Apollo 12

McDivitt/Scott/Schweickart Stafford/Y oung/ Cernan Armstrong/Collins M./Aldrin Shonin/Kubasov

Filipchenko/Gorbatko/Volkov V.

Shatalov/Yeliseyev

Conrad/Gordon/Bean

15/12/65-16/12/65

01:01:51:54

16/03/66

00:10:41:26

03/06/66-06/06/66

03:00:20:50

18/07/66-21/07/66

02:22:46:39

12/09/66-15/09/66

02:23:17:08

01/11/66

00:00:10:00 (astro-flight)

11/11/66-16/11/66

03:22:34:31

27/01/67

(fatal pad fire prior to launch date)

23/04/67-24/04/67

01:02:47:52

17/10/67

00:00:10:00 (astro-flight)

15/11/67

00:00:10:00 (astro-flight – fatal)

21/08/68

00:00:10:00 (astro-flight)

11/10/68-22/10/68

10:20:09:03

26/10/68-30/10/68

03:22:50:45

21/12/68-28/12/68

06:03:00:42

14/01/69-17/01/69

02:23:20:47

15/01/69-18/01/69

03:00:54:15

(Yeliseyev/Khrunov 01:23:45:50)

03/03/69-13/03/69

10:01:00:54

18/05/69-26/05/69

08:00:03:23

16/07/69-24/07/69

08:03:18:35

11/10/69-16/10/69

04:22:42:47

12/10/69-17/10/69

04:22:40:23

13/10/69-18/10/69

04:22:50:49

14/11/69-24/11/69

10:04:36:25

 

Подпись: Appendix A 783
Подпись: Year Mission Подпись: Crew at launch
Подпись: Date (dd/mm/yy) Duration (dd: hh: mm: ss)

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись: 784 Appendix A

54:41

58:55

01:57

45:54

21:43

11:53

51:25

51:59

49:49

09:04

15:32

15:37

55:35

30:28

12:11

23:35

19:45

21:27 (launch phase abort)

20:08

30:51

28:24

23:32

52:17

06:35

1977

Soyuz 24

Gorbatko/Glazkov

Soyuz 25

Kovalenok/Ryumin

Soyuz 26

Romanenko/Grechko

1978

Soyuz 27

Dzhanibekov/Makarov

Soyuz 28

Gubarev/Remek

Soyuz 29

Kovalenok/Ivanchenkov

Soyuz 30

Klimuk/Hermaszewski

Soyuz 31

Bykovsky/Jaehn

1979

Soyuz 32

Lyakhov/Ryumin

Soyuz 33

Rukavishnikov/Ivanov G.

1980

Soyuz 35

Popov/Ryumin

Soyuz 36

Kubasov/Farkas

Soyuz T2

Malyshev/Aksenov

Soyuz 37

Gorbatko/Pham Tuan

Soyuz 38

Romanenko/Tamayo-Mendez

Soyuz T3

Kizim/Makarov/Strekalov

1981

Soyuz T4

Kovalenok/Savinykh

Soyuz 39

Dzhanibekov/Gurragcha

STS-1

Young/Crippen

Soyuz 40

Popov/Prunariu

STS-2

Engle/Truly

1982

STS-3

Lousma/Fullerton

Soyuz T5

Berezovoy/Lebedev

Soyuz T6

Dzhanibekov/Ivanchenkov/Chretien

STS-4

Mattingly/FIartsfield

Soyuz T7

Popov/Serebrov/Savitskaya

STS-5

Brand/Overmyer/Allen J./Lenoir

Year

Mission

Crew at launch

Date (dd/mm/yy)

Duration (dd: hh: mm: ss)

1983

STS-6

Weitz/Bobko/Musgrave/Peterson

04/04/83-09/04/83

05:00:23:42

Soyuz T8

Titov Y./Strekalov/Serebrov

20/04/83-22/04/83

02:00:17:48

STS-7

Crippen/Hauck/Fabian/Ride/Thagard

18/06/83-24/06/83

06:02:23:59

Soyuz T9

Lyakhov/Alexandrov

27/06/83-23/11/83

149:10:46:01

STS-8

Truly/Brandenstein/Bluford/Gardner/Thornton W.

30/08/83-05/09/83

06:01:08:43

Soyuz T10-1

Titov Y./Strekalov

26/09/83

(launch pad abort prior to lift off)

STS-9

Young/Shaw/Garriott/Parker/Lichtenberg/Merbold

28/11/83-08/12/83

10:07:47:23

1984

STS 41-B

Brand/Gibson R./McNair/Stewart/McCandless

03/02/84-11/02/84

07:23:15:55

Soyuz T10

Kizim/Solovyov V./Atkov

08/02/84-02/10/84

236:22:49:04

Soyuz Til

Malyshev/Strekalov/Sharma

03/04/84-11/04/84

07:21:40:06

STS 41-C

Crippen/Scobee/FIart/van FIoften/Nelson G.

06/04/84-13/04/84

06:23:40:06

Soyuz T12

Dzhanibekov/Savitskaya/V oik

17/07/84-29/07/84

11:19:14:36

STS 41-D

Flartsfield/Coats/Mullane/FIawley/Resnik/Walker C.

30/08/84-05/09/84

06:00:56:04

STS 41-G

Crippen/McBride/Sullivan/Ride/Leestma/

Scully-Power/Garneau

05/10/84-13/10/84

08:05:23:38

STS 51-А

Flauck/Walker D./Allen J./Fisher A./Gardner D.

08/11/84-16/11/84

07:23:44:56

1985

STS 51-C

Mattingly/Shriver/Onizuka/Buchli/Payton

24/01/85-27/01/85

03:01:23:23

STS 51-D

Bobko/Williams D./Griggs/FIoffman/Seddon/Garn/ Walker C.

12/04/85-19/04/85

06:23:55:23

STS 51-B

Overmyer/Gregory F./Lind/Thagard/Thornton W./ Wang/van den Berg

29/04/85-06/05/85

07:00:08:46

Soyuz T13

Dzhanibekov/Savinykh

06/06/85-26/09/85

112:03:12:06 (Savinykh 168:03:51:00)

STS 51-G

Brandenstein/Creighton/Fabian/Nagel/Lucid/

Baudry/Al-Saud

17/06/85-24/06/85

07:01:38:52

STS 51-F

Fullerton/Bridges/FIenize/Musgrave/England/Acton/ Bartoe

29/07/85-06/08/85

07:22:45:26

786 Appendix A

STS 51-1 Soyuz ТІ4

Engle/Covey/van Hoften/Lounge/Fisher W. Vasyutin/Grechko/Volkov A.

STS 51-J STS 61-А

Bobko/Grabe/Hilmers/Stewart/Pailes

Hartsfield/Nagel/Dunbar/Buchli/Bluford/Furrer/

Messerschmid/Ockels

STS 61-B

Shaw/O’Connor/Ross/Cleave/Spring/Walker C./ Neri-Yela

1986 STS 61-C

Gibson R./Bolden/Nelson G./FIawley/Chang-Diaz/ Cenker/Nelson B.

STS 51-L

Scobee/Smith M./Onizuka/Resnik/McNair/Jarvis/ McAuliffe

Soyuz T15

Kizim/Solovyov Y.

1987 Soyuz TM2

Romanenko/ Faveikin

Soyuz TM3

Viktorenko/Alexandrov/Faris

Soyuz TM4

Titov V./Manarov/Fevchenko

1988 Soyuz TM5 Soyuz TM6

Solovyov A./Savinykh/Alexandrov Fyakhov/Polyakov/Mohmand

STS-26 Soyuz TM7

Flauck/Covey/Founge/FIilmers/Nelson G. Volkov A./Krikalev/Chretien

STS-27

Gibson R./Gardner G./Mullane/Ross/Shepherd

04:23:38:50

04:00:56:27

05:01:00:09

166:06:58:16

04:23:39:21

05:00:06:48

10:21:00:36

179:01:17:57

04:10:18:22

05:01:16:06

130:20:35:51

04:02:10:04

04:21:54:31

08:23:05:08 175:01:51:42 (Akiyama 07:21:54:40)

05:23:32:44 08:07:22:23 144:15:21:50 (Sharman 07:21:14:20) (Krikalev 311:20:01:54) 09:02:14:20

08:21:21:25

05:08:27:38

175:02:52:43

(Aubakirov/Viehbock 07:22:12:59)

Year

Mission

Crew at launch

Date (dd/mm/yy)

Duration (dd: hh: mm: ss)

1994

Soyuz TM18

Afanasyev/Usachev/Polyakov

08/01/94-09/07/94

182:00:27:02 (Polyakov 437:17:58:31)

STS-60

Bolden/Reightler/Davis/Sega/Chang-Diaz/Krikalev

03/02/94-11/02/94

08:07:09:22

STS-62

Casper/Allen A./Thuot/Gemar/Ivins

04/03/94-18/03/94

13:23:16:41

STS-59

Gutierrez/Chilton/Apt/Clifford/Godwin/Jones T.

09/04/94-20/04/94

11:05:49:30

Soyuz TM19

Malenchenko/Musabayev

01/07/94-04/11/94

125:22:53:36

STS-65

Cabana/Halsell/Hieb/Walz/Thomas D./Chiao/Mukai

08/07/94-23/07/94

14:17:55:00

STS-64

Richards R./Hammond/Linenger/Helms/Meade/Lee

09/09/94-20/09/94

10:22:49:57

STS-68

Baker M./Wilcutt/Smith S/Bursch/Wisoff/Jones T.

30/09/94-11/10/94

11:05:46:08

Soyuz TM20

Yiktorenko/Kondakova/Merbold

04/10/94-22/03/95

169:05:21:35 (Merbold 31:12:35:56)

STS-66

McMonagle/Brown C./Ochoa/Tanner/Clervoy/ Parazynski

03/11/94-14/11/94

10:22:34:02

1995

STS-63

Wetherbee/Collins E./Harris/Foale/Yoss J. E./Titov V.

02/02/95-11/02/95

08:06:28:15

STS-67

Osward/Gregory W./Grunsfeld/Lawrence/Jernigan/ Durrance/Parise

02/03/95-18/03/95

16:15:08:48

Soyuz TM21

Dezhurov/Strekalov/Thagard

14/03/95-11/09/95

115:08:43:02

STS-71

Gibson R./Precourt/Baker E./EIarbaugh/Dunbar/ Solovyov A./Budarin

27/06/95-07/07/95

09:19:22:17 (STS-71 crew only)

Mir EO-19

Solovyov A./Budarin (launched on STS-71)

27/06/95-11/09/95

75:11:20:21

STS-70

Elenricks/Kregel/Thomas D./Currie/Weber

13/07/95-22/07/95

08:22:20:05

Soyuz TM22

Gidzenko/Avdeyev/Reiter

03/09/95-29/02/96

179:01:41:46

STS-69

Walker D./Cockrell/Voss J. S./Newman/Gernhardt

07/09/95-18/09/95

10:20:28:56

STS-73

Bowersox/Rominger/Coleman/Lopez-Alegria/ Thornton K./Leslie/Sacco

20/10/95-05/11/95

15:21:52:28

STS-74

Cameron/EIalsell/EIadfield/Ross/McArthur W.

12/11/95-20/11/95

08:04:30:44

1996

STS-72

Duffy/Jett/Chiao/Scott W./Wakata/Barry

11/01/96-20/01/96

08:22:01:47

Soyuz TM23

Onufriyenko/Usachev

23/02/96-02/09/96

193:19:07:35

790 Appendix A

Soyuz TM31

Shepherd/Gidzenko/Krikalev (ISS-1)

STS-97

Jett/Bloomfield/Tanner/Garneau/Noriega

2001 STS-98 STS-102 ISS-2 STS-100

Cockrell/Polansky/Curbeam/Jones T./Ivins Wetherbee/Kelly J. M./Richards P./Thomas A. Usachev/Voss J. S./Helms Rominger/Ashby/Hadfield/Parazynski/Guidoni/ Phillips/Lonchakov

Soyuz TM32 STS-104 STS-105 ISS-3

Soyuz TM33

Musabayev/Baturin/Tito Lindsey/Hobaugh/Gernhardt/Reilly/Kavandi Horowitz/Sturckow/Barry/Forrester Culbertson/Dezhurov/Tyurin Afanasyev/Haignere C/Kozeev

STS-108

ISS-4

Gorie/Kelly M./Godwin/Tani Onufriyenko/Bursch/Walz

2002 STS-109 STS-110

Altman/Carey/Currie/Grunsfeld/Linnehan/Newman Bloomfield/Frick/Walheim/Ochoa/Smith S/Morin/ Ross

Soyuz TM34

STS-111

ISS-5

STS-112

Soyuz TMA1

STS-113

ISS-6

Gidzenko/Vittori/Shuttleworth

Cockrell/Lockhart/Chang-Diaz/Perrin

Korzun/Whitson/Treschev

Ashby/Melroy/Wolf/Magnus/Sellers/Yurchikin

Zaletin/De Winne/Lonchakov

Wetherbee/Lockhart/Lopez-Alegria/Herrington

Bowersox/Budarin/Pettit

Year

Mission

Crew at launch

Date (dd/mm/yy)

Duration (dd: hh: mm: ss)

2003

STS-107

Husband/McCool/Brown D./Chawla/Anderson/ Clark/Ramon

16/01/03-01/02/03

15:22:20:22

Soyuz TMA2

Malenchenko/Lu (ISS-7)

26/04/03-27/10/03

184:22:46:09

Shenzhou 5

Yang

15/10/03

00:21:26:00

Soyuz TMA3

Foale/Kaleri (ISS-8)/Duque

18/01/03-30/04/04

194:18:23:43 (Duque 09:21:01:58)

2004

Soyuz TMA4

Padalka/Finke (ISS-9)/Kuipers

19/04/04-24/10/04

187:21:16:09 (Kuipers 10:20:52:46)

Spaceship 1-60 Melvill

21/06/04

00:00:24:00 (X-Prize flight)

Spaceship 1-6 5

Melvill

29/09/04

00:00:24:00 (X-Prize flight)

Spaceship 1-66

Binnie

04/10/04

00:00:24:00 (X-Prize flight)

Soyuz TMA5

Sharipov/Chiao (ISS-10)/Shargin

14/10/04-24/04/05

192:19:00:59 (Shargin 09:21:29:00)

2005

Soyuz TMA6

Krikalev/Phillips (ISS-1 l)/Yittori

14/04/05-11/10/05

179:00:23:00 (Vittori 09:21:21:02)

STS-114

Collins E./Kelly J. M./Noguchi/Robinson/Thomas A./ Lawrence/Camarda

26/07/05-09/08/05

13:21:32:48

Soyuz TMA7

McArthur W./Tokarev (ISS-12)/01sen

01/10/05-09/04/06

189:19:53:00 (Olsen 09:21:15:00)

Shenzhou 6

Fei/Nie

12/10/05-16/10/05

04:19:33:00

2006

Soyuz TMA8

Yinogradov/Williams J (ISS-13)/Pontes

30/03/06-29/09/06

182:22:43:00 (Pontes 09:21:17:00)

STS-121

Lindsey/Kelly M/Fossum/Nowak/Wilson/Sellers/ Reiter

04/07/06-17/07/06

12:18:37:54 (STS 121 crew only) Reiter in space

STS-115

Jett/Ferguson/Tanner/Burbank/Stefanyshyn-Piper/

MacLean

09/09/06-21/09/06

11:19:07:24

Soyuz TMA9

Lopez-Alegria/Tyurin (ISS-14)/Ansari

19/09/06-In Space

(182 days planned) (Ansari 10:21:05:00)

794 Appendix A

Salyut

This highly successful programme began with the first unmanned launch in April 1971 and ended with the de-orbiting of Salyut 7 in February 1991. Two of the stations (Salyut 3 and Salyut 5) were military bases called Almaz. The differences between the “military” (Almaz, or Diamond) and the “civilian” (DOS, Russian for Permanent Orbital Station) stations were in their orbital parameters, durations, the composition of crew members (military officers and engineers for Almaz against civilian flight engineers and guest cosmonauts for Salyut), the openness of reporting of crew activities, and the research programmes. There were setbacks – the first crew to Salyut 1 could not enter the station, the second lost their lives in a re-entry accident, and there were five Soyuz missions which failed to achieve a docking with the station. In addition, there was a launch abort and a pad abort which cancelled Salyut missions. An unmanned Salyut was lost in a launch failure in July 1972, and in April 1973, Salyut (Almaz) 2 was lost shortly after entering orbit. This was followed the next month by the loss of Cosmos 557, which failed even before it received a Salyut identification. Salyut 4, 5, 6 and 7, however, pushed the boundaries of space endur­ance and demonstrated the wide range of experiments that could be conducted. The missions also demonstrated how much maintenance and trouble-shooting could be conducted. Salyut 6 and 7 also housed a series of visitors from Interkosmos and other countries, flying one-week visiting missions under the command of a veteran Soviet cosmonaut.

Salyut

An artists impression of Salyut 1 in orbit, with a Soyuz on docking approach

Salyut

Salyut 7 in orbit

Table 3.2. Salyut and Almaz stations

Station

EO crew

Variant

Launched

Re-entry

Salyut 1

1

DOS-1

1971 Apr 19

1971 Oct 11

Salyut

DOS-2

1972 Jul 29

Failed to reach orbit

Salyut 2

Almaz-1

1973 Apr 3

1973 May 28

Cosmos 557

DOS-3

1972 May 11

1973 May 22

Salyut 3

1

Almaz-2

1974 Jun 25

1975 Jan 24

Salyut 4

2

DOS-4

1973 Dec 26

1977 Feb 2

Salyut 5

2

Almaz-3

1976 Jun 22

1977 Aug 8

Salyut 6

6

DOS 5-1

1977 Sep 29

1982 Jul 29

Salyut 7

6

DOS 5-2

1982 Apr 19

1991 Feb 7

Almaz

Almaz-4

Cancelled

Featuring dual-docking ports, the later Salyut stations allowed crews to dock a pair of Soyuz craft to the same station, or dock a Progress unmanned re-supply craft to re-stock the resident crew or re-supply the consumables on board, thus prolonging the operational life of the station. The US Skylab programme had no such facilities.

The hybrid Salyut was a cylindrical structure, featuring two habitable compart­ments (transfer and work), with an internal docking port at the front and a modified Soyuz propulsion system at the rear. Power was supplied by two pairs of Soyuz solar panels. The overall length of the station was 15.8 m, with a maximum diameter of 4.15m and a 90m3 habitable volume. The average mass at launch was 18,900kg.

The Salyut 3 and 5 (Almaz) stations were different in design. Still cylindrical, the Soyuz docked with a rear port instead of a forward port. There was an airlock chamber for EVAs (although none were ever conducted from either Almaz), a work compart­ment and a living compartment. Almaz was 14.55 m long, with a maximum diameter of 4.15m and a similar habitable volume to that of Salyut. The station had larger arrays, however, and incorporated a detachable data capsule that could be ejected at the end of the military-orientated mission.

Salyut 4 was very similar to Salyut 1 but featured three steerable solar arrays, with a larger surface area and more capacity to produce electricity for the increased number of science experiments.

Salyut 6 and 7 resembled the earlier Salyuts but featured docking ports at the front and back, giving the capacity to re-supply and refuel the station using Progress freighters. Two Soyuz vessels could dock at the same time and the first EVAs for Soviet cosmonauts since 1969 were conducted from these stations. These record-breaking vehicles laid the ground work for Mir, testing hardware, techniques and systems for the larger and more capable station that would follow.

Int. Designation

1983-026A

Launched

4 April 1983

Launch Site

Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Landed

9 April 1983

Landing Site

Runway 22, Edwards Air Force Base, California

Launch Vehicle

OV-099 Challenger/ET-8/SRB A17; A18/SSME #1 2017; #2 2015; #3 2012

Duration

5 days 0 hrs 23 min 42 sec

Callsign

Challenger

Objective

Maiden flight of OV-099 (Challenger); EVA demonstration; deployment of first TDRS

Flight Crew

WEITZ, Paul Joseph, 50, civilian, commander, 2nd mission Previous mission: Skylab 2 (1973)

BOBKO, Karol Joseph, 45, USAF, pilot

MUSGRAVE, Franklin Story, 47, civilian, mission specialist 1

PETERSON, Donald Herod, 49, civilian, mission specialist 2

Flight Log

The first Challenger orbiter mission was originally due to have taken place on 27 January 1983 but was delayed by a series of potentially disastrous engine problems which first came to light after Challenger’s Flight Readiness Firing on 18 December

1982. Engineers detected an abnormal level of gaseous hydrogen. A second FRF was scheduled for 25 January and the TDRS payload was removed from Challenger. The hydrogen leak was detected again and this time was traced to a 2 cm (| in) crack in the No.1 main engine combustion chamber coolant outlet manifold. Engine 1 was ordered to be replaced. TDRS was replaced, only to be slightly damaged by fine salt sea spray after a severe storm. It was back inside Challenger’s cargo bay by 19 March.

Worse was to follow. The replacement engine 1 was found to be faulty and had to be replaced itself, then an inspection of the No.2 and 3 engines revealed hairline cracks which had to be repaired. Challenger sat engineless on the pad. At last, on 4 April

1983, at the comparatively late hour of 18:30 KSC time, Challenger ascended flaw­lessly into clear blue skies, the only anomaly being the annoying deposition of some black soot on Challenger’s windows at SRB separation.

The rookie crew (called the F Troop after a TV programme and the fact that they were the sixth Shuttle crew) proceeded to achieve the main objective – to deploy NASA’s first $100 million communications station in space, TDRS, on only the second IUS solid propellant two-stage upper stage flown. This was duly deployed

STS-6

The first Shuttle EVA demonstration was conducted during STS-6

from its tilt table and was later injected into geostationary transfer orbit. A second stage failure stranded the satellite, however, and through no fault of its own the Shuttle was tarred with the same brush by some of the press. TDRS was eventually nudged into its planned geostationary orbit by careful firing of its own thrusters over a period of 58 days.

Maximum altitude reached by Challenger in the 28.4° orbit was 248 km (154 miles). On 8 April, Story Musgrave (EV1) and Donald Peterson (EV2) made the delayed EVA that was planned for STS-5, lasting 4 hours 17 minutes, to check out the Shuttle spacesuit and practice making space repairs, featuring in some spectacular TV. It was also the first US EVA since Skylab 4, nine years earlier. Later, Challenger came home to Edwards Air Force Base, landing on runway 22 at T + 5 days 0 hours 23 minutes 42 seconds, the shortest four-crew space flight.

Milestones

89th manned space flight 37th US manned space flight 6th Shuttle flight 1st flight of Challenger

16th US and 22nd flight with EVA operations

1st Shuttle-based EVA

1st TDRS deployment mission

Подпись:

Подпись: SOYUZ T8
Подпись: 1983-035A 20 April 1983 Pad 1, Site 5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 22 April 1983 96 km northeast of Arkalyk R7 (11A511U); spacecraft serial number (7K-ST) #13L 2 days 0hrs 17 min 48 sec Okean (Ocean) Second Salyut 7 resident crew programme

Flight Crew

TITOV, Vladimir Georgyevich, 36, Soviet Air Force, commander STREKALOV, Gennady Mikhailovich, 43, civilian, flight engineer 1, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz T3 (1980)

SEREBROV, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, 39, civilian, research engineer, 2nd mission

Previous mission: Soyuz T7 (1982)

Flight Log

Salyut 7 remained empty during the Russian winter of 1982-3 and was joined by the unmanned Cosmos 1443 module in March. Trained to work aboard Salyut and the new module were Vladimir Titov, Aleksandr Serebrov, making the first successive national manned space flight, and Gennady Strekalov. Their attempt to dock with Salyut, however, was doomed very soon after lift-off, at 19: 11 hrs local time from Baikonur, when the payload shroud tore away Soyuz T’s rendezvous radar antenna which only partially deployed. The crew used the RCS thrusters to try to shake the antenna free but to no avail. In trying to hide the serious problem, these engine firings were reported as tests of the attitude control system.

Although mission rules would normally dictate a return to Earth, the rookie commander Titov got permission to try a visual rendezvous and attempted docking using radar readings from the ground. The docking was perceived as having a low success probability by the ground controllers. It could have been a complete disaster, for Soyuz T8 flew past Salyut 7 at great speed, missing a catastrophic collision by 160 m (525 ft). Titov had made an optically guided approach to Salyut’s rear docking port after a 50 second rocket burn. The seventh space station flight had to be aborted not because of lack of power but because propellant reserves were not high enough to try again. The difficulty in guiding the Soyuz T to the station becomes more apparent when it was later revealed by Titov that he had not trained for a fully manual docking

STS-6

Soyuz T8 crew during a training session in the Salyut 7 mock-up, something they did not put into practice in space. L to r Titov, Serebrov, Strekalov

approach and was unsure of his depth perception through the spacecraft periscope as he attempted a difficult manoeuvre.

The crew, which would have been the first three-man long duration crew since Soyuz 11, came home 96 km (60 miles) northeast of Arkalyk at T + 2 days 0 hours 17 minutes 48 seconds. Maximum altitude reached in the 51.6° orbit was 300 km (186 miles).

Milestones

90th manned space flight 53rd Soviet manned space flight 46th Soyuz manned space flight 7th Soyuz T manned space flight

1st space flight by crewman on successive national missions